Contents

BITUMEN TESTS..................................................................................................... 1
Abstract................................................................................................................. 1
Introduction........................................................................................................... 2
Softening point of bitumen ( Ring and Ball ) BS 2000; Part 58:2000......................3
Objective............................................................................................................ 3
Apparatus:.......................................................................................................... 3
Procedure........................................................................................................... 4
Results and calculation....................................................................................... 4
Discussions......................................................................................................... 4
Determination of needle penetration of bituminous material................................5
Objective............................................................................................................ 5
Apparatus........................................................................................................... 5
Procedure........................................................................................................... 5
Results and calculation....................................................................................... 6
Discussion.......................................................................................................... 6
Determination of viscosity of cutback bitumen BS2000; Part 72:1993..................7
Objective............................................................................................................ 7
Apparatus........................................................................................................... 7
Procedure........................................................................................................... 8
Results and calculations..................................................................................... 8
Discussion.......................................................................................................... 8
TEST PART 1B: CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST (CBR).......................................9
[BS 1377: Part 4: 1990]......................................................................................... 9
Introduction........................................................................................................... 9
Objective............................................................................................................ 9
Apparatus........................................................................................................... 9
Procedure........................................................................................................... 9
Results and calculation..................................................................................... 10
Discussion........................................................................................................ 13
CONCLUSION.................................................................................................... 13
References........................................................................................................... 14

1

As consistency in thickness is a key property in bituminous pavement improvement.BITUMEN TESTS Abstract Bitumen is a vital material for road top improvement. and consistency test can find the way of the bituminous material. PI was figured. the test diagram shows how bitumen carries on in various temperatures. The infiltration point and the assessment is in this way considered from the ordinary regard that was gotten with reference to the illustration used as a part of the ring and ball test. examination is made on the results and the passage record. Doing collection of test. There is every need to perceive its qualities to have profitable usage of this material. softening point test. for instance. 2 . The needle penetration test is the utilization of a standard weight of 100g to a standard time of 5sec to a standard temperature of 25oC of a needle entering a bituminous material. needle passageway test.

and temperature. The experiment also covers the softening point of bitumen using the ring and ball. 3 . Softening point. Bitumen is critical part of numerous development locales like streets. waterproofing items. sticky item utilized for clearing streets. Numerous tests are done to guarantee the nature of bitumen. penetration point and viscosity is tested and reported. Penetration is best defined as the consistency of bituminous materials expressed as the distance in tenths of a millimetre that a standard needle vertically penetrates a sample of the material under known conditions of loading. There are numerous tests which are led to check the nature of bitumen.Introduction Bitumen is a blend of natural fluids that is dark. The penetration test is one of the best known of all empirical tests and is widely used for the specification and for the site testing of road bitumen. exceedingly gooey. time. The level of smoothness at the application temperature incredibly impacts the capacity of bituminous material to spread. and the viscosity is the reverse of ease flow. roadways.

50g Square shouldered brass ring Ball guide Ring holder Bottom plate Water bath with stirrer 4 . This was achieved by placing a 9.50mm diameter ball on a sample of bitumen held in a brass ring.Softening point of bitumen ( Ring and Ball ) BS 2000.50mm diameter. Part 58:2000 Objective The purpose of this experiment was to determine the softening point of bitumen. Apparatus:       Steel balls 9. weighing about 3.

3oC in the nearest 0.Procedure  With the stirrer operating.3oC. rather. = (55. Results and calculation Table of reading Temperature °C Ball 1 55.25 Mean = (T1 + T2) / 2.25OC ≈ 55.5 + 55. A high softening point guarantees that they won't stream in administration. the softening point of this bitumen is the calculated average point of 55. heat was applied so that the temperature of the bath liquid arose at 50C + per minute.  The instant temperature when the bitumen surrounding the ball reached the base plate was recorded.0 Mean 55. The softening point esteem has specific centrality for materials which are to be utilized as thick movies.2oC Discussions It is additionally a circuitous measure of thickness or. Therefore.0) / 2 = 55. the temperature at which a given consistency is clear. like roofing materials. 5 .5 Ball 2 55.

The transfer dish was then put on the stand of the penetrometer. penetration needle holder and weight Timing device Specimen tins Water bath and transfer dish Procedure  The samples were heated in the constant temperature bath for about 1-2hours. Apparatus     Penetration apparatus: stand. 6 .  The needle was carefully lowered until its tip made a contact with its image that was reflected from the specimen surface. To identify which of these three samples correlates to the bitumen used in the ring and ball test and thus determine the Penetration Index of the bitumen.  With cleaned needle prior to each test.  The zero position of the needle was noted and the needle holder released for the required time and the penetration in tenth of a millimetre was determined. the specimen was placed in a transfer dish and covered with water from the temperature bath.Determination of needle penetration of bituminous material Objective To determine the penetration value of three given sample of penetration grade bitumen.

and C is 68 in grade 60/70.33 ≈ 68mm in nearest whole number Discussion The penetration of each sample is the calculated average.33 ≈ 68mm in nearest whole number Average penetration. B = (68+68+68)/3 = 68.Results and calculation Penetration table Sample 1 2 3 Average Grade A 69 68 68 68.00 ≈ 68mm in nearest whole number Average penetration. 7 . the penetration of all samples A. C = (69+69+67)/3 = 68. B. Therefore. A = (69+68+68)/3 = 68.33 60/70 B 68 68 68 68.00 60/70 C 69 69 67 68.33 60/70 Average penetration.

Objective To determine the viscosity of a given sample of cutback bitumen Apparatus      Viscometer cup and holder Constant temperature bath Thermometer Receiver Timing device 8 . Part 72:1993.Determination of viscosity of cutback bitumen BS2000.

9 .5 + 355 + 355)/3 = 355.33 355.0 355.  20ml of light mineral oil was placed in the receiver.0 Average Viscosity (cP) 753333.Procedure  The filled viscometer cup was placed in the constant temperature bath for 1.75 ± 0.25h with the bath maintained at 40 ± 1oC.33cP and 355.17cP correspondingly. The clock was started when the oil reached the 25ml mark and stopped when the oil reached the 75ml mark. Results and calculations Temperature°C 60 170 Viscosity 754000 752000 754000 355.17cP Discussion The average viscosity at 60oC and 170oC is 753333. the bulb valve was lifted and suspended on the valve support.33cP Average viscosity at 170oC = (355. This implies the bitumen is a viscoelastic material. It was observed from this practical that low temperature brings about high viscosity and high temperature brings low viscosity.5 355.17 Average viscosity at 60oC = (754000 + 752000 + 754000)/3 = 753333.  With the receiver in position under the cup.

5 kg Perforated plate Procedure A sample of 89. at varying moisture contents. This is on the grounds that we have to evacuate the polluting influences which can bring about the diverse in quality of soil.TEST PART 1B: CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST (CBR) [BS 1377: Part 4: 1990] Introduction The investigation that has been done is to decide California Bearing Ratio of subgrade soil and assess the quality for outline of asphalt thickness.4kg was prepared and material from this sample was compacted in a standard CBR mould. at the moisture content ranging from 0. 30 and 65 number of blows for 5 layers. The safety measure that was set up while doing this trial was to clean the openings of the base. Objective To illustrate the laboratory method by which the CBR of a soil is obtained by the preparation and testing of a given sample of soil. Apparatus       CBR test ring Loading frame Oven Mould with collar and base plate Hammer 4.62mm. the plunger was then made to penetrate the specimen at a uniform rate of 1mm per minute and the readings were taken and recorded.635mm intervals to 7. mould and the punctured circle altogether. 10 . By compaction method at 10. Another precautionary measure is adjusting the additional charge weight to the plunger so that the plunger can enter unreservedly into the sample soil.

6 12.14  m2  m3   m3  m1 w % Moisture content Average moisture content % 12.14 12.2 Mass of dry soil (m3-m1) g 34.4 43.2 Mass container (m1) g 4.2 4. D Mass of wet soil + container (m2) g 43.14 12.6 34.2 39.Results and calculation Container No.2 4.6 4.14 12.6 Mass of moisture (m2-m3) g 4.6 34.2 4.6 4.14 11 .4 Mass of dry soil + container (m3) g 39.2 39.6 4.2 39.6 34.4 43.4 43.

29 0.3 0.11 dry unit density 12 .09 2.2 24.8 40.8 44.97 1.01 2.27 0.32 96 15/12/2015 8:00 0.00 0.0 2.of Blows 10 30 65 Mould No.07 2. G K 2 Mould+Sample A 11160 11351 10950 Wt. of Mould C 2124 2117 2121 Time (h ) Date & Time Swell (mm) 0 11/12/2015 8:00 0.00 24 12/12/2015 8:00 0.27 48 13/12/2015 8:00 0.37 Correction Loads Test No 1 Penetration 2 3 5.5 5.042 2.3 44.24 0.0 2.95 1.35 0.No.958 2.5 5.20 0.5 136 0 2040 1360 2040 1360 2040 Corr.Load 2.195 2. of Mould B 6497 6504 5941 Vol.8 21.25 0.3 0.8 24.362 DD 1.00 0.106 100xWD/ 50 45 40 35 30 CBR % 25 20 CBR Curve 15 10 5 0 1.30 0.99 2.0 Std.27 0.7 CBR % 20.03 2.290 2.3 Swell Wet Unit Weight B)/C Dry Unit Weight (100+MC) % (AWD 2.30 72 14/12/2015 8:00 0.7 0.05 2. Load 280 445 548 913 289 504 21.6 Max % 21.

mm 1 Std.91 2.27 115 0.040 6.57 146 1.04 393 4.53 843 4.56 445 2. Load Kg 2 3 10 Blows 30 Blows Readin g Load Kg Readin g Load Kg 65 Readin g Blows Load Kg 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.62 2.42 331 6.585 8.35 7.27 316 1.95 585 2.Test No. Penet .27 1.27 416 8.91 280 5.76 465 4.55 4.85 374 7.56 445 9.96 185 3.54 5.24 213 2.47 236 4.57 747 4.635 1.59 548 3 289 3.08 1.16 13 .89 10.86 74 1.81 3.72 1063 5.46 335 3.31 520 10.15 504 5.26 114 1.23 913 5.71 661 3.360 2.18 3.

Load vs Penetration 1200 1000 800 Load (Kg) 600 400 200 0 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 Penetration (mm) 14 .

of compacted soil tests. it was seen that in extending invasions of the sample soil. sub-base.B. the compaction will lessen. CONCLUSION With everything taken into account. 15 . Accordingly.Discussion This test is used to review the nature of a sub-level. The results procured by these tests are used with the accurate twists to choose the thickness of bitumen and its portion layers. It is key for layout of pavement thickness and to evade the roads from sedimentation of soil. cutting down the penetration will offset the soil specimen for the building of roadways. and base thickness layer of a pavement improvement. This test covers the lab framework for the determination of C.R. It was similarly seen that there is assortment in the nature of the sample as the blows are variable.

Vermont. McNally. Scott (o.References Ali. Tony (2011): Polymer modified bitumen. Reston. Imad L. Vic. Al-Qadi. M. Va. J. Liaqat (2009): Recent advancement in soil behavior. 16 .: Australian Road Research Board.: American Society of Civil Engineers. M. E. L. o. Oxford: Woodhead Pub. in situ test methods. Grimmer. Columbus: Department of Highways. Metcalf. B (1976): Pavement materials . M (1967): A study of ductility characteristics of bituminous material. Murrell. F.): Airfield and Highway Pavement 2013. Williams.V. McAdams. J.the use of the California Bearing Ratio test in controlling quality. and tunneling. pile foundations.