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US 2014005093 8A1

(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2014/0050938 A1
LIN et al.
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

ELECTROSPARK DEPOSITION PROCESS

(52)

FOR OXIDATION RESISTANT COATING OF

Feb. 20, 2014

US. Cl.
USPC .......................... .. 428/596; 427/580; 118/620

COOLING HOLE

(75) Inventors: Dechao LIN, Greer, SC (US); Ibrahim
slmpsonvlne’ SC (Us);
Klvllclm ONAL’ Greer’ SC (Us)
.

(73)
21

( )
(22)

_

ABSTRACT

A method of providing an oxidation resistant coating is dis
closed. The method includes providing a substrate having a
?rst surface and cooling holes. A portable coating device

Assignee '
A

57

( )

ELSECUTSRIC COMPANY ’
C enec a y’
( )

_
l. N .. 13/585 382

- 1u des e1 ectro-s p ark dep os1t1on
- (BSD) e qm-p ment and an
me
ESD torch connected With the ESD equipment. The ESD
torch has an inert gas source and a rotary electrode conductive

pp
0

'
Filed.
Aug. 14, 2012

material. The rotary electrode is positioned Within the ESD
by an inert
'
gas. The rot ary e 1 ectro de

torc h , an d is
' s 11'1e 1ded

applies a compositionally controlled protective coating to the
Publication Classi?cation
51

Int. Cl .

?rst surface of the substrate. Then the rotary electrode is
inserted into the cooling hole and generates an electrospark
b etWeen

rotary

ESD e l ectro de

an d t he sub strate to

form

a

C23C 4/12

(2006.01)

rounded edge and depositacoating of electrode material alloy

F01D 25/12

(2006.01)

at a cooling hole edge.

2014 Sheet 1 0f 4 US 2014/0050938 A1 . 20.Patent Application Publication Feb.

2014 Sheet 2 0f 4 US 2014/0050938 A1 . 20.Patent Application Publication Feb.

Patent Application Publication Feb. 2014 Sheet 3 0f 4 US 2014/0050938 A1 . 20.

periieiiy inie ceeiing heie ti'imugh meicii frame substrate W W168 Previde an inert gee cerium ereund the ciepeeiiien site ei edge 0% eeeiing hole by directing a first eiiieiding gee iiew at ‘tip pertien w W116 Qpiieneiiy previde e eecend ehieiding gee ?ow e‘l: ‘tip periion irem beiiem surface in prevent gases fmm contaminating the meiei depoeiiieri site v ?ne Appiy fame is reiciry eiectrode ‘(a press the eieeirode tip eeriien inie Contact with substrate in coeiing heie v F114‘ Energize ESQ eiectrede t0 generate en eiectre-“eperk between miery ESQ eiee’trode end top eurfciee ei ceoiing heie edge ei eufiicieniiy high iempereiure ie meii edge and farm (1 rounded edge and deposit a mating ef eiectrede meieriai eiioy at eoeiing hale edge .Patent Application Publication Feb. 20. e vibmiien eeuree and e retery eiectrode ef e conductive meieriei w flee ineeii reiery eieetrede "tepered "tip eeriien mi ieeei. ineiueing an inert gas SQUi'CéE. 2014 Sheet 4 0f 4 US 2014/0050938 A1 Wise Previde a workpiece having e surface ineiuding ene er more ceoiing heiee v W192 Previde eieetremeperk depeei'iien (ESQ) equipment v fi?e Previde an ESE) 'iereh eiectrieeiiy eenneeied with ‘the E$i3 equipment.

then. 1 shoWs a cross-sectional vieW of a prior art FIG. An edge 14 of the cooling hole 10 appears at each of the top surface 16 or the bottom surface 18 of metal frame substrate 12. aries. The electrospark device is con?gured to apply a coating of a material When inserted into a cooling hole in the substrate and placed into contact With the metal substrate. Currently there is no process to prevent crack initiation at the aft end of the cooling holes. [0020] FIG. The application relates more speci?cally to the use of an electrospark deposition process to apply an oxida tion resistant coating to a cooling hole of a gas turbine com ponent. The method includes providing a substrate having a ?rst surface and at least one cooling hole. There is also a need to [0013] provide enhanced oxidation resistance around the cooling holes to reduce oxidation and cracking along grain bound cooling hole. a gas turbine engine. regardless of Whether they accomplish [0017] one or more of the aforementioned needs. the ESD torch including: an inert gas source. the rotary electrode shielded by an inert gas. 4A shoWs an enlarged vieW of section 4A in BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0006] One embodiment the disclosure relates to a method of providing an oxidation resistant coating. 2014 US 2014/0050938 A1 ELECTROSPARK DEPOSITION PROCESS FOR OXIDATION RESISTANT COATING OF COOLING HOLE FIELD OF THE INVENTION [0001] This application generally relates to gas turbine components. [0011] Still another aspect of the disclosure is the ability to build up an ESD coating layer having a superior resistance to oxidation of the metal substrate. An exemplary transition piece is described in US. A cooling hole 10 passes through a metal frame substrate 12. 5. 20. 4 shoWing cracking around cooling holes in the transi tion frame portion. The rising com bustor exit temperatures in gas turbine engines necessitate active cooling to avoid thermal failure. 3 shoWs a schematic arrangement for perform scope of the claims. generating an electro FIG. fracture or cracks may occur around the cooling holes located on portions of the frame. the rotary elec trode disposed Within the ESD torch. The system includes an electrospark device and an electrode removably supported in the electrode holder. For example. Other features and advantages Will be made apparent from the present speci?cation. oxidation resistant cooling hole formed With the ESD pro [0005] Intended advantages of the disclosed systems and/or BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0014] FIG. No. holes in a gas turbine component. methods satisfy one or more of these needs or provide other [0015] advantageous features. [0010] Another aspect is the ability to heat and deform the top corners of a cooling hole to a rounded shape using ESD.Feb. spark betWeen rotary ESD electrode and the substrate to form a rounded edge and deposit a coating of electrode material alloy at a cooling hole edge. [0004] There is a need for local reinforcement of cooling features and combinations of features as may be generally recited in the claims. The rotary electrode is shielded by an inert gas. Which indicates that thermal stresses played a role in forming the cracks occurring at the cooling hole. [0007] Another embodiment relates to a system for depos iting an oxidation resistant coating on a cooling hole edge in a substrate. The rotary electrode applies a BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION compositionally controlled protective coating to the substrate [0002] Many component parts of a gas turbine engine include cooling holes for active cooling of engine sections at an edge of the cooling hole in response to an electrospark located downstream of the turbine section. and the rotary electrode applies a compositionally controlled protective coating to the ?rst sur face of the substrate. and a rotary electrode including a conductive material. 4 shoWs a transition piece aft frame portion of FIG. 1 a cross-sectional vieW of a prior art cooling hole is shoWn. and an ESD torch electrically connected With the ESD equipment. Analysis indicated that generated by an electrical current through the rotary elec trode. [0018] FIG. Pat. A rotary elec trode is disposed Within the ESD torch. The ESD process establishes an electrospark betWeen the rotary electrode and the hole exit. Grain boundary oxidation and thermal fatigue are potential causes of such cracking. 2A is an enlarged section vieW of the rounded FIG. inserting the rotary electrode at least partially into the cooling hole. coated cooling hole exit With oxidation-resistant coating. 6 shoWs a rounded. Failure analysis has revealed that such cracks form perpendicular to the inner surface of the frame. a tran sition piece for a gas turbine engine typically includes an integral frame portion surrounding an opening at a doWn stream end Where the transition piece connects to the turbine stage.414. [0019] FIG. Cracks initiated at the cooling holes on the aft-facing end of the frame and propa gated into the body of the frame. 2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0021] Referring to FIG. [0003] Under the high temperature operating conditions of the gas turbine engine. cess. [0016] FIG. disclosed extend to those embodiments that fall Within the ing the ESD process on a cooling hole. providing a portable coating device including: electro-spark deposition (ESD) equipment. Cooling hole 10 is formed in . [0008] The present disclosure includes a method to enhance the oxidation resistance of the cooling hole exit locally by applying an ESD process With the electrode having an appropriate tip pro?le. Heat from the electrospark deposition softens and deforms the upper comer of the cooling hole to form a rounded edge With an alloy coating that provides improved resistance to oxidation of the substrate metal. The teachings corner of FIG. [0009] An advantage of the disclosed method is a reduction in the number of turbine components discarded or scrapped.999. 2 shoWs a cross-sectional vieW of a rounded. [0012] Alternative exemplary embodiments relate to other cracks in the cooling holes of the frame folloWed the oxidiZed grain boundaries. 5 shoWs a How chart of the method of enhanc ing oxidation resistance of cooling holes on combustion com ponents of a gas turbine engine.

. Edge 14 on bottom surface 18 has not been exposed to the ESD coating process. ESD electrode 30 is pressed forcibly on the cooling hole 10 under shielding gas 34. at the aft Feb. a rounded edge. In one embodiment.. a cooling hole 10 22 may be deposited on the top side. e... providing an ESD torch electrically connected With the ESD equipment. g.. inserted at least partially into cooling hole 10 through metal frame substrate 12. and as a result edge 14 remains a sharp comer con?guration Without a rounded. ESD electrode is energiZed to generate an electrospark betWeen rotary ESD electrode and top surface at cooling hole edge at suf?ciently high tempera ture to melt edge and form a rounded edge and deposit a strate 12 may be. Edges 14 are subject to oxidation When exposed to harsh. a sintered metal alloy poWder such as CoNiCrAlY. a How chart is provided to rent alloWs the ESD torch 21 to generate a spark to melt a portion of a rotary electrode 30. Which incorporates either a series of capacitors or a silicon controlled recti?er coupled describe the method of the present disclosure. e. 6) of electrode material alloy at cooling hole 10 adjacent surface 16 of metal substrate 12. in a gas turbine engine transition piece (not shoWn).. 20. The ESD torch 21 is used to apply a compositionally controlled protective coating 22 to the substrate 12 at an edge of cooling hole 10.g. Electrical cur The electrode may be. Next. dimensions. [0026] Coating 22 enhances the resistance to oxidation locally around cooling hole 10. oxidation resistant coating 22 may be about 2 mils thick over substantially the entire surface 24 of rounded edge 20. transition piece aft picture frame 15 (also see FIG. the method provides an inert gas curtain around the deposition site at edge of cooling [0024] The rotary electrode 30 having a partially tapered tip portion 32 is inserted at least partially into cooling hole 10 through metal frame substrate 12 adjacent top side 16. at step 108. those Who revieW this disclosure Will readily appre ciate that many modi?cations are possible (e. Further. an exemplary arrangement for rounding and coating edge 20 in cooling hole 10 is shoWn. In one embodiment.. The selec tion of electrode depends on the application. 4). Any superior thick as 3 mils. As indicated by arroW 38.US 2014/0050938 A1 metal frame substrate 12 to provide air ?oW therethrough for cooling metal substrate 12 in harsh. Although only a feW embodiments have been described in detail in this dis closure. by using the spark generates local heating and forging of metal frame substrate 12 and rotary electrode 30. An electrospark 35 is established betWeen rotary electrode 30 and cooling hole 10 of metal frame substrate 12. a force may be applied to rotary elec trode 30 to press the electrode tip 32 into contact With sub strate 12 in cooling hole 10. for example. The coating thickness may vary more or less depending on the particular geometry of the cooling holes. The diameter of rotary electrode 30 is slightly larger than the diameter of cooling hole 10. and at step 104. a piece ofcombustion hardWare. including an inert gas With isolated gate bipolar transistor sWitches. [0022] Referring next to FIGS. The sub hole by directing a ?rst shielding gas ?oW at tip portion. 5. 2 and 2A. coated edge. Next. e. to permit partial insertion of tip portion 32 into cooling hole 10. although any oxidation-resistant MCrAlY system or superalloy composition may be used to make the coating build up on the hole exit. [0025] A ?rst shielding gas How 34 is directed at tip portion [0029] It should be understood that the application is not limited to the details or methodology set forth in the folloWing description or illustrated in the ?gures. at step 112. FIG. at tip portion 32 through cooling hole 10 from bottom surface [0030] It is important to note that the construction and arrangement of the ESD system as shoWn in the various 18.g. The edge of the transition piece aft picture frame 15 of the turbine engine includes a plurality of cooling holes 20 (see FIG. The oxidized substrate material adjacent to cooling holes 10 results in cracks forming in metal sub strate 12 around cooling holes 10.g. coating facing side end of metal substrate 12 cracks are prone to form. e. At step 100. An ESD torch 21 is electrically connected to the ESD equip ment by an electrical connection (not shoWn). the method begins by providing a Workpiece having a surface including one or more cooling holes. a coating of electrode material alloy at cooling hole edge..g. variations in siZes. In one embodi ment. such as electrospark deposition. 2014 20 forming a generally rounded edge 20. At rate for the ESD torch 21 varies depending on the application step 106.g. Shielding gas is Well knoWn to those skilled in Weld process. 3. When ESD electrode 30 is energiZed an electrospark is gen erated betWeen rotary ESD electrode 30 and top surface 16 at edge 20. enhance the resistance to oxidation. and to deposit a coating 22 (see. shapes and proportions of the various elements. The electro has a rounded edge 20 With an oxidation resistant coating 22 adjacent top surface 16 from applying the ESD coating pro cess. An ESD coating is built up on the exit of cooling hole 10. and prevents oxygen and other gases from contaminating the metal deposition site. The electrospark generates suf?ciently high tem perature to cause rotary electrode 30 to melt a portion of edge exemplary embodiments is illustrative only. the ESD torch 21 and associated equipment includes a conventional ESD poWer source. [0027] In one embodiment. structures. In one embodiment tip portion 32 includes a transition portion 33 transitioning from the diameter of rotary electrode 30. Metal frame substrate 12 ESD in one the top side 16 only. e. Then. at step 114. The method proceeds to step 102 providing electro-spark deposition (ESD) equip ment. rotary electrode tapered tip portion 32 is then speed determined by the user. values of parameters. high temperature envi ronments. e. A second shielding gas How 36 may also be directed herein is for the purpose of description only and should not be regarded as limiting. At step 110 the method optionally provides a second shielding gas ?oW at tip portion from bottom surface to prevent gases from contaminating the metal deposition site. 4). to is shoWn Which has been treated by the ESD coating process described in greater detail beloW. in some embodiments the coating thickness may be as hole 10 is tailored by the tapered electrode shape. The exit geometry of cooling e. mounting arrange . It should also be understood that the phraseology and terminology employed 32 to provide an inert gas curtain around the deposition site at edge 20. In other embodiments the shape of tip portion 32 may have a geometry tailored for forming a predetermined geometry of the cooling hole exit.g. In particular. While a smaller diameter tip portion 32 is less than the diameter of cooling hole 10. the rounded hole formed thereby reduces the concentration of stress that Would other Wise be present at a sharp comer of the cooling hole 10. at the aft end. oxidation resistant material can be used as an ESD electrode [0023] Referring next to FIG. [0028] Referring next to FIG. The deposition source and a rotary electrode 30 of a conductive material.g. force is applied to rotary electrode 30 to press the elec trode tip portion 32 into contact With substrate 12 in cooling hole 10. high temperature environments such as are present in a gas turbine engine.

it is understood that the order of these steps may differ from What is depicted. 2. Wherein the step of inserting the materially departing from the novel teachings and advantages rotary electrode further comprises inserting a tip portion of of the subject matter recited in the claims. orientations.) Without 3. [0032] While the exemplary embodiments illustrated in the ?gures and described herein are presently preferred. ing the recited function and not only structural equivalents but also equivalent structures. the transition portion transitioning from a diameter of the rotary electrode slightly 9. Other substitutions. The system of claim 12. further comprising applying force to the rotary electrode to make contact With the substrate in the at least one cooling hole. and an ESD torch electrically connected With the ESD equipment. the present application is not limited to a particular embodiment. The system of claim 16. 18. 20. operating conditions and arrangement of the exemplary embodiments Without departing from the scope of the present application. elements shoWn as integrally formed may be constructed of multiple parts or elements. and a rotary electrode including a conductive material. Wherein the tip portion is at least partially insertable into the cooling hole. Wherein the rotary electrode applies a compositionally controlled protec tive coating to the substrate at an edge of the cooling hole in response to an electrospark generated by an electrical current through the rotary electrode. the rotary electrode shielded by an inert gas. further comprising forming a metallurgical bond betWeen the substrate and the alloyed may shoW a speci?c order of method steps. The method of claim 1. For example. the ?rst diameter being equal to a diameter of the rotary electrode larger than a diameter of the cooling hole. and a rotary electrode disposed Within the ESD torch. all such modi?cations are intended to be included Within the scope of the present application. the rotary electrode disposed Within the ESD torch. the ?rst shield ing gas ?oW con?gured to provide an inert gas curtain around a deposition site at an edge of the cooling hole. The order or sequence of any process or method steps may be varied or re-sequenced according to alternative embodi ments. 17. and the nature or number of discrete elements or positions may be altered or varied. Wherein the substrate com prises a combustion hardWare component. Wherein the rotary electrode comprises a partially tapered tip portion. Wherein the tip portion com prises a transition portion transitioning from a ?rst diameter to a second diameter. The system of claim 11. changes and omissions may be made in the design. 6. Wherein rotary electrode applies a compositionally controlled protective coating to the ?rst surface of the substrate. The method of claim 8. Wherein the tip portion com prises a geometry con?gured to form a predetermined geom etry of an edge of the cooling hole. it should be understood that these embodiments are offered by Way of example only. The method of claim 1. further comprising providing a second shielding gas ?oW at the rotary electrode from a bot tom surface of the substrate. 5. It is understood that all such variations are Within the one cooling hole to permit partial insertion of tip portion. generating an electrospark betWeen rotary ESD electrode edge. larger than a diameter of the at least one cooling hole to a tip portion having a diameter less than the diameter of the at least Also tWo or more steps may be performed concurrently or With partial concurrence. Wherein the predetermined geometry comprises a rounded edge. [0031] It should be noted that although the ?gures herein 7. modi?cations. 11. Accordingly. The system of claim 12. 12. use of materials. The system of claim 11. The method of claim 3. etc. In the claims. The system of claim 11. The order or sequence of any processes or method steps may be varied or re-sequenced according to alternative embodiments. 14. the ESD torch including: an inert gas source. The method of claim 1. comparison steps and decision steps. The method of claim 1. processing steps. further comprising a ?rst shielding gas ?oW directed at the tip portion. A system for depositing a coating on a cooling hole edge in a substrate. 15. scope of the application. colors. Wherein the transition portion comprises a geometry for forming the cooling hole edge. Likewise. any means-plus-function clause is intended to cover the structures described herein as perform edge by directing a ?rst shielding gas ?oW at the rotary electrode. the tip portion con ?gured to be inserted at least partially into the cooling hole. further comprising pressing the rotary electrode into contact With the substrate in the at least one cooling hole. providing a portable coating device including: electro-spark deposition (ESD) equipment. 8.Feb. further comprising providing an inert gas curtain around a deposition site at the cooling hole reversed or otherWise varied. The system of claim 14. softWare implementations could be accomplished With standard programming tech niques With rule based logic and other logic to accomplish the various connection steps. . The method of claim 9. inserting the rotary electrode at least partially into the coating on an exit edge of the at least one cooling hole. the position of elements may be the rotary electrode into the at least one cooling hole. Wherein the combustion hard Ware component is a transition piece aft picture frame of a turbine engine. 2014 US 2014/0050938 A1 ments. Accordingly. cooling hole. 13. 4. and the substrate to form a rounded edge and deposit a 16. further comprising providing a transition portion on the tip portion. but extends to various modi?cations that nevertheless fall Within the scope of the appended claims. What is claimed is: 1. Wherein the geometry is a rounded edge. the rotary electrode shielded by an inert gas. The method of claim 1. 10. the electrospark device con?gured to apply a coating of a material When inserted into a cooling hole in the substrate and placed into con tact With the metal substrate. Such variation Will depend on the softWare and hardWare systems chosen and on designer choice. comprising: an electrospark device and an electrode removably sup ported in the electrode holder. and the second diameter of the tip portion being less than the diameter of the cooling hole. The method of claim 1. and Wherein an edge of the transition piece aft coating of electrode material alloy at a cooling hole picture frame comprises a plurality of the cooling holes. A method for providing a coating comprising: providing a substrate having a ?rst surface and at least one cooling hole.

2014 US 2014/0050938 A1 19. from about 20.0 percent nickel.Feb.0 percent chro mium. from about 10. and the balance cobalt and incidental impurities. 21. The system of claim 18. up to 1. Wherein at least one of the cooling holes comprises a rounded edge With a coating adjacent top surface. 20. Wherein the electrode alloy comprises. A turbine engine component of a metal frame substrate including cooling holes.0 to about 82.0 to about 15. by Weight of alloy. 20.0 to about 28. wherein the protective coating is an oxidation resistant layer over substantially the entire surface of the edge of the cooling hole With a thickness up to 30 mils. The system of claim 18. from about 5. Wherein the rounded edge With the oxidation resis tant coating is applied using the method of claim 1.0 percent aluminum.5 percent yttrium. * * * * * .