The Origin and Composition of Soil

Background
Ground as the body of the earth is the venue of living things, especially humans, and
needed for the prosperity and welfare of their lives. To make ends meet, people rely heavily on
the ground. In addition, the land is the main medium that is necessary for the plant. Soil is a
planting medium that provides nutrients that are needed by plants in his life. In addition, there
are many more very important role soil for the sustainability of life on earth. Natural mineral,
minerals, and other natural wealth stored in the form below and layers of soil. Water flows
between the pores as well as land and air. Therefore examine and learn to do on the ground is
very important. Especially for us who splash in agriculture or forestry. As the knowledge base in
this task we will attach the definition of soil, soil origin and composition making up ground.

Definition of Soil
Soil is the layer of the earth's surface that serves as a place physically grows & grows
crop rooting and growth of vertical buttresses supplies need water and air in chemical serves as a
warehouse and supplies nutrient or nutrients (organic and inorganic compounds medium and
essential elements such as: N , P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, B, cl), and its biological
function as a habitat for biota (organisms) are actively participating in the preparation of such
chaos and additive substances (hard to grow, protection) for the crop, the third is able to support
integral land to produce biomass productivity and improved food crop production, plant
medicines, industrial farming, or forestry.

Soil Formation Process Because Weathering Rock
Soil formation process. Soil is the uppermost layer of the earth's surface. Humans,
animals, and plants need soil for a place to live. Plants can not survive without soil layers.
Actually, the soil comes from rocks. Weathering of rocks would have become the grains are very
fine. Over time these small grains multiplying and forming soil. Rock takes millions of years to
evolve into the ground. Due to weathering of rocks into soil. Weathering of rocks by weathering
can experience physics and biological weathering.
A. Weathering Physics
Physics weathering caused by various environmental factors. Environmental factors such
as: wind, water, temperature change, and sea waves. The wind always be scraping rock rife little
by little. This condition can lead to erode rock. Erosion caused some desert rocks. In addition,
very strong wind can also shift the rocks. When this shift sliding rocks with other rocks to
experience smelting
Drastic temperature changes can also cause weathering of rocks. When high temperature
or hot, rock expands. When low temperature or cold, stone would be cut back. Rock weathering
because it can have water. Rain water and rock waterfall on an ongoing basis can result in rock
cracks and splits. Corals by the sea strong stand can also experience the weathering. Waves
pound sea coral continuously cause the rock slowly eroded (abrasion).

Primary provider of crop needs (water. and 2.  Primary minerals are minerals that are derived directly from the rock dilapuk. Eventually. Propagating plants will create holes in the rock where roots attached . Biological weathering Biological weathering can be caused by a plant or algae that stick on the surface of the rock . Soil Function 1. Propagating plants and moss clinging on the rock surface . Land also serves as a protection of plant pests and diseases and the negative impact of pesticides and industrial waste is hazardous. generally in fractions of sand and dust. both of which have a positive impact because it directly or indirectly involved in the provision of primary and secondary needs of the plant. usually in the clay fraction.B . . air. and nutrients) 3. Providers need plant secondary (hyper growth substances: hormones. 25% water and 25% air. as well as a negative impact because it is a plant pest & disease. the rock will be crushed. and organic acids. enzymes that can increase nutrient willingness) 4. antibiotics and anti-pest toxin. 1. vitamins. As a habitat for soil biota. Land as a plant needs to grow and providers. The Composition of Soil Soil compiler component is a material effect on soil formation. thus becoming a part of a strong union and form a new part.  New secondary minerals formed during the process of soil formation takes place. gravel and stone) Minerals can be divided into: primary minerals and secondary minerals. sedimentary rocks (sediments) and rock metamorfosa Minerals can be divided into:  The fraction of fine soil (fine earth fraction) measuring <2 mm (sand. Two Important Understanding of the Land: 1. Place of growth and development of roots 2. These holes eventually become large and numerous. Mineral Materials    Derived from the weathering of rocks Arrangement in the soil varies according to the arrangement of rock minerals in bad Rocks: igneous rocks / volcanic (from volcanoes). 4 land compiler components: (1) The mineral form of Solid Materials (2) the form of organic packing material (3) Water (4) The Air Soil material is 50% of the average packing material (45% mineral and 5% organic). dust and clay)  Fragments of rock (rock fragment) measuring> 2 mm (gravel.

green manure and biological fertilizer The role of organic matter to the soil 1 . or because of poor drainage conditions. branches. that the form of the provision of organic fertilizer manure. Higroscopis water : water that is absorbed by the soil is very strong so can not use crop ( adhesion between the availability of land and water ) . either in the form of humus results humificationcompounds or inorganic compounds and mineralization results including heterotrophic microbial and ototrofik involved and are in it. Biological soil properties . namely organic net plant (flora) that can be leaves. fruits and roots  Secondary sources. Soil chemical properties . Soil physical properties . including : o increase the diversity of organisms that can live in the soil ( makrobia and soil microbes ) oincrease the population of soil organisms 3 . namely organic network can be soiled. Organic Materials Organic matter is a group of diverse compound-complex organic compounds that are or have experienced the process of decomposition. Due to the styles in the soil so water conditions can be divided into : 1. twigs. including : o stimulant to the soil granulation o improve soil structure into crumbs o improve the soil retain water so that no excessive drainage . Water can absorb or hold the land because of the ways of adhesion . fauna and microfauna  Other sources from the outside. including : o increase the availability of nutrients from organic matter mineralization process parts are easily biodegradable o produce humus soil in colloidal role of residual mineralization compounds and compounds difficult to unravel in the process of humification o cation exchange capacity ( CEC) of the soil 30 times greater than the soil inorganic colloids o increase the availability and efficiency through improved fertilization and P leaching by organic acids decomposition of organic matter 3 . stems.2. Source of soil organic matter:  Primary sources. soil moisture and temperature stabilized o affect soil color to brown to black o neutralize the destructive force of a grain of rain o inhibit erosion o reduce leaching ( washing / leaching ) 2 . Water Water available in the soil for detention / time is absorbed by land . water retained by sealing layer . cohesion and gravity.

Permanent wilting point : the water content of the soil. B. Zn and Cl (micro nutrient) 4. P. The arrangement depends on the reactions that occur in the soil:  Moisture> atmospheric  CO2> atmospheric  O2 <atmosphere (varies influenced CO2 content in the soil) . K. where the roots of plants from no longer able to absorb water and land . Water available : the difference between the water in spare capacity minus the water at permanent wilting Soil solution containing soluble salts. Mg and S (macro nutrient)  Fe. until wilted plants 5.2. Air    Occupy soil pores (mainly medium and large) The amount varies depending on groundwater conditions. Mo. so that water can be absorbed by plants 3. Spare capacity : pretty moist soil conditions that showed the highest amount of water that can be retained by the soil against gravitational pull style . Capillary water : water in the soil . most chaotic form of crop:  N. Mn. Ca. where the style of adhesion and cohesion is stronger than gravity . Cu. so it can be absorbed by plants 4.

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The Origin and Composition of Soil Bahasa Inggris CREATED BY : GROUP 2 Boiman Manik Seto Galuh Wiratama Della Relisananda Muhammad Irham Abdul B Marifatul Laily 135040101111087 135040101111091 135040101111097 135040101111098 135040101111112 AGRIBUSINESS SOCIAL ECONOMIC OF AGRICULTURE FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY OF BRAWIJAYA MALANG 2013 .