# Heat Pump

Experiment
Theory of Machine and Thermodynamics –
ENGD2005
Ibrahmim Abdalla
USAMA JAVED
P12202306

......................................................................................................... 11 1 ........................ 2 2....................................................................................................................... 4 2............................................................................................................................ 7 6 Calculations........................................................................................................9 7 Discussion.. 8 6................... 7 Readings to be taken:....................................................................................................................4 2............ 2 2 Background.................2 How does it work........7 5 Results.................................................................................................................................................................. 10 7..................................... 10 9 References.......................52 Advantages of ASHP.............................................................5 Air Source Heat pumps (ASHP)......53 Disadvantages of ASHP...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 What is a heat pump?................................................................................... 6 4 Procedure....USAMA JAVED P12202306 Contents 1 Objectives..............4 3 Apparatus.................2 2.................................................................................10 8 Conclusion.....2 Graph calculations...........................................................2 Implementation.............3 2.................

There isn’t many differences between this two processes.USAMA JAVED P12202306 1 Objectives To determine the actual and ideal Coefficient of Performance (COP) for a heat pump. A refrigerator uses a heat pump to move heat out of a fridge. Heat pumps are used in many variety of places however the most common operating modes are heating and refrigerating.1 What is a heat pump? A heat pump is a machine working on the Carnot cycle which transfers heat from a heat source to a heat sink using a vapour compression cycle. whose temperature will be warmer than air in winter and cooler than air in summer. They are more efficient than air source heat pumps.1) (fig.1) (fig.2) 2. especially in 2 . (fig. 2 Background 2.2 How does it work A Heat pump allows the conversion of liquid temperature whether this be from cold to hot or hot to cold. The heat pump uses work to move heat from one place to another (1. An industrial heat pump can be used to move heat from an external source into a building. a basic heat pump cycle for a refrigerator is reversed and the heat is converted from hot to cold. 2015) 2. A heat pump can concentrate such "low grade heat" into higher grade heat that can be used for space heating and domestic hot water. a ground source of a water source.3 Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) A ground source heat pump extracts heat from the ground. To investigate the variation in COP for different refrigeration flow rates To undergo an experiment in the lab to calculate the result of COP and compare to the actual ideal COP. Heat may be obtained from an air source.

but good design and planning will yield substantial benefits over the life of the system. 2. To get the potential benefit of a well designed system it is required to heir an expert installer. Heat pumps save carbon emissions since unlike burning oil.31 Advantages of GSHP Heat pumps are much cheaper to run than direct electric heating. Heat pumps save space since there are no fuel storage required. one for the refrigeration effect and one for the heat pump. this connection to the ground is what enables GSHP to perform much more efficiently than ASHP. However. the local geology and the heating and cooling requirements of the building.4 Coefficient of Performance (CoP) The Coefficient of Performance is found by dividing the useful heat output by the electrical energy input. Problems arise with the ground source heat pumps if the installation is poorly designed or not matched to the heating needs of the building. (2.USAMA JAVED P12202306 the coldest weather. and also because heat pumps can be fully automated they demand much less work than biomass boilers.32 Disadvantages of GSHP GSHPs are more expensive to install than air source heat pumps because of all the need to install a ground heat exchanger. A heat pump that transfers 4 kilowatts of heat from the ground for 1 kilowatt of electricity has a CoP of 4. COPhp= Qout Q COP ref = ¿ W¿ W¿ It follows that for the same system: COPhp=COP ref + 1 COPhp= h2 −h3 h −h COPref = 1 3 h2 −h1 h2−h1 3 . There is no combustion involved and no emission of potentially dangerous gases. They generate little noise and last many years with minimal servicing. This increases the cost of the installation. invisible heating systems with low environmental impact. They are cheaper to run than oil boilers and can be cheaper than running gas boilers. 2015) 2. The design and installation of an effective ground source system depends on a thorough understanding of the movement of heat in the ground. There are two coefficient of performance for such a cycle. 2. a heat pump process no carbon emissions on site. They require less maintenance than combustion based heating systems. silent. The planning authorities like ground source systems as they are safe. gas or biomass. particularly when the external air temperature is low in winter .

which generates noise. 2. but merely separating a medium temperature from the external air into warmth which can be used for heating and vice versa for cooling. 2015). 2015) 2. which was a huge environmental crisis which lead to CFCs being banned in international conventions (4. (3. It is therefore less efficient in winter and suffers from a lower coefficient of performance. The heat pump is not creating this energy. In spite of the first law of thermodynamics. The first priority should be to ensure that the building is well insulated. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used to be commonly used but due to their high ozone damaging potential and also due to how it contributes to ozone depletion the manufacture of such compounds has been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. It needs to spend energy on a fan system to blow air across its heat exchangers. All new buildings should have high insulation built in and be well constructed to minimise heat loss through air leaks.53 Disadvantages of ASHP An ASHP has no access to an interseasonal heat store in the ground therefore it cannot take advantage from the fact that higher temperatures are available from the ground in winter than from ambient air. The recent common refrigerants that is used in 4 . an ASHP in a good installation can yield up to three units of heat for each unit of electricity consumed.USAMA JAVED P12202306 Amount of heat measured: Q=m cw ×Cpcw × ΔT Efficiency: Total output ×100 Total input 2. 2.51 CoP of ASHP The key to the efficiency of an ASHP is the Coefficient of Performance. 2. Ozone depletion can increase the damaging health effects of solar radiation.52 Advantages of ASHP The main reason for using an ASHP rather than a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) is that they are cheaper and quicker to install.5 Air Source Heat pumps (ASHP) An Air Source Heat pump can be an efficient means of saving money and carbon emissions if carefully designed for the space heating of an appropriately designed building. It also needs to incorporate a defrost cycle to prevent ice forming on its heat exchangers in cold conditions. because you save the cost of installing a "ground loop heat exchanger" in the ground.6 Refrigerants Refrigerants is usually a fluid substance commonly used in refrigeration. During most cycles it converts from gas to liquid and then inverts back to its original state.

3 Apparatus 1. and non-halogenated hydrocarbons such as propane. sulphur dioxide.USAMA JAVED P12202306 most applications are ammonia. Pressure Gauge 5 .

Thermometer 3. Mains supply 11. Water flow meter 5. Refrigerant flow meter 10. Stop watch 6 . Pressure reducing valve 6.USAMA JAVED P12202306 2. Air cooling fan 4. Condensing tank 8. Watt hour meter 12. Evaporating tank 9. Compressor 7.

to both condenser (red cylinder) and evaporator (blue cylinder)   Switch on compressor   Refrigerant expansion valve is adjusted to provide a condenser pressure of 1000KN/m2 approx. Evaporator outlet temperature v.13 seconds Condenser pressure: 9 bar Evaporator pressure: 1 bar Evaporator inlet temperature: 16°C Evaporator outlet temperature: 14°C Condenser inlet temperature: 71°C Condenser outlet temperature: 28°C Cooling water inlet temperature: 24°C Cooling water outlet temperature: 36°C  Cooling mass flow rate:  Specific heat of water: 4..18 kJ/kgK 48 kg /s 3600 7 . when the compressor is operating. Evaporator pressure iii. Cooling water inlet temperature ii. Cooling mass flow rate 5 Results          Compressor power: time for 1 revolution: 53. Evaporator inlet temperature iv. At each setting the following readings should be taken:   Compressor Power: (time for one revolution should be measured)   Refrigerant Properties: i. Condenser outlet temperature   Cooling water properties: i.USAMA JAVED P12202306 4 Procedure   Adjust cooling water flow rate 30kg/hr. Cooling water outlet temperature iii.   Wait 30 minutes before taking readings for equilibrium settings to be reached   Repeat for two further test settings by adjusting the refrigerant expansion valve to give condenser pressures of 640kN/m 2 and 590kN/m2 which should give zero and vacuum gauge pressures respectively at the evaporator. Condenser pressure ii. approx. Condenser inlet temperature vi.

USAMA JAVED P12202306 6 Calculations 6.67 21.1 Experimental calculation Coefficient of performance C . O.60 E¿ = =0.O . P h p −1=0. O. P= = = =1.13 output Q 0.60 s 166.407 C . Pref =C .65 input E¿ 0.407 kw Therefore: 53. Ph p= output input Output( the amount of heat into the condenser) Q=m ×Cp × Δ T Q= [ ][ Δ T =36−24=12° C ] 48 kg kJ × 4.19 × ⌈ 12 K ⌉=0.6704 KW 3600 s kgK Input: (Electricity into the cycle) 2 166 rev=1 kw h 3 Rev 3600 1 =1 × =21.65 8 .6704 C . O.

2 kw Coefficient of performance for an ideal: COPhp= h2 −h3 h2 −h1 COPref = h1 −h3 h2 −h1 h2 −h3 170 = =5.USAMA JAVED P12202306 6.18 ( 400−230 )=710.18 ( 400−370 ) =125.18 ( 370−230 )=585.2 Graph calculations h =370 kj/kg 1 h2=400 kj/kg h3= h4 = 230 kj/kg System performance: Qout −Q¿ =W ¿ Compressor: W ¿ =m(h2−h1) W ¿ =4.4 kw Condenser: Q out =m(h2−h3 ) Qout =4.67 h2 −h1 30 h −h 140 COPref = 1 3 = =4.6 kw Expansion: h3=h4 230=230 Evaporator: Q ¿ =m(h1−h 4 ) Q ¿ =4.67 h2 −h1 30 COPhp= 9 .

1 Experimental errors A major experimental errors includes human error. This may have been done too early or too late and each fraction of a second is vital to obtaining accurate results.2 Implementation     Before starting the experiment make sure everything is adjusted and calibrated efficiently. also the results should be recorded by a minimum of 3 people so that we can take an average of the 3 for a more reliable result. have 3 people time it and take an average of their readings for more reliable results. In this case this would be when taking readings of the temperatures on the thermometer as the eye level has to be perfect to get an accurate reading. On the graph the COP is 5. Before starting the experiment make sure thermal equilibrium is reached.   We can deduce that the Carnot cycle is possible in this experiment. which occurs when taking measurements with the human eye.   As the COP increases the cost also decreases.65. The thermometer readings should be taken from eye level to avoid parallax errors. Another possible source of error is the calibration of the pressure and temperatures on the heat pump. 10 . 7. 8 Conclusion  The experiment gave us a deep understanding of how a heat pump works. there is a fairly big difference between the two results.67 whereas on the experiment the COP is 1.   The calculation of the two COP values are not the same due to experimental errors   The experimental errors can be minimised by calibrating the heat pump before proceeding with the experiment. Another possible error that has occurred is parallax error. 7. which in this case was the stopping of the stop watch. There are many errors that could have caused the difference between the two results. Instead of having one person use a stop watch to time the experiment.USAMA JAVED P12202306 7 Discussion Looking between the two COPs results between the experiment and the plotted graph.