Commercial

Kitchen
Ventilation

An Energy
Efficiency
Perspective!

Winnipeg Hospital (My first CKV project)

Design Approach:
• Reduced exhaust and makeup air
(from 34,000 cfm to 12,000 cfm)
• Side panels and glass back wall for single
island canopy
• Filter blanks in sections not over appliances
• Air-to-air heat recovery to preheat makeup
• Two-speed system (3000 ft/min duct velocity
on high speed).

000 cfm Plus: 2-speed control and exhaust air heat recovery .000 cfm 11.The Results 21 ft.000 cfm 21. double island canopy hood over cooking line • Concept Design • Preliminary Design • Final Design 34. single island canopy hood over baking line 27 ft.

Glass back wall .

… and Cost for Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Systems .

Outdoor Air Load Calculator and Fan Energy Estimator Free Download: www.com/AECHome/ckv/oac/default.archenergy.htm .

000 350.000 200.000 150.Climate Effect 400.000 100.000 Miami Atlanta Phoenix New York Fairbanks Chicago San Francisco 0 Los Angeles Heating/Cooling Load (kBtu/yr) 450.000 50.000 .000 300.000 1000 cfm Outdoor Air 24 hour per day Heated to 65F Cooled to 76F 70% RH Cooling Heating 250.

Hotel in San Francisco …50.000 cfm exhaust from kitchens! .

Makeup air temperature 70ºF Outdoor air temperature = 50ºF .

Simultaneous cooling! .

000 per year saving in gas alone! .Turned down all the duct stats! $50.

Toronto Restaurant .

Canopy Hood Over Gas Cookline .

000 Btu/h Makeup Air Heater .200.

MUA Discharge Temperature 75°F .

24-hour operation.000 13ºC 21ºC 0 45 50 55 60 MUA Temperature (deg F) 65 70 .000 100.000 50.Heating Load vs. MUA Temperature 1000 cfm.000 50% reduction 150.000 200. 365 days per year in Toronto Annual MUA Heating (kBtu/yr) 250.

Example: Properly Set Duct Stat 13°C .

365 days per year in Winnipeg 180000 Annual Heating Load (kBtu) 160000 140000 50% reduction 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Makeup Air Supply Temperature (◦F) 65 70 75 . MUA Temperature 1000 cfm. 12-hour operation.Heating Load vs.

1.3 If a kitchen/dining facility has a total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate greater than 5.7. and net exhaust flow rate.3 values for the appliance duty ratings in that section of the hood.1.000 cfm then each hood shall have an exhaust rate that complies with Table 6. Available transfer air is that portion of outdoor ventilation air not required to satisfy other exhaust needs.1. .7.5.2 Conditioned supply air delivered to any space with a kitchen hood shall not exceed the greater of: a) the supply flow required to meet the space heating or cooling load b) the hood exhaust flow minus the available transfer air from adjacent spaces.ASHRAE Standard 90. CFM per Linear Foot of Hood Length Type of Hood Light Duty Medium Duty Heavy Duty Extra Heavy Duct Equipment Equipment Equipment Equipment. appliance duty. 6.1 Commercial Kitchen Exhaust Systems 6. Wall-mounted canopy 140 210 280 385 Single island 280 350 420 490 Double island (per side) 175 210 280 385 Eyebrow 175 175 Not allowed Not allowed Backshelf/Pass-over 210 210 280 Not allowed Exception: a) At least 75% of all the replacement air is transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted.5. then the maximum allowable flow rate in each section of the hood shall not exceed the Table 6.5.1. such as restrooms.7.5.7.5.3.1 Replacement air introduced directly into the hood cavity of kitchen exhaust hoods shall not exceed 10% of the hood exhaust airflow rate.7.1 6.7.3: Maximum Net Exhaust Flow Rate.7. and not required to maintain pressurization of adjacent spaces 6. If a single hood is installed over appliances with different duty ratings. Refer to ASHRAE Standard 154 for definitions of hood type.1.5.5.1. Table 6.

Hoods are not created equal… .

Laboratory Comparison of Wall-Canopy Hood Performance using ASTM F1704 .Standard Test Method for Capture and Containment of Commercial Kitchen Exhaust Ventilation Systems .

The setup… .

The Standard Challenge! .

Heavy-duty appliance challenge .

x 50-in. 50-in. 45° . Side Panel 50in. 4in.With and without partial side panels 50in.

Mixed-duty appliance challenge …includes walk-by test .

Broiler Combo Line w/ SP.1 3000 Manufacturer 4 Manufacturer 5 Manufacturer 6 2000 Manufacturer 7 Manufacturer 8 1000 0 Combo Line .6000 Capture and Containment Exhaust Airflow Rate [cfm] 5000 Generic Hood Min Overhang Generic Hood Max Overhang Manufacturer 1 4000 Manufacturer 2 Manufacturer 3 ASHRAE Standard 90.Broiler .

Griddle Combo Line w/ SP.Griddle .1 2000 Manufacturer 5 Manufacturer 6 Manufacturer 7 Manufacturer 8 1000 0 Combo Line .6000 Capture and Containment Exhaust Airflow Rate [cfm] 5000 Generic Hood Min Overhang Generic Hood Max Overhang Manufacturer 1 4000 Manufacturer 2 Manufacturer 3 Manufacturer 4 3000 ASHRAE Standard 90.

Walk by test – C&C failure .

1 Manufacturer 4 Manufacturer 5 Manufacturer 6 Manufacturer 7 2000 Manufacturer 8 1000 0 Combo Line w/ Side Panels & Walk By .Broiler .6000 Capture and Containment Exhaust Airflow Rate [cfm] 5000 Generic Hood Max Overhang Manufacturer 1 Manufacturer 2 4000 Manufacturer 3 3000 ASHRAE Standard 90.

Exhaust Air Heat Recovery in Kitchen Ventilation? .

Air-to-Air Heat Recovery Unit .

1 Compliance? .What Are the Challenges for Using Air-to-Air Energy Recovery for Commercial Kitchen Ventilation (CKV) and 90.

c) Listed energy recovery devices with a sensible heat recovery effectiveness of not less than 40% on at least 50% of the total exhaust airflow. including controls necessary to modulate airflow in response to appliance operation and to maintain full capture and containment of smoke.2010 If a kitchen/dining facility has a total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate greater than 5. Such systems shall be capable of at least 50% reduction in exhaust and replacement air system airflow rates. b) Demand ventilation system(s) on at least 75% of the exhaust air. .000 cfm then it shall have one of the following: a) At least 50% of all replacement air is transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted. effluent and combustion products during cooking and idle.Standard 90.1 .

Exhaust Air Heat Recovery Can It Be Applied to Commercial Kitchen Ventilation? .

Air-to-Air Heat Recovery Unit .

West Point .

Air-to-Air HX – Toronto Restaurant .

000 $5.30/therm) Oct .000 $8.600 per year! (at $1.000 $1.Gas Cost Baseline Actual $9.000 $3.000 $7.000 $2.000 $4.000 $6.000 $0 Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep 36% reduction = $22.

Exhuast Air Flue Gas Heat Recovery Hot Water Out Cold Water In Flue Gases Cooking Effluent Cool Flue Fryer Flue Heat Exchanger Fryer Energy Input .

DCV. Heat Recovery & Strategic Introduction of MUA could potentially… .

Applying Demand Ventilation Control to Commercial Kitchen Ventilation .

.10 Research by U of Minn).1500 ft/min minimum now 500 ft/min (thanks to ASHRAE TC 5.

Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) Strategies • • • • controlled on a time-of-day basis (EMS?) proportional to appliance energy use controlled by exhaust temperature controlled by sensing smoke or steam produced by cooking process • controlled by measuring cooking surface temperature or activity • controlled by direct feedback from cooking equipment (NAFEM Online Protocol) • controlled by combinations of the above .

Appliance Control
No Load - Low Speed!

2-Speed Fan Interlocked
with
2-Sided Griddle

Demand Ventilation Control Technologies
ABD

Duct Temperature Sensor & Smoke Detection
Duct Temperature Sensor &
Infrared Sensors

Duct Temperature Sensor

Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
• Essentially electronic motor
starters that replace
magnetic starters

• Add flexibility to direct drive
fans
• Separate Value Proposition
from Demand Ventilation
Controls (i.e., variable
speed)

Corporate Cafeteria .

5 2.0 0.5 Time of Day AM 0 :0 12 10 :0 0 PM PM 8: 00 PM 6: 00 PM 4: 00 PM 00 2: 0 :0 12 10 :0 0 PM AM AM 8: 00 AM 6: 00 AM 00 4: 00 2: 12 :0 0 AM AM 0.5 Average Energy Rate (kW) 3.0 .Exhaust System (w/o EMS) Exhaust Fan 1 (4000 CFM) Exhaust Fan 2 (4500 CFM) Make-Up Air 3.0 1.0 2.5 1.

0 2.5 Time of Day AM 0 :0 12 10 :0 0 PM PM 8: 00 PM 6: 00 PM 4: 00 PM 2: 0 :0 12 00 PM AM 10 :0 0 AM 8: 00 AM 6: 00 AM 4: 00 AM 00 2: 12 :0 0 AM 0.5 2.0 1.0 0.5 1.Exhaust System (with EMS) Exhaust Fan 1 (4000 CFM) Exhaust Fan 2 (4500 CFM) Make-Up Fan 3.0 .5 Average Energy Rate (kW) 3.

5 0.Exhaust System with DCV KEF-1 (4000 CFM) Orginal KEF-1 KEF-2 (4500 CFM) Orginal KEF-2 Make-Up Air Orginal Make-Up Air 3.5 Average Energy Rate (kW) 3.0 1.0 1 00 : 2 AM 00 : 2 AM 00 : 4 AM 00 : 6 AM 00 : 8 AM 1 00 : 0 AM 1 00 : 2 PM 00 : 2 PM Time of Date 00 : 4 PM 00 : 6 PM 00 : 8 PM 1 00 : 0 PM 1 00 : 2 AM .0 2.5 2.0 0.5 1.

Total Daily Fan Energy 200 Daily Fan Energy (kWh/day) 180 $3250 @ savings @ $0.15/kWh 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Original System Original System with EMS Retrofit System with Controller .10/kWh $4875/yr $0.

Casual Dining Restaurant .

6 0.3 kW 0.8 1.2 0.0 1.4 2.6 1.2 1.9 kW 2 4 6 8 EF #2 Left 10 12 14 EF #1 Right 16 18 20 22 .kW Exhaust Fans without DVC 2.8 0.2 2.4 1.0 0 22 kWh/Day 15 kWh/Day 1.4 0.0 0.

5 0.5 5 kWh/Day 4.0 80 kW 3.2 kW (without DVC) 2.Exhaust Fans with DVC 5.0 0 0 2 4 EF #2 Left 6 8 10 EF #1 Right 12 14 16 EF-2 VSD 18 20 22 EF-1 VSD VSD (%) 3.5 .5 0.5 2.7 kW (with DVC) 1.0 60 2.0 100 7 kWh/Day 4.0 40 1.0 20 0.

Large Hotel Kitchen .

The Kitchen: 24/7 .

Front Line .

Back Line .

3kW kW W/O Melink DVC 14 14kW kW With and Without Melink Exhaust and Makeup Fan Power 16 Without DVC 14 12 Avg.3 5.7 kW 8 6 4 2 Time 11:45 PM 10:30 PM 9:15 PM 8:00 PM 6:45 PM 5:30 PM 4:15 PM 3:00 PM 1:45 PM 12:30 PM 11:15 AM 10:00 AM 8:45 AM 7:30 AM 6:15 AM 5:00 AM 3:45 AM 2:30 AM 1:15 AM 0 12:00 AM kW 10 . Reduction = 8.With Melink DVC 5.

Super Market .

Combined Exhaust Fans 7 Without DVC Power (kW) 6 5 Reduction = 5.1 KW 4 3 2 With DVC 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time 14 16 18 20 22 .

College Dining .

Typical Day Power Profile 5 Average w/o DVC Fan Power Reduction = 2.Rear Exhaust Fan .2 kW Power (kW) 4 3 Average w/ DVC 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Time .

California DCV Case Studies .

Technical Feature: ASHRAE Journal February 2013 .

.CAUTION: The CKV system must work effectively as single-speed system before DCV is applied.

ASHRAE Standard 90. Such systems shall be capable of at least 50% reduction in exhaust and replacement air system airflow rates. . effluent and combustion products during cooking and idle.000 cfm then it shall have one of the following: a) At least 50% of all replacement air is transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted. including controls necessary to modulate airflow in response to appliance operation and to maintain full capture and containment of smoke. c) Listed energy recovery devices with a sensible heat recovery effectiveness of not less than 40% on at least 50% of the total exhaust airflow. b) Demand ventilation system(s) on at least 75% of the exhaust air.2010 If a kitchen/dining facility has a total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate greater than 5.1 .

the DCV technology application will not realize its full “return on investment” potential. there is no need to take chances with a design exhaust ventilation rate that is too low. • The CKV system must work effectively as singlespeed system before DCV is applied. • Until appliances communicate directly with the DCV system. • Effective commissioning of a DVC system can maximize its performance. • The DCV system should integrate with the EMS.DCV Recap… • With the specification of a DCV system. .

Energy Management Systems
Wiring the Intelligent Kitchen

Food Service
Technology Center

The Energy Efficient McDonald’s
(T.E.E.M)

.

The EMS system was absolutely crucial to the success of the TEEM project. .

“It’s easy to believe that in 10 years every restaurant will have an energy management system” Don Fisher and Richard Young .

.

“It’s easy to believe that in 10 years every restaurant will have an energy management system” Don Fisher and Richard Young .

Question: Have you been involved in a project that included an Energy Management System? Yes? No? .

was your experience with the EMS a positive one? Yes? No? .Question: If your answer was yes.

What were the challenges? Hassle for the Operator .

What were the challenges? Slow Communications Call Centers .

What were the challenges? Proprietary communications protocol EMS companies did NOT understand restaurants (or really care) .

Expensive to Install and Quickly Obsolete .

16 Years later… Many Technological Advances Small Inexpensive Electronics Wireless and the Internet Handheld Devices kiteandlightning.com .

.And…other positive influences: Higher Energy Prices Renewed Interest Information Boom – this is no longer “weird” Small and nimble tech companies with more understanding of restaurants.

.It’s a little embarrassing that your car has more intelligence than your cookline.

.Still…adoption of EMS systems remains minimal.

Question: Do you feel that EMS systems will be standard equipment in restaurants in the next 10 years? Yes? No? .

Controls integrated into smart appliances – NAFEM Protocol 2. Continuous commissioning of systems 4. Adaptive logic – don’t bug the humans – Nest Thermostat 3.What will make EMS practical? 1. Control of more systems – CKV? .

. adaptive.The POS is a complex. control system that has been in every major chain restaurant for years.

.Technological and operational trends suggest that the EMS system is not far behind.