# CHAPTER 1

:
POWER PLANT

1

Prepared by SNNZ (December 2014 Session)

Rankine Cycle
O The Rankine Cycle is similar to the Carnot

Cycle, but the Rankine Cycle is much more
practical because the working fluid typically
exists as a single phase (liquid or vapor) for
the two pressure change processes.
Compare the ideal Carnot (fig. 1) and
Rankine Cycles (fig 2) in the T-s diagrams,
noting in particular the difference in the
phase of the working fluid for the two
pressure change processes.
2

1: Carnot cycle 3 .Fig.

Fig 2: Ideal Rankine cycle 4 .

Modify the simple ideal Rankine cycle with a reheat process . O To overcome the problem: . 5 . and reheat it in between O In the first stage (the high-pressure turbine).Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle O Increasing the boiler pressure increases the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle. the steam is expanded isentropically to an intermediate pressure and sent back to the boiler where it is reheated at constant pressure. but it also increases the moisture content of the steam.Expand the steam in the turbine in two stages. usually to the inlet temperature of the first turbine stage.

O Steam then expands isentropically in the second stage (low- pressure turbine) to the condenser pressure. 6 . O The reheat process. in general. the cycle efficiency is not influenced greatly by the reheat process. does not significantly change the average temperature at which heat is added. Therefore. O The sole purpose of the reheat cycle is to reduce the moisture content of the steam at the final stages of the expansion process.

T-s Diagram of Ideal reheat Rankine Cycle 7 .

Schematic Diagram of Ideal reheat Rankine Cycle 8 .

W = WHPT + WLPT = (h3 – h4)+(h5 – h6) HPT – High Pressure Turbine LPT – Low Pressure Turbine 9 .O Thus the equations: Total heat supplied. Q = Qprimary + Qreheat = (h3 – h2)+(h5 – h4) Total work turbine.

Note: O T-s diagram for Rankine cycle could be change based on several conditions. 10 .

If the moisture content of the steam exit of the low-pressure turbine is not to exceed 7. b) The thermal efficiency Assume the steam is reheated to the inlet temperature of the high pressure turbine.Example: Steam enters the high pressure turbine at 10MPa and 600C and is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 15kPa. 11 .9%. determine: a) The pressure at which the steam should be reheated.

Solution 12 .

Schematic Diagram 14kPa 14kPa 13 .

T-s Diagram 14 14 .

737 + 0.9)% = 92.4548 kJ/kg.921(2376) = 2408.1% @ 0.294) = 7.921(7.921 s6 = sf + xsfg = 0.a) Point 6 (0.K h6 = hf + xhfg = 220 + 0.30 kJ/kg 15 .14 bar) 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑑𝑟𝑦𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 100% .%moisture content x = (100 – 7.

K (between 30bar & 40bar P (bar) s (kJ/kg.368 3682−3674 P 5 = 33.507−7.368 3674 𝑃5 −40 7.4548−7.4548 h5 40 7.507 3682 P5 = P4 7.K) h (kJ/kg) 30 7.Point 5 (T3 = T5 = 600C) s6 = s5 = 7.78bar ℎ5 = 3678 kJ/kg 16 .368 ℎ5 −3674 = = 30−40 7.4548 kJ/kg.

600 C ) s3 = 6.K h3 = 3624 kJ/kg Point 4 (33.902 kJ/kg.K s4 > sg (34 bar and 36 bar) → superheat (400 C) P (bar) h (kJ/kg) 30 3231 33.78bar) s3 = s4 = 6.b) Point 3 (10MPa.902 kJ/kg.78 h4 3214 40 17 .

78−40 30−40 = ℎ4 −3214 3231−3214 h4 = 3224.P1) = 0.57 kJ/kg Point 1(0.001(10000-14) = 9.986 kJ/kg 18 .986 kJ/kg Wpump = h2 .33.h1 h2 = 229.14 bar) h1 = hf = 220 kJ/kg Point 2 Wpump = vf (P2 .

13 kJ/kg ∑W = ∑WT – Wpump = 1669.229.14 3847.9.3224.986) + (3678 – 3224.44 100% = 43.14 kJ/kg ∑Q = Qprimary + Qreheat = (h3 – h2)+(h5 – h4) = (3624 .57) = 3847.44 kJ/kg 𝜂= ∑W 100% = ∑Q 1659.12% 19 .13 .30) = 1669.57) + (3678 .2408.986 = 1659.∑WT = WHPT + WLPT = (h3 – h4)+(h5 – h6) = (3624 .

Notes: O If given pump isentropic efficiency (p). W = (h3 – h4’)+(h5 – h6’) 20 .h1 HPT h3.h1 = h2'. Wpump = h2’ .h1 Total heat supplied. high pressure turbine isentropic efficiency (HPT) and low pressure turbine isentropic efficiency (LPT).h6 Work Pump. Q = (h3 – h2’)+(h5 – h4’) Total work turbine.h4' = h3.h4 LPT h5.h6' = h5. the equation: p h2.