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You are on page 1of 34

25 = a2

a

or

a2 = 25 .............. (2)

An equation involving a

variable of degree 2 is

quadratic equation.

Such an equation is a quadratic equation.

a2

= 25

only two roots.

a = 5

a= +5

or

a = 5

Area of a rectangle = (length) (breadth)

(m+2)

8 = (m) (m + 2)

8 = m2 + 2m

or

m2 + 2m = 8 .......................... (3)

(m+2)

In equation (2) a2 = 25, variable occurs only in second degree.

In equation (3) m2 + 2m = 8, variable occurs in second degree as well as in first degree.

Quadratic equation involving a variable only in second degree is a

Pure Quadratic Equation.

Example :

(1) x2 = 9

(2) 2a2 = 18

(1) x2 9 = 0

(2) 2a2 18 = 0

c are real numbers and a 0 is a pure quadratic equation.

124

degree is an Adfected Quadratic Equation

Example :

(1) x2 + 3x = 10

(2) 3a2 a = 2

(1)

x2 + 3x 10 = 0

(2)

3a2 a 2 = 0

and c and variables and a 0.

1.

Solving Pure Quadratic equation

Example 1 : Solve the equation 3x2 27 = 0

Solution : 3x2 27 = 0

3x2 = 27

x

27

3

x2 = 9

x = 9

x = +3

or

x = 3

Solution : 4y2 9 = 0

4y2 = 9

y2 =

9

4

9

4

y =

y =

y = +

3

2

3

2

or

y =

125

3

2

Solution : 99 = 4r2 1

4r2 1 = 99

4r2 = 99 + 1

4r2 = 100

r2 =

100

= 25

4

r = 25

r = 5

r = +5

or

r = 5

Solution : (m + 8)2 5 = 31

(m + 8)2 = 31 + 5

(m + 8)2 = 36

(m + 8)2 = 36

(m + 8) = 36

m = 8 6

m = 8 + 6 or m = 8 6

m = 2

or

m = 14

Solution : A = r 2

r 2 = A

r2 =

r =

126

Solution :

l 2 = r2 + h2

or

2

r + h2 = l2

h2 = l2 r2

h = l2 r 2

h = 152 9 2

(substituting l = 15, r = 9)

h = 225 81

h = 144

or

h = +12

Example 7 : If B =

3.a 2

Solve for a and find the value of a if B = 16

4

3.a 2

4

Solution : B =

h = 12

h = 12

a2 =

4B

3

a =

4B

3

a =

4 16 3/

3/

a = 64

a = + 8

(Substituting B = 16 3 )

, a = 8

or

a = 8

Exercise : 5.1

A.

Classify the following equations into pure and adfected quadratic equation.

1) x2 + 2 = 6

2) a2 + 3 = 2a

3) p (p 3) = 1

4) 2m2 = 72

5) k2 k = 0

127

6) 7y =

35

y

3 .

B.

1) 5x2 = 125

4)

3

1

x2

= 7

4

4

2

2) m2 1 = 143

3) 4a =

5) (2m 5)2 = 81

6)

81

a

2

( x 4) 2

=

9

18

C.

1)

22

7

2

2) If V = r h Solve for r and find the value of r if V = 176 and h = 14

4) If c2 = a2 + b2 Solve for b. If a = 8 and c = 17 and find the value of b.

5) If K = 1/2mv2 Solve for v and find the value of v if K = 100 and m = 2

6) If v2 = u2 + 2as. Solve for v. If u = 0, a = 2 and s = 100, find the value

of v.

2. Solving the adfected quadratic equation by factorization :

Example 1 : Solve the quadratic equation a2 3a + 2 = 0

Solution :

a2 3a + 2 = 0

i. Resolve the expression

a2 2a 1a + 2 = 0

ii. Factorize

a(a 2) 1 (a 2) = 0

If mn = 0, then either

iii. Taking the common factor

(a 2) (a 1) = 0

m = 0 or n = 0

iv. Equate each factor to zero

a 2 = 0 or a 1 = 0

v. The roots are

a=2

or

a=1

Example 2 : Solve the quadratic equation m2 m = 6

Solution :

m2 m = 6

m2 m 6 = 0

m2 3m + 2m 6 = 0

m(m 3) +2 (m 3) = 0

(m 3) (m + 2) = 0

Either (m 3) = 0 or (m + 2) = 0

m = +3 or m = 2

128

Solution :

2x2 3x + 1 = 0

2x2 2x 1x + 1 = 0

2x (x 1) 1 (x 1) = 0

(x

1) (2x 1) = 0

Either (x 1) = 0 or (2x 1) = 0

1

x = 1 or x = 2

Example 4 : Solve the quadratic equation 4k (3k 1) = 5.

Solution :

4k (3k 1) = 5

12k2 4k 5 = 0

12k2 10k + 6k 5 = 0

2k (6k 5) + 1(6k 5) = 0

(6k 5) (2k + 1) = 0

5

k= 6

or

k =

1

2

Exercise : 5.2

A. Find the roots of the following equations

1) x(x 3) = 0

2) a (a + 5) = 0

3) m2 4m = 0

4) 3k2 + 6k = 0

5) (y + 6) (y + 9) = 0

6) (b 3) (b 5) = 0

7) (2n + 1) (3n 2) = 0 8) (5z 2) (7z + 3) = 0

B.

2) a2 5a + 6 = 0

1) x2 + 15x + 50 = 0

5) 30 = b2 b

4) 6 p2 = p

7) 6y2 + y 15 = 0

8) 6a2 + a = 5

10) 0.2t2 0.04t = 0.03

3) y2 = y + 2

6) 2x2 + 5x 12 = 0

9) 13m = 6(m2 + 1)

x2

It cannot be factorised by splitting the middle term.

How do you solve such an equation ?

1x

129

1x

General form of a quadratic equation

Divide by a

Transpose the constant term to R.H.S.

2

b

Add to both the sides

2a

ax2 + bx + c = 0

x 2 bxx c

ax

+

+ =0

a

a a

x2 +

bxx

c

=

a

a

2

bxx b

c b

+ = +

x +

a 2a

a 2a

b

c b2

x + = + 2

2a

a 4a

4ac + b 2

b

x + =

2a

4a 2

b

b 2 4ac

x + =

2a

4a 2

Simplify

Roots are

x=

b + b 2 4ac

2a

or

b 2 4 ac

4a 2

x+

b

=

2a

x+

b

b 2 4 ac

=

2a

2a

x =

2a

b 2 4 ac

2a

x=

b b 2 4ac

2a

x=

b b 2 4ac

2a

b b 2 4ac

Roots of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 are x =

2a

2

Note : The roots of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 can also be found using

Sridharas method.

2

130

Example 1 :

consider

x2 7x + 12 = 0

x2 7x + 12 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

The roots are given by

Substituting the values

Simplify

Roots are

a = 1, b = 7 & c = 12

b b 2 4ac

2a

a = 1, b = 7 and c = 12

x =

x=

2 x1

x=

7 49 48

2

x =

7 1

2

x =

7 +1

2

or

x =

7 1

2

x =

8

2

or

x =

6

2

x = 4

or

x = 3

Consider 2p2 p = 15

2p2 p 15 = 0

This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0

The coefficients are

The roots are given by

Substituting the values

a = 2, b = 1 and c = 15

x=

b b 2 4ac

2a

a = 2, b = 1 and c = 15

(1) (1) 2 4(2)(15)

p =

2(2)

131

p =

+ 1 1 + 120

4

p =

1 121

4

p =

1 11

4

p =

1+ 11

4

or

p =

1 11

4

p =

12

4

or

p =

10

4

or

p =

5

2

p = 3

Example 3 :

Consider

This is in the form

The coefficients are

Substituting the values

2k2 2k 5 = 0

2k2 2k 5 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = 2, b = 2 and c = 5

x =

a = 2, b = 2 and c = 5

k =

k =

b b 2 4ac

2a

( 2) ( 2) 2 4( 2)( 5)

2( 2)

2

4 + 40

4

k =

2 2 11

4

k =

1+ 11

2

132

=

or

44

4

2 1 11

4

k =

1 11

2

Consider

m2 2m = 2

m2 2m 2 = 0

This is in the form

ax2 + bx + c = 0

Comparing the coefficients

a = 1, b = 2 and c = 2

The roots are given by

x =

b b 2 4ac

2a

( 2) ( 2) 2 4(1)( 2)

m =

2(1)

m =

+2 4+8

2

m =

2 12

2

m =

2 1 3

2

m = 1+ 3

)

or

m = 1 3

Exercise : 5.3

Solve the following equations by using formula

1) a2 2a 4 = 0

2) x2 8x + 1 = 0

3) m2 2m + 2 = 0

5) 2y2 + 6y = 3

6) 8r2 = r + 2

7) p = 5 2p2

4) k2 6k = 1

8) 2z2 + 7z + 4 = 0 9) 3b2 + 2b = 2

10) a2 = 4a + 6

4.

Equations reducible to the form ax2 + bx + c = 0

Example 1 : Solve the equation (x + 6) (x + 2) = x

Solution :(x + 6) (x + 2) = x

x2 + 6x + 2x + 12 = x

x2 + 8x + 12 x = 0

x2 + 7x + 12 = 0

x2 + 4x + 3x + 12 = 0

x(x + 4) + 3 (x + 4) = 0

(x + 4) (x + 3) = 0

Either

(x + 4) = 0 or

(x + 3) = 0

x = 4 or

x = 3

133

Solution : (a 3)2 + (a + 1)2 = 16

Using (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

(a b)2 = a 2ab + b2

[(a)2 2(a)(3) + 32] + [a2 + 2 (a) (1) + 12] = 16

a2 6a + 9 + a2 + 2a + 1 16 = 0

2a2 4a 6 = 0

a2 2a 3 = 0

a2 3a + 1a 3 = 0

a(a 3) + 1 (a 3) = 0

(a 3) (a + 1) = 0

Either (a 3) = 0 or

(a + 1) = 0

a = 3 or a = 1

Example 3 : Solve 5(p 2)2 + 6 = 13 (p 2)

Solution : 5(p 2)2 + 6 = 13 (p 2)

Let

p2=b

then

5b 2 + 6 = 13b

5b2 13b + 6 = 0

5b2 10b 3b + 6 = 0

5b (b 2) 3 (b 2) = 0

(b 2) (5b 3) = 0

Either

(b 2) = 0

or

(5b 3) = 0

b=2

or

3

b= 5

p2=2

or

3

p2= 5

p=2+2

or

3

2

p= 5 +

1

p=4

or

p=

134

13

5

( b = p 2)

3k + 2 k + 1

=

2k + 5 k 1

Consider

Cross multiplying

On simplification

This is in form of

The co-efficients are

3k + 2 k + 1

=

2k + 5 k 1

(3k + 2) (k 1) = (2k + 5) (k + 1)

3k2 + 2k 3k 2 = 2k2 + 5k + 2k + 5

3k2 1k 2 2k2 7k 5 = 0

3k2 1k 2 2k2 7k 5 = 0

k2 8k 7 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = 1, b = 8, c = 7

x=

b + ( b) 2 4ac

2a

k =

2 x1

k =

+ 8 64 + 28

2

k =

8 92

2

k =

8 2 23

2

k = 4 23

Example 5 : Solve the equation

Consider

Taking L.C.M.

By cross multiplication

y 3

=1

4 2y

y 3

=1

4 2y

y2 6

=1

4y

y2 6 = 4y

y2 4y 6 = 0

135

2 4 23

2

comparing coefficients

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = 1, b = 4, c = 6

y =

2(1)

the roots of the equation are

=

y =

y =

4 16 + 24

2

4

40

2

4 2 10

2

y = 2 + 10

Example 6 : Solve

=

or

2 2 10

2

y = 2 10

4

1

4

=

m + 2 m + 3 2m + 1

4(m + 3) 1(m + 2)

4

=

(m + 2)(m + 3)

2m + 1

4m + 12 m 2

4

=

2

m + 2m + 3m + 6 2m + 1

3m + 10

4

=

m + 5m + 6 2 m + 1

2

On Cross multiplying,

Either

4m2 + 20m + 24 6m2 23m 10 = 0

2m2 3m + 14 = 0

2m2 + 3m 14 = 0

2m2 + 7m 4m 14 = 0

m(2m + 7) 2 (2m + 7) = 0

(2m + 7) (m 2) = 0

(2m + 7) = 0

or

(m 2) = 0

m=

136

7

2

or

m=2

Exercise : 5.4

A.

B.

1) (x + 4) (x 4) = 6x

2) 2(a2 1) = a (1 a)

3) 3(b 5) (b 7) = 4 (b + 3)

4) 8(s 1) (s + 1) + 2 (s + 3) = 1

5) (n 3)2 + n (n + 1)2 = 16

6) 11(m + 1) (m + 2) = 38 (m + 1) + 9m

Solve

1)

3x 8 5x 2

=

x2

x+5

4)

( y 1)(5y + 6) ( y 4)(5y + 6)

=

y2

y3

6)

3

2

8

+

=

5b 4b b+2

9)

2

5

6

+

=

m + 2 2(m + 4) m + 6

2)

5a + 1 3a + 1

=

7 a + 5 7a + 1

7)

5)

3)

1

2

2

+

=

x 2 x 1 x

y

y + 1 25

+

=

y +1

y

12

10)

11m + 3 12m + 1

=

9m + 13 10m + 11

8)

n + 1 n + 2 2n + 13

=

+

n 1 n 2

n +1

2(3y 1)

5y

=

2

4y 3

y+2

Example 1 : If the square of a number is added to 3 times the number, the sum

is 28. Find the number.

Solution : Let the number be = x

Square of the number = x2

3 times the number = 3x

Square of a number + 3 times the number = 28

x2 + 3x = 28

x2 + 3x 28 = 0

x2 + 7x 4x 28 = 0

x(x + 7) 4 (x + 7) = 0

(x + 7) (x 4) = 0

x + 7 = 0 or x 4 = 0

x = 7

or x = 4

The required number is 4 or 7

137

Solution :

1

. Find the number.

5

Reciprocal of the number =

1

y

y +

1

y

1

5

26

5

y2 + 1

26

=

y

5

Either

5(y2 + 1) = 26y

5y2 + 5 = 26y

5y2 26y + 5 = 0

5y2 25y 1y + 5 = 0

5y (y 5) 1 (y 5) = 0

(y 5) (5y 1) = 0

(y 5) = 0 or (5y 1) = 0

y=5

1

y= 5

or

the traingle is 48 sq cms.

Solution : Let the altitude

=

Base of the triangle =

Area of the triangle =

48 =

1

5

Find the base and altitude.

x cms.

(x + 4) cms.

1

2 (base) (height)

1

2 (x + 4)x

138

48 x 2 =

96 =

x2 + 4x 96 = 0

x2 + 12x 8x 96 = 0

x(x + 12) 8 (x + 12) = 0

(x + 12) (x 8) = 0

(x + 12) = 0 or (x 8) = 0

x = 12

or x = 8

Either

(x + 4)x

x 2 + 4x

x = 12 cannot be

considered, because

the length is always

positive

Altitude = x = 8 cms.

Base = x + 4

= 8+4

= 12 cms

Example 4 : Rashmi bought some books for Rs. 60. Had she bought 5 more books

to the same amount each book would have cost her 1 rupee less. Find

the number of books bought by Rashmi and price of each book.

Solution : Let the number of books = x

Total cost of the books

= Rs. 60

Rs.

60

x

If number of books is (x + 5)

Then the cost of each book = Rs.

60

( x + 50)

if number of books

is (x)

if number of books

is (x+5)

60

60

=

x+5

60( x + 5) 60 x

x ( x + 5)

139

= Difference amount

1

= 1

60 x + 300 60 x

=

x2 + 5x

300

1

=

x + 5x 1

2

x2 + 5x = 300

x2 + 5x 300 = 0

x2 + 20x 15x 300 = 0

x(x + 20) 15 (x + 20) = 0

x = 20

cannot

be

considered

because

number of books is always

positive

(x + 20) (x 15) = 0

Either

(x + 20) = 0 or (x 15) = 0

x = 20 or

x = 15

Number of books = x = 15

60

60

=

= Rs. 4

x

15

Example 5 : The speed of a motor boat in still water is 15 km/hr. If it goes down

the stream 30 kms and again returns to the starting point in total time

of 4 hrs and 30 minutes, find the speed of the stream.

Solution : Speed in Still water is = 15 km/hr

Total distance travelled = 30 km

Let the speed of the stream = x km/hr

Speed up the stream = (15 x) km/hr

Speed down the stream = (15 + x) km/hr

Total time taken = 4hrs and 30 minutes

Time taken to row down the stream =

30

15 + x

30

15 x

time taken to row = 4 hours 30 minutes

up the stream

Down the stream

30

15 + x

] [

+

30

15 x

140

1

2

30(15 x) + 30(15 + x) 9

=

(15 + x) (15 x)

2

450 30 x + 450 + 30 x 9

=

225 x 2

2

900

9

=

2

225 x

2

900 (2)

= 225 x2

9

200 = 225 x2

x2 = 225 200

x2 = 25

x = 5

x = + 5

or

x = 5

Exercise : 5.5

1) The sum of a number and twice its square is 105. Find the number.

2) Product of two consecutive integers is 182. Find the integers.

3) The sum of the squares of three consecutive natural numbers is 194. Find the integers.

4) The length of rectangular field is 3 times its breadth. If the area of the field is

147 sq mts. Find the length of the field.

5) Hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is 20 mts. If the difference between the lengths

of other two sides is 4 mts. Find the measures of the sides.

6) An Aero-plane takes 1 hr. less for a journey of 1200 km. If its speed is increased

by 60 km/hr from its initial speed find the initial speed of the plane.

7) Some students planned a picnic. The budget for the food was Rs. 480. As eight

of them failed to join the party the cost of the food for each member increased

by Rs. 10. How many students participated in the picnic?

8) Sailor Raju covered a distance of 8 km in 1 hr 40 minutes down stream and returns

to the starting point. If the speed of the stream is 2 km/hr, find the speed of the

boat in still water.

141

9) A dealer sells an article for Rs. 24 and gains as much percent as the cost price

of the article. Find the Cost price of the article.

10) Sowmya takes 6 days less than the number of days taken by Bhagya to complete

a piece of work. If both Sowmya and Bhagya together can complete the same

work in 4 days. In how many days will Bhagya complete the work?

6. Nature of the roots of

1) Consider the equation

This is in the form

The coefficients are

a quadratic equation.

x2 2x + 1 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = 1, b = 2, c = 1

x =

b b 2 4ac

2a

x =

2 x1

x =

2 44

2

x =

2+0

2

x =

2+0

2

or

x = 1 or

x = 1

x =

x2 2x 3 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = 1, b = 2, c = 3

x =

b b 2 4ac

2a

x =

( 2) 16

2 x1

x =

+24

2

142

20

2

x =

2+4

2

or

x =

24

2

x =

6

2

or

x =

2

2

x = 3

or

x = 1

x2 2x + 3 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = 1, b = 2, c = 3

b b 2 4ac

x =

2a

(2) 2 (2) 2 4(1)(3)

x =

2 x1

x =

2 4 12

2

x =

2 8

2

x =

22 2

2

x =

2 1 2

2

x = 1+ 2

= 1 2

or 1 2

1) Nature of the roots of quadratic equation depends upon the value of (b2 4ac)

2) The Expression (b2 4ac) is denoted by (delta) which determines the nature

of the roots.

3) In the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 the expression (b2 4ac) is called the discriminant.

143

= 0

> 0 (Positive)

< 0 (negative)

Consider the equation 2x2 5x 1 = 0

This is in form of

ax2 + bx + c = 0

The co-efficient are a = 2, b = 5, c = 1

= b2 4ac

= (5)2 4(2) (1)

= 25 + 8

= 33

> 0

the roots of the equation 4x2 4x + 1 = 0

4x2 4x + 1 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = 4, b = 4, c = 1

= b2 4ac

= (4)2 4 (4) (1)

= 16 16

= 0

Roots are real and equal

Consider the equation

This is in the form of

The co-efficient are

(i) equal (ii) distinct

Consider the equation x2 + mx + 4 = 0

This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0

the co-efficients are a = 1, b = m, c = 4

= b2 4ac

= m2 4(1) (4)

= m2 16

1) If roots are equal = 0

m2 16 = 0

m2 = 16

m =

16

144

m = 4

> 0

m2 16 > 0

m2 > 16

m2 > 16

m > 4

Example 4 : Determine the value of k for which the equation kx2 + 6x + 1 = 0 has

equal roots.

kx2 + 6x + 1 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = k, b = 6, c = 1

This is in the form

the co-efficients are

= b2 4ac

b2 4ac = 0

(6)2 4(k)(1) = 0

36 4k = 0

4k = 36

( = 0)

36

= 9

4

k=9

k =

equal roots.

x2 (p + 2) x + 4 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = 1, b = (p + 2), c = 4

This is in the form

Coefficients are

=0

b2 4ac = 0

[(p + 2)]2 4(1)(4) = 0

(p + 2)2 16 = 0

p + 2 = 16

p+2= 4

p + 2 = + 4 or

p = 4 2 or

or

p=2

145

p + 2 = 4

p = 4 2

p = 6

Exercise : 5.6

A.

2) x2 2x + 3 = 0

3) 2n2 + 5n 1 = 0

1) y2 7y + 2 = 0

4) a2 + 4a + 4 = 0

5) x2 + 3x 4 = 0

6) 3d2 2d + 1 = 0

B.

1) equal 2) distinct 3) imaginary

2) x2 mx + 9 = 0

1)

a2 ma + 1 = 0

3)

r2 (m + 1) r + 4 = 0

4) mk2 3k + 1 = 0

C.

Find the value of p for which the quadratic equations have equal roots.

1) x2 px + 9 = 0

2) 2a2 + 3a + p = 0

3) pk2 12k + 9 = 0

5) (p + 1) n2 + 2(p + 3) n + (p + 8) = 0

4) 2y2 py + 1 = 0

6) (3p + 1)c2 + 2 (p + 1) c + p = 0

7.

Relationship between the roots and co-efficient of the terms of the quadratic

equation.

If m and n are the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 then

b + b2 4ac

m =

,

2a

b + b2 4ac

+

2a

m+n =

m + n =

b b2 4ac

2a

b + b 2 4ac b b 2 4ac

2a

m + n =

m + n =

2b

2a

( b) 2

quadratic equation

-b

a

ax2 + bx + c = 0

b + b2 4ac

mn =

2

a

mn =

b b2 4ac

n =

2a

b b2 4ac

2

a

( b 4ac )

2

4a 2

146

Product of roots =

b

a

+c

a

mn =

b 2 b 2 4ac

4a 2

mn =

b 2 b 2 + 4ac

4a 2

mn =

c

4ac

2 =

a

4a

mn =

c

a

x2 + 2x + 1 = 0

This is in the form

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = 1, b = 2, c = 1

i)

m + n =

b

2

=

a

1

m + n = 2

ii)

c

1

=

a

1

mn = 1

Example 2 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation 3x2 + 5 = 0

3x2 + 0x + 5 = 0

This is in the form

ax2 + bx + c = 0

a = 3, b = 0, c = 5

i)

p + q =

b

0

=

a

3

p+q = 0

ii)

147

c

5

=

a

3

pq =

5

3

Example 3 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation 2m2 8m = 0

2m2 8m + 0 = 0

The coefficients are

a = 2, b = 8, c = 0

Let the roots be and

b

a

+ =

i)

ii)

(8)

= 4

2

c

0

=

= 0

a

2

Example 4 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation x2 (p+q)x + pq = 0

x2 (p + q) x + pq = 0

The coefficients are

a = 1, b = (p + q), c = pq

i)

m + n =

m + n =

b

a

[ (p + q )]

1

m + n = (p + q)

ii)

c

pq

=

a

1

mn = pq

Exercise : 5.7

Find the sum and product of the roots of the quadratic equation :

1) x2 + 5x + 8 = 0

2) 3a2 10a 5 = 0

3) 8m2 m = 2

4) 6k2 3 = 0

8.

5) pr2 = r 5

6) x2 + (ab) x + (a + b) = 0

Let m and n are the roots of the equation

x = m or x = n

i.e., x m = 0, x n = 0

(x m) (x n) = 0

x2 mx nx + mn = 0

x2 (m + n) x + mn = 0

148

If m and n are the roots then the Standard form of the equation is

x2 (Sum of the roots) x +

Product of the roots

=

0

x2 (m + n) x + mn = 0

Example 1 : Form the quadratic equation whose roots are 2 and 3

Let m and n are the roots

m = 2, n = 3

Sum of the roots

=m+n = 2+3

m+n = 5

Product of the roots = mn

= (2) (3)

mn = 6

2

Standard form

x (m + n) x + mn = 0

x2 (5)x + (6) = 0

x2 5x + 6 = 0

Example 2 : Form the quadratic equation whose roots are

2

5

and

5

2

m =

2

5

and n =

5

2

m+n =

Standard form

x2 (m + n) x + mn = 0

x2

29

x+1=0

10

10x2 29x + 10 = 0

149

2 5

x

5 2

4 + 25

10

2

5

+

=

5

2

29

10

mn = 1

Let m and n are the roots

m = 3 + 2 5 and n = 3 2 5

Sum of the roots

= m+n

= 3+2 5 +32 5

m+n = 6

Product of the roots = mn

= (3 + 2 5 ) (3 2 5 )

= (3)2 (2 5 )2

= 9 20

mn = 11

2

x (m + n) x + mn = 0

x2 6x 11 = 0

Example 4 : If m and n are the roots of equation x2 3x + 1 = 0 find the value

1 1

+

m n

Consider the equation

x2 3x + 1 = 0

This is in the form

ax2 + bx + c = 0

The coefficients are

a = 1, b = 3, c = 1

Let m and n are the roots

b

=

a

m + n = 3

i)

ii)

c

a

mn =

1

1

(3)

= 3

1

m + n =

mn = 1

= mn (m + n)

= 1(3) = 3

(ii)

1

1

+

m

n

n+m

m+n

=

=

mn

mn

1

1

+

= 3

m

n

150

3

1

equation whose roots are m2 and n2.

x2 3x + 4 = 0

The coefficients are

a = 1, b = 3, c = 4

i) Sum of the roots =

m + n =

b

(3)

=

a

1

m + n = 3

mn =

c

4

=

a

1

mn = 4

= (m + n)2 2mn

Sum of the roots m2 + n2

= (3)2 2(4)

= 9 8

2

m + n2 = 1

Product of the roots m2n2

= (mn)2

= 42

m2n2 = 16

x2 (1)x + (16) = 0

x2 x + 16 = 0

Example 6 : If one root of the equation x2 6x + q = 0 is twice the other, find the

value of q

Consider the equation x2 6x + q = 0

This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0

The coefficients are a = 1, b = 6, c = q

Let the m and n are the roots

b

(6)

=

a

1

m+n=6

m+n =

151

c

q

=

a

1

mn = q

mn =

m = m and n = 2m

m+n = 6

m + 2m = 6

3m = 6

m =

We know that q

q

q

q

q

=

=

=

=

=

6

3

mn

m(2m)

2m2

2(2)2

8

m = 2

q = 8

root equal to zero.

Consider the equation

x2 2x + (k + 3) = 0

The coefficients are

a = 1, b = 2, c = k + 3

Let m and n are the roots

Product of the roots = mn

mn =

mn =

c

a

k +3

1

mn = k + 3

Since m and n are the roots, and one root is zero then

m = m and n = 0

mn = k + 3

m(0) = k + 3

0 = k + 3

k = 3

152

Exercise : 5.8

A. Form the equation whose roots are

1) 3 and 5

2) 6 and 5

3) 2 and

5) 2 + 3 and 2 3

3

2

4)

2

3

and

3

2

6) 3 + 2 5 and 3 2 5

B.

1) If m and n are the roots of the equation x2 6x + 2 = 0 find the value of

i) (m + n) mn

ii)

1

1

+

m

n

2) If a and b are the roots of the equation 3m2 = 6m + 5 find the value of

i)

a b

+

b a

3) If p and q are the roots of the equation 2a2 4a + 1 = 0 Find the value of

i) (p + q)2 + 4pq

ii) p3 + q3

p

q

and

q

p

5) Find the value of k so that the equation x2 + 4x + (k + 2) = 0 has one root equal

to zero.

6) Find the value of q so that the equation 2x2 3qx + 5q = 0 has one root which

is twice the other.

7) Find the value of p so that the equation 4x2 8px + 9 = 0 has roots whose

difference is 4.

8) If one root of the equation x2 + px + q = 0 is 3 times the other prove that 3p2 = 16q

Graphical method of solving a Quadratic Equation

Let us solve the equation x2 4 = 0 graphically,

x2 4 = 0

x2 = 4

let y = x2 = 4

y = x2

and y = 4

153

corresponding values

of x and y

y = x2

x=0

x=1

x=2

x = 1

x = 2

y = x2

Step 2: Choose the scale on

x axis, 1 cm = 1 unit

y axis, 1 cm = 1 unit.

y = 02

y = 12

y = 22

y = (1)2

y = (2)2

y=0

y=1

y=4

y=1

y=4

(1, 1); (1, 1); (2, 4)

and (2, 4) on graph

sheet.

Step 4: Join the points by a

smooth curve.

Step 5: Draw the straight line

y = 4 Parallel to x-axis

Step 6: From the intersecting

points of the curve and

the line y = 4, draw

perpendiculars to the

x axis

Step 7: Roots of the equations are

x = +2

or

x = 2

Example 1 : Draw a graph of y = 2x2 and find the value of 3 , using the graph.

Step 1: Form the table of

corresponding values of

x and y satisfying the

equation y = 2x2

x

0

1

1

2

2

3

Step 2: Choose the scale on x

y

0

2

2

8

8

6

axis, 1 cm = 1 unit and

(x, y) (0, 0) (1, 2)

(1, 2) (2, 8) (2, 8) ( 3 ,6)

y axis, 1 cm = 1 unit

Step 3: Plot the points (0, 0);

(1, 2) (1, 2); (2, 8) and

(2, 8) on graph sheet.

154

smooth curve

Step 5: Draw the straight line

y = 6 Parallel to x-axis.

Step 6: From the intersecting

points of the curve and

the line y = 6, draw

perpendiculars to the

x-axis.

Step 7: Value of

3 = 1.7

x = 1.7

or

x = + 1.7

Example 2 : Draw a graph of y = x2 and y = 2-x and hence solve the equation

x2 + x 2 = 0

Step 1: Form the table of

corresponding values of

x and y satisfying the

equation y = x2

(0, 0)

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

(2, 4)

(2, 4)

corresponding values of

x and y satisfying the

equation y = 2 x.

(0, 2)

(1, 1)

(1, 3)

(2, 0)

(2, 4)

(x, y)

(x, y)

axis 1 cm = 1 unit and

y axis, 1 cm = 1 unit.

Step 4: Plot the points (0, 0);

(1, 1); (1, 1); (2, 4)

and (2, 4) on the graph

sheet.

Step 5: Join the points by a

smooth curve.

Step 6: Plot the points (0, 2) ;

(1, 1); (1, 3); (2, 0)

and (2, 4) on graph

sheet

155

Step 8: From the intersecting

Curve and the line, draw

perpendiculars to the

x-axis

Step 9: Roots of the equation are

x = 1

Method I : x2 x 2 = 0

Split the equation

y = x2 and y = 2 + x

Step 1: Form the table of

corresponding values x

and y satisfying the

equation y = x2

Step 2: Form the table of

corresponding values x

and y satisfying the

equation y = 2 + x

Step 3: Choose the scale on

x axis, 1 cm = 1 unit

y axis, 1 cm = 1 unit

Step 4: Plot the points (0, 0);

(1, 1); (1, 1); (2, 4)

and (2, 4) on the graph

sheet.

Step 5: Join the points by a

smooth curve

Step 6: Plot the points (0, 2);

(1, 3) (2, 4); (1, 1) and

(2, 0) on the graph

sheet.

Step 7: Join the points to get a

straight line

Step 8: From the intersecting

points of Curve and the

line, draw the perpendiculars to the x-axis.

Step 9: Roots of the equation are

x = 2

(0, 0)

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

(2, 4)

(2, 4)

(0, 2)

(1, 3)

(2, 4)

(x, y)

(x, y)

x = 1

156

or

or

(1, 1) (2, 0)

x = 2

Method II :

corresponding values of

x and y satisfying

equation y = x2 x 2.

(x, y)

(2, 0) (2, 4)

axis 1 cm = 1 unit and

y axis 1 cm = 1 unit.

Step 3: Plot the points (0, 2);

(1 2); (1, 0); (2, 0)

and (2, 4) on the graph

sheet.

Step 4: Join the points to form

a smooth curve

Step 5: Mark the intersecting

points of the curve and

the x axis.

Step 6: Roots of the equations are

x = 1

or

x = 2

Exercise : 5.9

A.

B.

1)

2)

3)

1)

x2 2x 3 = 0

Draw the graph of y = 2x2 and y = 3 x and hence solve the equation

2x2 + x 3 = 0

Draw the graph of y = 2x2 and y = 3 + x and hence solve the equation

2x2 x 3 = 0

2)

3)

C.

Solve graphically

1) x2 + x 12 = 0

4) x2 + x 6 = 0

7

3

1 2

x and find the value of 10

2

2) x2 5x + 6 = 0

5) 2x2 3x 5 = 0

157

3) x2 + 2x 8 = 0

6) 2x2 + 3x 5 = 0

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