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Consider a square of side a units and its area 25 square units.

Area of the square = (side)2

25 = a2
a
or
a2 = 25 .............. (2)

In equation (2) the degree of the variable is two

An equation involving a
variable of degree 2 is

What do you call such an equation?

Such an equation is a quadratic equation.
a2

= 25

only two roots.

a = 5
a= +5

or

a = 5

Consider a rectangle of sides m and (m + 2) units and its area is 8 sq units.

Area of a rectangle = (length) (breadth)
(m+2)

8 = (m) (m + 2)
8 = m2 + 2m

or
m2 + 2m = 8 .......................... (3)

(m+2)

Compare the equation (2) and (3)

In equation (2) a2 = 25, variable occurs only in second degree.
In equation (3) m2 + 2m = 8, variable occurs in second degree as well as in first degree.
Quadratic equation involving a variable only in second degree is a
Example :
(1) x2 = 9

(2) 2a2 = 18

(1) x2 9 = 0

(2) 2a2 18 = 0

An equation that can be expressed in the form ax2 + c = 0, where a and

c are real numbers and a 0 is a pure quadratic equation.
124

Example :
(1) x2 + 3x = 10

(2) 3a2 a = 2

(1)

x2 + 3x 10 = 0

(2)

3a2 a 2 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0 is the standard form of a quadratic equation where a, b

and c and variables and a 0.
1.
Example 1 : Solve the equation 3x2 27 = 0
Solution : 3x2 27 = 0
3x2 = 27
x

27
3

x2 = 9
x = 9

x = +3

or

x = 3

Example 2 : Solve the equation 4y2 9 = 0

Solution : 4y2 9 = 0
4y2 = 9

y2 =

9
4
9
4

y =
y =
y = +

3
2

3
2

or

y =

125

3
2

Example 3 : Solve the equation 99 = 4r2 1

Solution : 99 = 4r2 1
4r2 1 = 99

4r2 = 99 + 1
4r2 = 100
r2 =

100
= 25
4

r = 25
r = 5

r = +5

or

r = 5

Example 4 : Solve the equation (m + 8)2 5 = 31

Solution : (m + 8)2 5 = 31
(m + 8)2 = 31 + 5

(m + 8)2 = 36
(m + 8)2 = 36

(m + 8) = 36

m = 8 6

m = 8 + 6 or m = 8 6
m = 2

or

m = 14

Example 5 : If A = r 2 ; Solve for r.

Solution : A = r 2
r 2 = A

r2 =

r =

126

Example 6 : If l2 = r2 + h2. Solve for h and find the value of h if l = 15 and r = 9.

Solution :
l 2 = r2 + h2
or
2
r + h2 = l2
h2 = l2 r2

h = l2 r 2
h = 152 9 2

(substituting l = 15, r = 9)

h = 225 81
h = 144
or
h = +12
Example 7 : If B =

3.a 2
Solve for a and find the value of a if B = 16
4
3.a 2
4

Solution : B =

h = 12
h = 12

a2 =

4B
3

a =

4B
3

a =

4 16 3/
3/

a = 64
a = + 8

(Substituting B = 16 3 )

, a = 8
or

a = 8

Exercise : 5.1
A.

1) x2 + 2 = 6
2) a2 + 3 = 2a
3) p (p 3) = 1
4) 2m2 = 72

5) k2 k = 0
127

6) 7y =

35
y

3 .

B.

1) 5x2 = 125

4)

3
1
x2

= 7
4
4
2

2) m2 1 = 143

3) 4a =

5) (2m 5)2 = 81

6)

81
a

2
( x 4) 2
=
9
18

C.
1)

If A = 2 r 2 Solve for r and find the value of r if A = 77 and =

22
7

2
2) If V = r h Solve for r and find the value of r if V = 176 and h = 14

3) If r2 = l2 + d2 Solve for d and find the value of d if r = 5 and l = 4.

4) If c2 = a2 + b2 Solve for b. If a = 8 and c = 17 and find the value of b.
5) If K = 1/2mv2 Solve for v and find the value of v if K = 100 and m = 2
6) If v2 = u2 + 2as. Solve for v. If u = 0, a = 2 and s = 100, find the value
of v.
Example 1 : Solve the quadratic equation a2 3a + 2 = 0
Solution :
a2 3a + 2 = 0
i. Resolve the expression
a2 2a 1a + 2 = 0
ii. Factorize
a(a 2) 1 (a 2) = 0
If mn = 0, then either
iii. Taking the common factor
(a 2) (a 1) = 0
m = 0 or n = 0
iv. Equate each factor to zero
a 2 = 0 or a 1 = 0
v. The roots are
a=2
or
a=1
Example 2 : Solve the quadratic equation m2 m = 6
Solution :
m2 m = 6
m2 m 6 = 0

m2 3m + 2m 6 = 0
m(m 3) +2 (m 3) = 0
(m 3) (m + 2) = 0
Either (m 3) = 0 or (m + 2) = 0
m = +3 or m = 2
128

Example 3 : Solve the quadratic equation 2x2 3x + 1 = 0

Solution :
2x2 3x + 1 = 0
2x2 2x 1x + 1 = 0
2x (x 1) 1 (x 1) = 0
(x
1) (2x 1) = 0

Either (x 1) = 0 or (2x 1) = 0
1
x = 1 or x = 2
Example 4 : Solve the quadratic equation 4k (3k 1) = 5.
Solution :
4k (3k 1) = 5
12k2 4k 5 = 0

12k2 10k + 6k 5 = 0
2k (6k 5) + 1(6k 5) = 0
(6k 5) (2k + 1) = 0

Either (6k 5) = 0 or (2k + 1) = 0

5
k= 6

or

k =

1
2

Exercise : 5.2
A. Find the roots of the following equations
1) x(x 3) = 0
2) a (a + 5) = 0
3) m2 4m = 0
4) 3k2 + 6k = 0
5) (y + 6) (y + 9) = 0
6) (b 3) (b 5) = 0
7) (2n + 1) (3n 2) = 0 8) (5z 2) (7z + 3) = 0
B.

2) a2 5a + 6 = 0
1) x2 + 15x + 50 = 0
5) 30 = b2 b
4) 6 p2 = p
7) 6y2 + y 15 = 0
8) 6a2 + a = 5
10) 0.2t2 0.04t = 0.03

3) y2 = y + 2
6) 2x2 + 5x 12 = 0
9) 13m = 6(m2 + 1)
x2

Consider the equation x2 + 3x + 1 = 0

It cannot be factorised by splitting the middle term.
How do you solve such an equation ?
1x

129

1x

3. Solving quadratic equation by formula method

General form of a quadratic equation
Divide by a
Transpose the constant term to R.H.S.
2

b
2a

ax2 + bx + c = 0
x 2 bxx c
ax
+
+ =0
a
a a
x2 +

bxx
c
=
a
a
2

bxx b
c b
+ = +
x +
a 2a
a 2a

b
c b2

x + = + 2
2a
a 4a

4ac + b 2
b

x + =
2a
4a 2

b
b 2 4ac

x + =
2a
4a 2

Simplify

Taking square root

Roots are
x=

b + b 2 4ac
2a

or

b 2 4 ac
4a 2

x+

b
=
2a

x+

b
b 2 4 ac
=
2a
2a

x =

2a

b 2 4 ac
2a

x=

b b 2 4ac
2a

x=

b b 2 4ac
2a

b b 2 4ac
Roots of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 are x =
2a
2
Note : The roots of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 can also be found using
Sridharas method.
2

130

Example 1 :

consider

x2 7x + 12 = 0
x2 7x + 12 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

the coefficients are

The roots are given by
Substituting the values

Simplify

Roots are

a = 1, b = 7 & c = 12

b b 2 4ac
2a
a = 1, b = 7 and c = 12

x =

x=

2 x1

x=

7 49 48
2

x =

7 1
2

x =

7 +1
2

or

x =

7 1
2

x =

8
2

or

x =

6
2

x = 4

or

x = 3

Example 2 : Solve the equation 2p2 p = 15

Consider 2p2 p = 15
2p2 p 15 = 0
This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0
The coefficients are
The roots are given by
Substituting the values

a = 2, b = 1 and c = 15
x=

b b 2 4ac
2a

a = 2, b = 1 and c = 15
(1) (1) 2 4(2)(15)
p =
2(2)
131

p =

+ 1 1 + 120
4

p =

1 121
4

p =

1 11
4

p =

1+ 11
4

or

p =

1 11
4

p =

12
4

or

p =

10
4

or

p =

5
2

p = 3

Example 3 :

Solve the equation

Consider
This is in the form
The coefficients are

The roots are given by

Substituting the values

2k2 2k 5 = 0
2k2 2k 5 = 0
ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = 2, b = 2 and c = 5
x =

a = 2, b = 2 and c = 5
k =

k =

The roots are

b b 2 4ac
2a

( 2) ( 2) 2 4( 2)( 5)
2( 2)
2

4 + 40
4

k =

2 2 11
4

k =

1+ 11
2

132

=
or

44
4

2 1 11
4

k =

1 11
2

Example 4 : Solve the equation m2 2m = 2

Consider
m2 2m = 2
m2 2m 2 = 0
This is in the form
ax2 + bx + c = 0
Comparing the coefficients
a = 1, b = 2 and c = 2
The roots are given by

x =

b b 2 4ac
2a

( 2) ( 2) 2 4(1)( 2)
m =
2(1)
m =

+2 4+8
2

m =

2 12
2

m =

2 1 3
2

m = 1+ 3

)
or

m = 1 3

Exercise : 5.3
Solve the following equations by using formula
1) a2 2a 4 = 0
2) x2 8x + 1 = 0
3) m2 2m + 2 = 0
5) 2y2 + 6y = 3
6) 8r2 = r + 2
7) p = 5 2p2
4) k2 6k = 1
8) 2z2 + 7z + 4 = 0 9) 3b2 + 2b = 2
10) a2 = 4a + 6
4.
Equations reducible to the form ax2 + bx + c = 0
Example 1 : Solve the equation (x + 6) (x + 2) = x
Solution :(x + 6) (x + 2) = x
x2 + 6x + 2x + 12 = x
x2 + 8x + 12 x = 0
x2 + 7x + 12 = 0
x2 + 4x + 3x + 12 = 0
x(x + 4) + 3 (x + 4) = 0
(x + 4) (x + 3) = 0
Either
(x + 4) = 0 or
(x + 3) = 0
x = 4 or
x = 3
133

Example 2 : Solve the equation (a 3)2 + (a + 1)2 = 16

Solution : (a 3)2 + (a + 1)2 = 16
Using (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2
(a b)2 = a 2ab + b2
[(a)2 2(a)(3) + 32] + [a2 + 2 (a) (1) + 12] = 16
a2 6a + 9 + a2 + 2a + 1 16 = 0
2a2 4a 6 = 0
a2 2a 3 = 0
a2 3a + 1a 3 = 0
a(a 3) + 1 (a 3) = 0
(a 3) (a + 1) = 0
Either (a 3) = 0 or
(a + 1) = 0
a = 3 or a = 1
Example 3 : Solve 5(p 2)2 + 6 = 13 (p 2)
Solution : 5(p 2)2 + 6 = 13 (p 2)
Let

p2=b

then

5b 2 + 6 = 13b
5b2 13b + 6 = 0
5b2 10b 3b + 6 = 0
5b (b 2) 3 (b 2) = 0
(b 2) (5b 3) = 0

Either

(b 2) = 0

or

(5b 3) = 0

b=2

or

3
b= 5

p2=2

or

3
p2= 5

p=2+2

or

3
2
p= 5 +
1

p=4

or

p=

134

13
5

( b = p 2)

3k + 2 k + 1
=
2k + 5 k 1

Example 4 : Solve the equation

Consider
Cross multiplying

On simplification
This is in form of
The co-efficients are

3k + 2 k + 1
=
2k + 5 k 1
(3k + 2) (k 1) = (2k + 5) (k + 1)
3k2 + 2k 3k 2 = 2k2 + 5k + 2k + 5
3k2 1k 2 2k2 7k 5 = 0
3k2 1k 2 2k2 7k 5 = 0
k2 8k 7 = 0
ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = 1, b = 8, c = 7

x=

b + ( b) 2 4ac
2a

(8) (8) 2 4(1)(7)

k =
2 x1
k =

+ 8 64 + 28
2

k =

8 92
2

k =

8 2 23
2

k = 4 23
Example 5 : Solve the equation
Consider

Taking L.C.M.
By cross multiplication

y 3

=1
4 2y
y 3

=1
4 2y
y2 6
=1
4y
y2 6 = 4y
y2 4y 6 = 0
135

2 4 23
2

this is in the form

comparing coefficients

ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = 1, b = 4, c = 6

(4) (4) 2 4(1)(6)

y =
2(1)
the roots of the equation are

=
y =
y =

4 16 + 24
2
4

40
2

4 2 10
2

y = 2 + 10
Example 6 : Solve

=
or

2 2 10
2

y = 2 10

4
1
4

=
m + 2 m + 3 2m + 1

4(m + 3) 1(m + 2)
4
=
(m + 2)(m + 3)
2m + 1
4m + 12 m 2
4
=
2
m + 2m + 3m + 6 2m + 1
3m + 10
4
=
m + 5m + 6 2 m + 1
2

On Cross multiplying,

Either

4m2 + 20m + 24 = 6m2 + 20m + 3m + 10

4m2 + 20m + 24 6m2 23m 10 = 0
2m2 3m + 14 = 0
2m2 + 3m 14 = 0
2m2 + 7m 4m 14 = 0
m(2m + 7) 2 (2m + 7) = 0
(2m + 7) (m 2) = 0
(2m + 7) = 0
or
(m 2) = 0
m=
136

7
2

or

m=2

Exercise : 5.4
A.

B.

Solve the following equations

1) (x + 4) (x 4) = 6x

2) 2(a2 1) = a (1 a)

3) 3(b 5) (b 7) = 4 (b + 3)

4) 8(s 1) (s + 1) + 2 (s + 3) = 1

5) (n 3)2 + n (n + 1)2 = 16

6) 11(m + 1) (m + 2) = 38 (m + 1) + 9m

Solve

1)

3x 8 5x 2
=
x2
x+5

4)

( y 1)(5y + 6) ( y 4)(5y + 6)
=
y2
y3

6)

3
2
8
+
=
5b 4b b+2

9)

2
5
6
+
=
m + 2 2(m + 4) m + 6

2)

5a + 1 3a + 1
=
7 a + 5 7a + 1

7)

5)

3)

1
2
2
+
=
x 2 x 1 x

y
y + 1 25
+
=
y +1
y
12
10)

11m + 3 12m + 1
=
9m + 13 10m + 11

8)

n + 1 n + 2 2n + 13
=
+
n 1 n 2
n +1

2(3y 1)
5y
=
2
4y 3
y+2

5. To solve the problems based on Quadratic Equation

Example 1 : If the square of a number is added to 3 times the number, the sum
is 28. Find the number.
Solution : Let the number be = x
Square of the number = x2
3 times the number = 3x
Square of a number + 3 times the number = 28
x2 + 3x = 28

x2 + 3x 28 = 0
x2 + 7x 4x 28 = 0
x(x + 7) 4 (x + 7) = 0
(x + 7) (x 4) = 0
x + 7 = 0 or x 4 = 0
x = 7
or x = 4
The required number is 4 or 7
137

Example 2 : Sum of a number and its reciprocal is 5

Solution :

1
. Find the number.
5

Let the number be = y

Reciprocal of the number =

1
y

(Number) + (its reciprocal) = 5

y +

1
y

1
5

26
5

y2 + 1
26
=
y
5

Either

5(y2 + 1) = 26y
5y2 + 5 = 26y
5y2 26y + 5 = 0
5y2 25y 1y + 5 = 0
5y (y 5) 1 (y 5) = 0
(y 5) (5y 1) = 0
(y 5) = 0 or (5y 1) = 0
y=5

1
y= 5

or

Example 3 : The base of a triangle is 4

the traingle is 48 sq cms.
Solution : Let the altitude
=
Base of the triangle =
Area of the triangle =
48 =

1
5

cms longer than its altitude. If the area of

Find the base and altitude.
x cms.
(x + 4) cms.
1
2 (base) (height)
1
2 (x + 4)x

138

48 x 2 =
96 =

x2 + 4x 96 = 0
x2 + 12x 8x 96 = 0
x(x + 12) 8 (x + 12) = 0
(x + 12) (x 8) = 0
(x + 12) = 0 or (x 8) = 0
x = 12
or x = 8

Either

(x + 4)x
x 2 + 4x

x = 12 cannot be
considered, because
the length is always
positive

Altitude = x = 8 cms.
Base = x + 4
= 8+4
= 12 cms

Example 4 : Rashmi bought some books for Rs. 60. Had she bought 5 more books
to the same amount each book would have cost her 1 rupee less. Find
the number of books bought by Rashmi and price of each book.
Solution : Let the number of books = x
Total cost of the books

= Rs. 60

Cost of each book

Rs.

60
x

If number of books is (x + 5)
Then the cost of each book = Rs.

60
( x + 50)

Cost of each book

if number of books
is (x)

cost of each book

if number of books
is (x+5)

60

60
=
x+5

60( x + 5) 60 x
x ( x + 5)

139

= Difference amount

1
= 1

60 x + 300 60 x
=
x2 + 5x

300
1
=
x + 5x 1
2

x2 + 5x = 300

x2 + 5x 300 = 0
x2 + 20x 15x 300 = 0
x(x + 20) 15 (x + 20) = 0

x = 20
cannot
be
considered
because
number of books is always
positive

(x + 20) (x 15) = 0
Either

(x + 20) = 0 or (x 15) = 0
x = 20 or

x = 15

Number of books = x = 15

60
60
=
= Rs. 4
x
15

Cost of each book =

Example 5 : The speed of a motor boat in still water is 15 km/hr. If it goes down
the stream 30 kms and again returns to the starting point in total time
of 4 hrs and 30 minutes, find the speed of the stream.
Solution : Speed in Still water is = 15 km/hr
Total distance travelled = 30 km
Let the speed of the stream = x km/hr
Speed up the stream = (15 x) km/hr
Speed down the stream = (15 + x) km/hr
Total time taken = 4hrs and 30 minutes
Time taken to row down the stream =

30
15 + x

30
15 x
time taken to row = 4 hours 30 minutes
up the stream

Time taken to row

Down the stream
30
15 + x

] [
+

30
15 x
140

1
2

30(15 x) + 30(15 + x) 9
=
(15 + x) (15 x)
2
450 30 x + 450 + 30 x 9
=
225 x 2
2
900
9
=
2
225 x
2

900 (2)
= 225 x2
9

200 = 225 x2
x2 = 225 200

x2 = 25
x = 5
x = + 5

or

x = 5

Speed of the stream = x = 5km/hr

Exercise : 5.5
1) The sum of a number and twice its square is 105. Find the number.
2) Product of two consecutive integers is 182. Find the integers.
3) The sum of the squares of three consecutive natural numbers is 194. Find the integers.
4) The length of rectangular field is 3 times its breadth. If the area of the field is
147 sq mts. Find the length of the field.
5) Hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is 20 mts. If the difference between the lengths
of other two sides is 4 mts. Find the measures of the sides.
6) An Aero-plane takes 1 hr. less for a journey of 1200 km. If its speed is increased
by 60 km/hr from its initial speed find the initial speed of the plane.
7) Some students planned a picnic. The budget for the food was Rs. 480. As eight
of them failed to join the party the cost of the food for each member increased
by Rs. 10. How many students participated in the picnic?
8) Sailor Raju covered a distance of 8 km in 1 hr 40 minutes down stream and returns
to the starting point. If the speed of the stream is 2 km/hr, find the speed of the
boat in still water.
141

9) A dealer sells an article for Rs. 24 and gains as much percent as the cost price
of the article. Find the Cost price of the article.
10) Sowmya takes 6 days less than the number of days taken by Bhagya to complete
a piece of work. If both Sowmya and Bhagya together can complete the same
work in 4 days. In how many days will Bhagya complete the work?
6. Nature of the roots of
1) Consider the equation
This is in the form
The coefficients are

x2 2x + 1 = 0
ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = 1, b = 2, c = 1
x =

b b 2 4ac
2a

x =

2 x1

x =

2 44
2

x =

2+0
2

x =

2+0
2

or

x = 1 or

x = 1

x =

x2 2x 3 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

the coefficients are

a = 1, b = 2, c = 3
x =

b b 2 4ac
2a

x =

( 2) 16
2 x1

x =

+24
2
142

20
2

x =

2+4
2

or

x =

24
2

x =

6
2

or

x =

2
2

x = 3

or

x = 1

x2 2x + 3 = 0

ax2 + bx + c = 0

The coefficients are

a = 1, b = 2, c = 3

roots are distinct

b b 2 4ac
x =
2a
(2) 2 (2) 2 4(1)(3)
x =
2 x1
x =

2 4 12
2

x =

2 8
2

x =

22 2
2

x =

2 1 2
2

x = 1+ 2

= 1 2

or 1 2

From the above examples it is clear that,

1) Nature of the roots of quadratic equation depends upon the value of (b2 4ac)
2) The Expression (b2 4ac) is denoted by (delta) which determines the nature
of the roots.
3) In the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 the expression (b2 4ac) is called the discriminant.
143

= 0

> 0 (Positive)

< 0 (negative)

Example 1 : Determine the nature of the roots of the equation 2x2 5x 1 = 0.

Consider the equation 2x2 5x 1 = 0
This is in form of
ax2 + bx + c = 0
The co-efficient are a = 2, b = 5, c = 1
= b2 4ac
= (5)2 4(2) (1)
= 25 + 8
= 33

> 0

Roots are real and distinct

the roots of the equation 4x2 4x + 1 = 0
4x2 4x + 1 = 0
ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = 4, b = 4, c = 1
= b2 4ac
= (4)2 4 (4) (1)
= 16 16
= 0
Roots are real and equal

Example 2 : Determine the nature of

Consider the equation
This is in the form of
The co-efficient are

Example 3 : For what values of m roots of the equation x2 + mx + 4 = 0 are

(i) equal (ii) distinct
Consider the equation x2 + mx + 4 = 0
This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0
the co-efficients are a = 1, b = m, c = 4
= b2 4ac
= m2 4(1) (4)
= m2 16
1) If roots are equal = 0
m2 16 = 0
m2 = 16
m =

16
144

m = 4

2) If roots are distinct

> 0
m2 16 > 0
m2 > 16
m2 > 16
m > 4
Example 4 : Determine the value of k for which the equation kx2 + 6x + 1 = 0 has
equal roots.
kx2 + 6x + 1 = 0
ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = k, b = 6, c = 1

Consider the equation

This is in the form
the co-efficients are

= b2 4ac

b2 4ac = 0
(6)2 4(k)(1) = 0
36 4k = 0
4k = 36

( = 0)

36
= 9
4
k=9

k =

Example 5 : Find the value of p for which the equation x2 (p + 2) x + 4 = 0 has

equal roots.
x2 (p + 2) x + 4 = 0
ax2 + bx + c = 0
a = 1, b = (p + 2), c = 4

Consider the equation

This is in the form
Coefficients are

=0
b2 4ac = 0
[(p + 2)]2 4(1)(4) = 0
(p + 2)2 16 = 0

p + 2 = 16
p+2= 4
p + 2 = + 4 or
p = 4 2 or
or
p=2
145

p + 2 = 4
p = 4 2
p = 6

Exercise : 5.6
A.

Discuss the nature of roots of the following equations

2) x2 2x + 3 = 0
3) 2n2 + 5n 1 = 0
1) y2 7y + 2 = 0
4) a2 + 4a + 4 = 0
5) x2 + 3x 4 = 0
6) 3d2 2d + 1 = 0

B.

For what positive values of m roots of the following equations are

1) equal 2) distinct 3) imaginary
2) x2 mx + 9 = 0
1)
a2 ma + 1 = 0
3)
r2 (m + 1) r + 4 = 0
4) mk2 3k + 1 = 0

C.

Find the value of p for which the quadratic equations have equal roots.
1) x2 px + 9 = 0
2) 2a2 + 3a + p = 0
3) pk2 12k + 9 = 0
5) (p + 1) n2 + 2(p + 3) n + (p + 8) = 0
4) 2y2 py + 1 = 0
6) (3p + 1)c2 + 2 (p + 1) c + p = 0

7.

Relationship between the roots and co-efficient of the terms of the quadratic
equation.
If m and n are the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 then
b + b2 4ac
m =
,
2a

b + b2 4ac
+
2a

m+n =

m + n =

b b2 4ac
2a

b + b 2 4ac b b 2 4ac
2a

m + n =

m + n =

2b
2a

( b) 2

-b
a

ax2 + bx + c = 0

b + b2 4ac

mn =

2
a

mn =

b b2 4ac
n =
2a

b b2 4ac

2
a

( b 4ac )
2

4a 2

146

Sum of the roots =

Product of roots =

b
a
+c
a

mn =

b 2 b 2 4ac
4a 2

mn =

b 2 b 2 + 4ac
4a 2

mn =

c
4ac
2 =
a
4a

mn =

c
a

Example 1 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation x2 + 2x + 1 = 0

x2 + 2x + 1 = 0
This is in the form

ax2 + bx + c = 0

The coefficients are

a = 1, b = 2, c = 1

i)

m + n =

b
2
=
a
1

m + n = 2

ii)

Product of the roots mn =

c
1
=
a
1

mn = 1

Example 2 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation 3x2 + 5 = 0
3x2 + 0x + 5 = 0
This is in the form

ax2 + bx + c = 0

The coefficients are

a = 3, b = 0, c = 5

i)

p + q =

b
0
=
a
3

p+q = 0

ii)

Product of the roots pq =

147

c
5
=
a
3

pq =

5
3

Example 3 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation 2m2 8m = 0
2m2 8m + 0 = 0
The coefficients are
a = 2, b = 8, c = 0
Let the roots be and
b
a

+ =

i)

ii)

Product of the roots =

(8)
= 4
2

c
0
=
= 0
a
2

Example 4 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation x2 (p+q)x + pq = 0
x2 (p + q) x + pq = 0
The coefficients are
a = 1, b = (p + q), c = pq
i)

m + n =
m + n =

b
a
[ (p + q )]
1

m + n = (p + q)

ii)

Product of the roots mn =

c
pq
=
a
1

mn = pq

Exercise : 5.7
Find the sum and product of the roots of the quadratic equation :
1) x2 + 5x + 8 = 0
2) 3a2 10a 5 = 0
3) 8m2 m = 2
4) 6k2 3 = 0
8.

5) pr2 = r 5

6) x2 + (ab) x + (a + b) = 0

To form an equation for the given roots

Let m and n are the roots of the equation
x = m or x = n
i.e., x m = 0, x n = 0
(x m) (x n) = 0
x2 mx nx + mn = 0
x2 (m + n) x + mn = 0
148

If m and n are the roots then the Standard form of the equation is
x2 (Sum of the roots) x +
Product of the roots
=
0
x2 (m + n) x + mn = 0
Example 1 : Form the quadratic equation whose roots are 2 and 3
Let m and n are the roots
m = 2, n = 3
Sum of the roots
=m+n = 2+3
m+n = 5
Product of the roots = mn
= (2) (3)
mn = 6
2
Standard form
x (m + n) x + mn = 0
x2 (5)x + (6) = 0
x2 5x + 6 = 0
Example 2 : Form the quadratic equation whose roots are

2
5
and
5
2

m =

2
5

and n =

5
2

m+n =

Product of the roots = mn =

Standard form

x2 (m + n) x + mn = 0
x2

29
x+1=0
10

10x2 29x + 10 = 0
149

2 5
x
5 2

4 + 25
10

2
5
+
=
5
2
29
10

mn = 1

Example 3 : Form the quadratic equation whose roots are 3 + 2 5 and 3 2 5

Let m and n are the roots
m = 3 + 2 5 and n = 3 2 5
Sum of the roots
= m+n

= 3+2 5 +32 5
m+n = 6
Product of the roots = mn

= (3 + 2 5 ) (3 2 5 )
= (3)2 (2 5 )2
= 9 20
mn = 11
2
x (m + n) x + mn = 0
x2 6x 11 = 0
Example 4 : If m and n are the roots of equation x2 3x + 1 = 0 find the value
1 1
+
m n
Consider the equation
x2 3x + 1 = 0
This is in the form
ax2 + bx + c = 0
The coefficients are
a = 1, b = 3, c = 1
Let m and n are the roots

b
=
a
m + n = 3

i)

ii)

c
a

mn =

1
1

(3)
= 3
1

m + n =

mn = 1

= mn (m + n)
= 1(3) = 3

(ii)

1
1
+
m
n

n+m
m+n
=
=
mn
mn

1
1
+
= 3
m
n
150

3
1

Example 5 : If m and n are the roots of equation x2 3x + 4 = 0 form the

equation whose roots are m2 and n2.
x2 3x + 4 = 0

Consider the equation

The coefficients are

a = 1, b = 3, c = 4

Let m and n are the roots

i) Sum of the roots =

m + n =

b
(3)
=
a
1

m + n = 3

mn =

c
4
=
a
1

mn = 4

If the roots are m2 and n2

= (m + n)2 2mn
Sum of the roots m2 + n2
= (3)2 2(4)
= 9 8
2
m + n2 = 1
Product of the roots m2n2

= (mn)2
= 42
m2n2 = 16

x2 (m2 + n2) x + m2n2 = 0

x2 (1)x + (16) = 0
x2 x + 16 = 0

Example 6 : If one root of the equation x2 6x + q = 0 is twice the other, find the
value of q
Consider the equation x2 6x + q = 0
This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0
The coefficients are a = 1, b = 6, c = q
Let the m and n are the roots
b
(6)
=
a
1
m+n=6

m+n =

151

c
q
=
a
1
mn = q

mn =

m = m and n = 2m
m+n = 6
m + 2m = 6
3m = 6
m =

We know that q
q
q
q
q

=
=
=
=
=

6
3
mn
m(2m)
2m2
2(2)2
8

m = 2

q = 8

Example 7 : Find the value of k so that the equation x2 2x + (k + 3) = 0 has one

root equal to zero.
Consider the equation
x2 2x + (k + 3) = 0
The coefficients are
a = 1, b = 2, c = k + 3
Let m and n are the roots
Product of the roots = mn
mn =

mn =

c
a
k +3
1

mn = k + 3

Since m and n are the roots, and one root is zero then
m = m and n = 0
mn = k + 3
m(0) = k + 3
0 = k + 3
k = 3
152

Exercise : 5.8
A. Form the equation whose roots are
1) 3 and 5

2) 6 and 5

3) 2 and

5) 2 + 3 and 2 3

3
2

4)

2
3
and
3
2

6) 3 + 2 5 and 3 2 5

B.
1) If m and n are the roots of the equation x2 6x + 2 = 0 find the value of
i) (m + n) mn

ii)

1
1
+
m
n

2) If a and b are the roots of the equation 3m2 = 6m + 5 find the value of
i)

a b
+
b a

ii) (a + 2b) (2a + b)

3) If p and q are the roots of the equation 2a2 4a + 1 = 0 Find the value of
i) (p + q)2 + 4pq

ii) p3 + q3

4) Form a quadratic equation whose roots are

p
q
and
q
p

5) Find the value of k so that the equation x2 + 4x + (k + 2) = 0 has one root equal
to zero.
6) Find the value of q so that the equation 2x2 3qx + 5q = 0 has one root which
is twice the other.
7) Find the value of p so that the equation 4x2 8px + 9 = 0 has roots whose
difference is 4.
8) If one root of the equation x2 + px + q = 0 is 3 times the other prove that 3p2 = 16q
Graphical method of solving a Quadratic Equation
Let us solve the equation x2 4 = 0 graphically,
x2 4 = 0
x2 = 4
let y = x2 = 4
y = x2

and y = 4
153

Step 1: Form table of

corresponding values
of x and y

y = x2
x=0
x=1
x=2
x = 1
x = 2

Satisfying the equation

y = x2
Step 2: Choose the scale on
x axis, 1 cm = 1 unit
y axis, 1 cm = 1 unit.

y = 02
y = 12
y = 22
y = (1)2
y = (2)2

y=0
y=1
y=4
y=1
y=4

Step 3: Plot the points (0, 0);

(1, 1); (1, 1); (2, 4)
and (2, 4) on graph
sheet.
Step 4: Join the points by a
smooth curve.
Step 5: Draw the straight line
y = 4 Parallel to x-axis
Step 6: From the intersecting
points of the curve and
the line y = 4, draw
perpendiculars to the
x axis
Step 7: Roots of the equations are

x = +2

or

x = 2

The graph of a quadratic polynomial is a curve called parabola

Example 1 : Draw a graph of y = 2x2 and find the value of 3 , using the graph.
Step 1: Form the table of
corresponding values of
x and y satisfying the
equation y = 2x2
x
0
1
1
2
2
3
Step 2: Choose the scale on x
y
0
2
2
8
8
6
axis, 1 cm = 1 unit and
(x, y) (0, 0) (1, 2)
(1, 2) (2, 8) (2, 8) ( 3 ,6)
y axis, 1 cm = 1 unit
Step 3: Plot the points (0, 0);
(1, 2) (1, 2); (2, 8) and
(2, 8) on graph sheet.
154

Step 4: Join the points by a

smooth curve
Step 5: Draw the straight line
y = 6 Parallel to x-axis.
Step 6: From the intersecting
points of the curve and
the line y = 6, draw
perpendiculars to the
x-axis.
Step 7: Value of

3 = 1.7
x = 1.7

or

x = + 1.7

Example 2 : Draw a graph of y = x2 and y = 2-x and hence solve the equation
x2 + x 2 = 0
Step 1: Form the table of
corresponding values of
x and y satisfying the
equation y = x2

(0, 0)

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

(2, 4)

(2, 4)

Step 2: Form the table of

corresponding values of
x and y satisfying the
equation y = 2 x.

(0, 2)

(1, 1)

(1, 3)

(2, 0)

(2, 4)

(x, y)

(x, y)

Step 3: Choose the scale on x

axis 1 cm = 1 unit and
y axis, 1 cm = 1 unit.
Step 4: Plot the points (0, 0);
(1, 1); (1, 1); (2, 4)
and (2, 4) on the graph
sheet.
Step 5: Join the points by a
smooth curve.
Step 6: Plot the points (0, 2) ;
(1, 1); (1, 3); (2, 0)
and (2, 4) on graph
sheet
155

Step 7: Join the points to get a line.

Step 8: From the intersecting
Curve and the line, draw
perpendiculars to the
x-axis
Step 9: Roots of the equation are

x = 1

Example 3 : Solve the equation

Method I : x2 x 2 = 0
Split the equation
y = x2 and y = 2 + x
Step 1: Form the table of
corresponding values x
and y satisfying the
equation y = x2
Step 2: Form the table of
corresponding values x
and y satisfying the
equation y = 2 + x
Step 3: Choose the scale on
x axis, 1 cm = 1 unit
y axis, 1 cm = 1 unit
Step 4: Plot the points (0, 0);
(1, 1); (1, 1); (2, 4)
and (2, 4) on the graph
sheet.
Step 5: Join the points by a
smooth curve
Step 6: Plot the points (0, 2);
(1, 3) (2, 4); (1, 1) and
(2, 0) on the graph
sheet.
Step 7: Join the points to get a
straight line
Step 8: From the intersecting
points of Curve and the
line, draw the perpendiculars to the x-axis.
Step 9: Roots of the equation are

x = 2

(0, 0)

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

(2, 4)

(2, 4)

(0, 2)

(1, 3)

(2, 4)

(x, y)

(x, y)

x = 1
156

or

or

(1, 1) (2, 0)

x = 2

Method II :

Step 1: Form the table of

corresponding values of
x and y satisfying
equation y = x2 x 2.

(x, y)

(2, 0) (2, 4)

Step 2: Choose the scale on x

axis 1 cm = 1 unit and
y axis 1 cm = 1 unit.
Step 3: Plot the points (0, 2);
(1 2); (1, 0); (2, 0)
and (2, 4) on the graph
sheet.
Step 4: Join the points to form
a smooth curve
Step 5: Mark the intersecting
points of the curve and
the x axis.
Step 6: Roots of the equations are

x = 1

or

x = 2

Exercise : 5.9
A.

B.

1)

2)

3)

1)

Draw the graph of y = x2 and y = 2x + 3 and hence solve the equation

x2 2x 3 = 0
Draw the graph of y = 2x2 and y = 3 x and hence solve the equation
2x2 + x 3 = 0
Draw the graph of y = 2x2 and y = 3 + x and hence solve the equation
2x2 x 3 = 0

2)
3)
C.

Solve graphically
1) x2 + x 12 = 0
4) x2 + x 6 = 0

7
3

1 2
x and find the value of 10
2

2) x2 5x + 6 = 0
5) 2x2 3x 5 = 0

157

3) x2 + 2x 8 = 0
6) 2x2 + 3x 5 = 0