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GRAMMAR NOTES

1. POSITIVE & NEGATIVE STATEMENT


1) I am hungry.
2) I am not hungry.
3) I have a dog.
4) I have no dog.
5) She knows Alice.
6) She does not know
- A Positive Statement
does not have the word not or
Alice.
no. (sentences 1 & 3)
- A Negative Statement has the word not or no added
to it. (sentences 2 & 3)
- Sentence 5 has an ordinary verb knows. To make it
negative, the verb to do, does and not are added to
it.
POSITIVE
am
is
are
was
were
may
can
will
has
have
eat
drink
sleep

NEGATIVE
am not
is not
are not
was not
were not
may not
cannot
will not
has not
have not
does not
eat
do not
drink
did not
sleep

2. A, AN, THE & OMISSION OF ARTICLES


1) an
aeroplane
2) an eagle
3) an hour
4) an honest
girl
5) a house
6) a cup
i) We use an before words that
7) a uniform

Begin with a vowel sound [a,e,i,o,u], Example 1 & 2


8) a

Begin with a silent h, Example 3 & 4


ii) We use a before

Words that begin with consonants, Example 5 & 6


Words tat begin with a vowel sound when written but not when spoken, Example 7 & 8

iii) Both a and an mean one


We use them before singular countable nouns:
I ate an icecream
He kicked a
iv) We do not use a and an before uncountable nouns:
John added sugar to his
coffee
They ate porridge for

1) That is the boy who took my ruler.


2) That is the moon.
3) He bought a torch. The torch cost
v) We use the
him
RM20.

To refer to
a particular
person, animal or thing. [Sentences 1]
Read these sentences:
Where is the book which you borrowed
from me?
The teacher is angry with the boys.

Before a thing or person of which there is only one. [Sentences 2]

Read the sentences below:


The Sultan of Kedah is giving
a speech.
The sun moveround the

When we refer to the same thing for the second time. [Sentences 3]

Look at these sentences:


She found a purse. The purse was empty.
They saw an old man. The old man was
crying.

3) QUANTIFIERS
1) There are many flowers in the
garden.
2) There is not much water in the
jug.
3) Some pupils are absent today.
i.
ii.

Quantifiers tell us the amount of nouns.


These are three types of quantifiers:
Quantifiers that can only be used with countable nouns. [Sentences 1]

Read these sentences:


He has many books in his
bag.

Quantifiers that can only be used with uncountable nouns. [sentences 2]

Read these sentences:


There isnt much pepper
left.

Quantifiers that can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns. [sentences 3 &
4]

Example of quantifiers that go with...


COUNTABLE NOUNS

UNCOUNTABLE
NOUNS

BOTH COUNTABLE
AND UNCOUNTABLE
NOUNS

many, more, a few, several

a little, much, less

some, any, a lot of, plenty of

4) SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

1) A
feather
2) A dog
3) Caps
4) school
A nouns is the name of a person, an animal, a thing or a place.
Nouns can be divided into singular and plural nouns.
A Singular noun is a noun that stands for one. [Examples 1 & 2]
A Plural noun is a noun that stands for more than one. [Example 3 & 4]

Plural nouns are formed in many ways.


a) For most singular nouns.
Add s
Boat boats
Day days

Chair chairs
Train trains

b) Nouns the end with o


Add s
Piano pianos
Photo photos
Bamboo bamboos

c)

Add es
Tomato tomatoes
Mosquito mosquitoes
Zero zeroes

Nouns the end with y


Add s
Donkey donkeys
Day days
Tray trays

Add ies
Baby babies
Fly flies
Story stories

d) Nouns the end with f or fe


Add s
chief chiefs
roof roofs
safe safes

Add ves
loaf loaves
wife wives
knife knives

e) Some nouns that form plural irregularly.


Add en
child children
ox oxen

f)

Change the vowel


mouse mice
fool feet
tooth teeth
goose geese

The singular and plural forms are the same for some nouns.
No Change
deer deer
sheep sheep
rubbish rubbish

5. POSSESSIVE NOUNS

trousers trousers
scissors scissors

1. The cats tail


2. The ladies bags
3. The mens shoes
4. The top of the
table
i.
ii.

Possessive Nouns show possession or belonging. [Examples: Suyins, The


boys]
To change a noun into its possessive form, we can
Add s to singular nouns [sentence 1]
Look at the following:
Pak Ahmads chair
Swee Lins umbrella
The pupils exercise book

Add to plural nouns ending in s [sentence 2]


Read these:
The dogs food
The boys fishing-rods
The monkeys tails

Add s to plural nouns not ending in s [sentence 3]


Read these:

The childrens toys


The womens
handbags

Use of the for non-living things [sentence 4]


Look at the following:
The spine of the book
The wheel of the car
The strap of the watch