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The process by which a job vacancy is identified and potential employees are notified.

The nature of the recruitment process is regulated and subject to employment law.

Main forms of recruitment through advertising in newspapers, magazines, trade papers

and internal vacancy lists.

Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to
achieve its goals
Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is
a position for every individual in an organization
Job analysis - systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge
required for performing jobs in an organization
Job description document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and
responsibilities of job
Job specification minimum qualifications to perform a particular job

The process of assessing candidates and appointing a post holder

Applicants short listed most suitable candidates selected

Selection process varies according to organisation:

Interview most common method

Psychometric testing assessing the personality of the applicants will they

fit in?

Aptitude testing assessing the skills of applicants

In-tray exercise activity based around what the applicant will be doing, e.g.
writing a letter to a disgruntled customer

Presentation looking for different skills as well as the ideas of the candidate


Firms cannot just sack workers

Wide range of procedures and steps

in dealing with workplace conflict

Informal meetings

Formal meetings

Verbal warnings

Written warnings

Grievance procedures

Working with external agencies

Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool



Human Resource Planning
Training and Development
Performance Appraisal
Compensation and Benefits
Safety and Health
Employee and Labor Relations
Legal Considerations
Job Analysis for Teams

Job Descriptions
Job Analysis
Job Specifications




Reasons for Conducting Job Analysis

1. Staffing would be haphazard if recruiter did not know qualifications needed for job
2. Training and Development if specification lists a particular knowledge, skill, or ability, and
the person filling the position does not possess all the necessary qualifications, training
and/or development is needed
3. Compensation and Benefits value of job must be known before dollar value can be placed
on it
4. Safety and Health helps identify safety and health considerations
5. Employee and Labor Relations lead to more objective human resource
6. Legal Considerations having done job analysis important for supporting legality
of employment practices
Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis

1. Work Activities work activities and processes; activity records (in film form, for example);
procedures used; personal responsibility
2. Worker-oriented activities human behaviors, such as physical actions and communicating
on the job; elemental motions for methods analysis; personal job demands, such as energy
3. Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used
4. Job-related tangibles and intangibles knowledge dealt with or applied (as in accounting);
materials processed; products made or services performed
5. Work performance error analysis; work standards; work measurements, such as time taken
for a task
6. Job context work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives; physical working
conditions; organizational and social contexts
7. Personal requirements for the job personal attributes such as personality and interests;
education and training required; work experience
Conducting Job Analysis

The people who participate in job analysis should include, at a minimum:

The employee

The employees immediate supervisor

Other key stakeholders in the organization

Job Description
1. Job Identification job title, department, reporting relationship, and job
number or code
2. Job Analysis Date aids in identifying job changes that would make description
3. Job Summary concise overview of job
4. Duties Performed major duties
5. Job Specification minimum qualifications person should possess to perform a
particular job
6. Expanded Job Description last duty shown, And any other duty that may be
assigned, is becoming THE job description
Job Analysis Methods

Employee recording
Combination of methods
Planning to have the right

7. people on the Bus at the

8. right time.
Strategic Planning & Human Resources Planning
Strategic Planning
The process by which top management determines overall organizational purposes
and objectives and how they are to be achieved.
Succession Planning
Planning to have the right people on the Bus at the right time.
Human Resource Planning
The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the
required number of employees, with the required skills, are available when they are
Strategic Planning

Human Resource Planning

Forecasting Human ResourceComparing

Requirements and Availability
Forecasting Human Resource Availability

Demand = Supply

Surplus of Workers

Shortage of Workers

No ActionHiring, Reduced Hours, Early Retirement, Layoff, Downsizing
Determining Pay Rates
1. Employee compensation
All forms of pay or rewards going to employees and arising from their
2. Direct financial payments
Pay in the form of wages, salaries, incentives, commissions, and bonuses.
3. Indirect financial payments

Pay in the form of financial benefits such as insurance.

Compensation Policy Issues
Pay for performance
Pay for seniority
The pay cycle
Salary increases and promotions
Overtime and shift pay
Probationary pay
Paid and unpaid leaves
Paid holidays
Salary compression
Geographic costs of living differences
Salary compression
A salary inequity problem, generally caused by inflation, resulting in longer-term
employees in a position earning less than workers entering the firm today.
Equity and Its Impact on Pay Rates
The equity theory of motivation

States that if a person perceives an inequity, the person will be motivated

to reduce or eliminate the tension and perceived inequity

Forms of Equity
External equity

How a jobs pay rate in one company compares to the jobs pay rate in
other companies.

Internal equity

How fair the jobs pay rate is, when compared to other jobs within the
same company

Individual equity

How fair an individuals pay as compared with what his or her co-workers
are earning for the same or very similar jobs within the company.

Procedural equity

The perceived fairness of the process and procedures to make decisions

regarding the allocation of pay.

Methods to Address Equity Issues

Salary surveys

To monitor and maintain external equity.

Job analysis and job evaluation

To maintain internal equity,

Performance appraisal and incentive pay

To maintain individual equity.

Communications, grievance mechanisms, and employees participation

To help ensure that employees view the pay process as transparent and

Rewards Systems
The system of pay and benefits used by the firm to reward workers
Money not the only method
Fringe benefits
Flexibility at work
Holidays, etc.
Measuring performance:
How to value the workers contribution
Difficulty in measuring some types of output especially in the service

Meant to be non-judgmental

Involves the worker and a nominated appraiser

Agreeing strengths, weaknesses and ways forward

to help both employee and organisation