BUKIDNON STATE UNIVERSITY

College of Law
THE LAW ON PUBLIC OFFICERS
AND ELECTION LAW Course Syllabus1
2nd Semester, AY 2014-2015
PHOEBE CORAZON C. HIDALGO, J.D.

I.

The Law on Public Officers

A. Concepts and Principles: Public
Office and Public Office and Public
Officers
1. Definitions
a. Administrative Code of 1987
b. Revised Penal Case, Art. 203
c. Meaning of Office and Public
Office
d. Public Office and Public
employment distinguished
2. Purpose and Nature
a. Public Office, as a Public
Trust
b. Public Office, not a Property
c. Public Office, not a Contract
d. Security of Tenure in Public
Office as property for
purposes of due process
Case: National Land Title
and Deeds Registration
Administration v. Civil
Service Commission,
221 SCRA 145
e. Distinctions

B. Eligibility and Qualifications
1. Definitions
2. Nature of Right to hold Public
Office
3. Power of Congress to prescribe
qualifications
4. Restrictions and construction
5. General and particular
qualifications
See

3. Elements

of 1987

4. Characteristics

9225

5. Creation,
Modification
Abolition of Public Office
1

6. Kinds/Classifications
Cases: Secretary of DOTC v
Mabalot, 378 SCRA 129
(2002)
Peclaro v
Sandiganbayan, 247 SCRA
454 (1195)
Maniego v People, 88
Phil 494 (1951)
Laurel v. Disierto,
381 SCRA 48 (2002)
Fernandez v Sto.
Tomas, 242 SCRA 192 (1995)
Segovia v Noel, 47
Phil. 547 (1925)
Dario v Miston, 176
SCRA 84 (1989)
Mathay v Court of
Appeals, 320 SCRA 703
(1999)

1987 Constitution
Administrative Code
Republic Act No.

and

Based on the course syllabus of Prof. Jesusa Loreto
A. Arellano-Aguda.

Cases: Labo, Jr. v
COMELEC, 211 SCRA 297
(1992)

Frivaldo v
COMELEC, 275 SCRA 727
(1996)
Bengzon v HRET, 357
SCRA 545 (2001)
Mercado v Manzano,
307 SCRA 630 (1999)
Romualdez-Marcos v
COMELEC, 248 SCRA 300
(1995)
6. Disqualifications
a. General Disqualification
b. Specific Disqualification
Cases: Civil Liberties Union
v. Executive Secretary, 194
SCRA 317 (1991)
Rodriguez v.
COMELEC, 259 SCRA 295
(1996)
Lecaros v
Sandiganbayan, 305 SCRA
396 (1999)
Dela Cruz v COA,
371 SCRA 157(2001)
Flores v Drilon, 223
SCRA 568 (1993)
Abeto v Garceza, 251
SCRA 539 (1995)
Rabe v Flore, 272
SCRA 415 (1997)
Debugaldo v Civil
Service Commission, 237
SCRA 184 (1994)
Civil Service
Commission v Dacoycoy, 306
SCRA 425 (1999)
Liban v Gordon, G.R.
No. 175352 (2009)
C. Acquisition of Right or Title to
Office
1. Appointment

Cases: Luego v Civil Service
Commission, 143 SCRA 327
(1986)
Regis v Osmena, 197
SCRA308 (1991)
Achacoso v
Macaraig, 195 SCRA 235
(1991)
Province of
Camarines Sur v Court of
Appeals, 246 SCRA 281
(1995)
Gloria v De Guzman,
249 SCRA 281 (1995)
PLM v IAC, 140
SCRA 22 (1985)
Marohombsar v
Alonto, 194 SCRA 391
(1991)
Matibag v Benipayo,
380 SCRA 49 (2002)
Padilla v Civil
Service Commission,403
SCRA 116 (2003)
Civil Service
Commission v Dela Cruz,
437 SCRA 403 (2004)
Civil Service
Commission v Darangina,
613 SCRA 648 (2007)
Corpuz v Court of
Appeals, 285 SCRA 23
(1998)
Lapinid v CSC, G.R.
No. 96298, 14 May 1991
Gen. Manager, PPA v
Monserate, 381 SCRA 200
(2002)
a. Appointment by the President
See: 1987 Constitution,
Art. VII, Sec. 16

Cases: Sarmiento v Mison,
156 SCRA 549 (1987)
Calderon v Carale,
208 SCRA 254 (1992)
De Castro v JBC,
G.R. No. 191002, 17 Mar
2010
Aytona v Castillo, et
al., G.R. No. L-19313, 19 Jan
1962
b. Appointment under Civil
Service Qualification
Standard
See: 1987 Constitution,
Art. IX-B, 2(2)
Cases: Juco v NLRC, 277
SCRA 528 (1997)
EIIB v Court of
Appeals, 299 SCRA 373
(1998)
Chua v Civil Service
Commission, 206 SCRA 65
(1992)
Cuevas v Bacal, 347
SCRA 338 (2000)
PAGCOR v Rilloraza,
359 SCRA 525 (2001)
Luego v Civil Service
Commission, supra
Aquino v Civil
Service Commission, 208
SCRA 240 (1992)
Delos Santos v
Mallare, 87 Phil. 288 (1950)
Tria v Sto. Tomas,
199 SCRA 833 (1991)
Laurel v Civil Service
Commission, 203 SCRA 195
(1991)
Grino v Civil Service
Commission, 194 SCRA 458
(1991)

Tomali v CSC, 238
SCRA 572 (1994)
Obiasca v Bassalote
(2010)
2. De Facto Officership
a. Definitions
b. Elements
Cases: Dimaandal v COA,
291 SCRA 322 (1998)
Menzon v Petilla, 197
SCRA 251 (1991)
Malaluan v
COMELEC, 254 SCRA 397
(1996)
Flores v Drilon,
supra
Torres v Ribo, 81 Phil
44 (1948)
Tuanda v
Sandiganbayan, 249 SCRA
342 (1995)
Monroy v Court of
Appeals, 20 SCRA 620
(1967)
Civil Liberties Union
v Executive Secretary, supra
Gen. Manager, PPA v
Monserate, supra
3. Remedy to Question Title
Cases: Tarrosa v Singson,
232 SCRA 553 (1994)
Mendoza v Alia, 302
SCRA 623 (1989)
Romualdez v Civil
Service Commission, 225
SCRA 285 (1993)
4. By Election

D. Power, Duties and Responsibilities
of Public Officers
1. Power and Duties
a. Source of Power and
Authority
b. Construction of power and
duties
c. Delegation of Power
Case: Torres v Ribo, supra
d. Scope of Power and
Authority

See: Republic Act No.
6758 (Salary Standardization
Act)
COA Government
Auditing Rules and Regulations,
Sec 2671
Cases: Baybay Water District
v Commission on Audit, 374
SCRA 482 (2002)
Rodrigo v
Sandiganbayan, 303 SCRA 309
(1999)
Tejada v Domingo,
205 SCRA 138 (1992)
Santos v Court of
Appeals, 345 SCRA 553 (2000)

e. Specific duties
b. Security of Tenure
See: Republic Act No.
6713 and Implementing
Rules and Regulations (Code
of
Conduct and Ethical
Standards for Public
Officials & Employees)
Cases: Rabe v Flores, 272
SCRA 415 (1997)
Morfe v Mutuc. G.R.
No. L-20387 (1968)
PAGC v Pleyton, G.R.
No. 176058 (2011)
f. Norms of Conduct
See:
6713

Republic Act No.

Cases: Samson v. Restrivera,
G.R. 178454 (2011)
2. Rights and Privileges
a. Right to Office

c. Right to compensation
d. Rights under the Civil
Service Law & the Rules
under the Administrative
Code 1987
e. Personnel Actions
i. Promotions
See:
Section 13,
Omnibus Rules
Implementing Book V,
E.O. 292
Cases:
Panis v CSC,
229 SCRA 589 (1994)
Divinigracia v
Sto. Tomas, 244 SCRA
595 (1995)
Santiago, Jr. v
CSC, 178 SCRA 102
(1989)

Abila v CSC,
198 SCRA 102 (1991)
Medenilla v
CSC, 194 SCRA 278
(1991)
Lustero v IAC,
G.R. No. 74814, 16 Jul
1991
ii. Transfer
Cases:
People v
Reyes, 247 SCRA 328
(1995)
Vinzons-Chato
v Natividad 224 SCRA
787 (1995)
Vinzonz-Chato
v Zenorosa, 344 SCRA 18
(2000)
iii. Detail
Case:
Republic v
Court of Appeals, 182
SCRA 721 (1990)

Sabello v
DECS, 180 SCRA 623
(1989)
Monsanto v
Factoran, 170 SCRA 190
(1989)
Cabagnot v C
SC, 233 SCRA 59 (1993)
Gloria c de
Guzman, supra
vi. Reemployment
f. Rights to self-organization
Cases: TUPAS v NHA, 173
SCRA 38 (1989)
SSS v CA, 175 SCRA
686 (1989)
Bangalisan v CA, 276
SCRA 617 (1997)
Lopez v CA, 215
SCRA 512 (1992)
People v Jalosjos,
324 SCRA 689 (2000)
g. Other rights

iv. Reassignment
Cases:
Fernandez v
Sto. Tomas, supra
Teotico v
Agda, 197 SCRA 675
(1991)
Carino v
Dawas, 380 SCRA 355
(2002)
Pastor v City
of Pasig, 382 SCRA 232
(2002)
v. Reinstatement
Cases:
Cristobal v
Melchor, 78 SCRA 175
(1977)

See: Employees
Compensation
Republic Act No.
6713
Cases: Borromeo v CSC, 199
SCRA 911 (1991)
Vital-Gozon v CA,
212 SCRA 235 (1992)
Mancenido v CA, 330
SCRA 419 (2000)
Santos v CA, 435
SCRA 553 (2000)
Cena v CSC, 211
SCRA 179 (1992)
Rabor v CSC, 244
SCRA 614 (1995)

GSIS v COA, 441
SCRA 532 (2004)

4. Disabilities and Inhibitions
a. Under the Constitution

3. Liabilities
b. Under existing laws
a. In General – RA 6713 (Code
of Conduct and Ethical
Standards)

E. Termination of Official Relations
See

b. Administrative Liability
c. Civil Liability
d. Criminal Liability
See
Civil Code, Arts. 27,
32, 34
Administrative Code
Book I, Secs. 38 -39
Revised Penal Code,
Title VII
Republic Act No.
3019
Republic Act No.
1379
Cases: Palma v Graciana,
G.R. No. L-2740 (1956)
Cojuanco v. CA, 309
SCRA 602 (1999)
Tecson v
Sandiganbayan, 318 SCRA
80 (1999)
Ocampo v Office of
the Ombudsman, 322 SCRA
17 (2000)
Rodrigo v
Sandiganbayan, 303 SCRA
309 (1999)
Lacson v Executive
Secretary, 301 SCRA 298
(1999)
Garcia v
Sandiganbayan, 460 SCRA
586 (2005)

Republic Act No. 6713
Republic Act No. 7160

1. Expiration of Term
Cases: Achocoso v
Macaraig, supra
Lecaroz v
Sandiganbayan, supra
Gloria v De Guzman,
supra
2. Retirement
3. Death or Permanent Disability
4. Resignation
Cases: Ortiz v COMELEC,
162 SCRA 312 (1988)
Estrada v Arroyo, 353
SCRA 452 (2001)
Republic v
Sandiganbayan, 548 SCRA
361 (2008)
5. Acceptance of Incompatible
Office
Cass: Republic Interest
Center, Inc., v Elma, 494
SCRA 53 (2006)
6. Abandonment of Office
Case: Canonizado v Aguirre,
351 SCRA 359 (2001)

7. Prescription of Right to Office
8. Removal
Cases: Aquino v Civil
Service Commission, supra
Fabella v CA, 282
SCRA 768 (1997)
Aguialdo v
Santos,212 SCRA 768 (1992)
Salalima v Guingona,
Jr., 257 SCRA 55 (1996)
Gloria v CA, 306
SCRA 287 (1999)
Secretary of
education v CA, 342 SCRA
40 (2000)
Hagod v GazoDadole, 251 SCRA 424
(1995)
The Sanguniang
Barangay of Brgy. Don
Mariano Marcos v Martinez,
547
SCRA 416 (2008)
9. Impeachment
\
Case: Francisco, Jr. v HR,
G.R. 160261, 415 SCRA 44
(2003)
10. Abolition of Office
Case: Canonizado v
Commission of Audit, 226
SCRA 356 (1993)
11. Termination through
Reorganization
12. Conviction of Crime
Case: Garcia v Commission
on Audit

13. Recall
Cases: Garcia v COMELEC,
227 SCRA 100 (1993)
Angobung v
COMELEC, 269 SCRA 245
(1997)
14. Disciplinary Measures
Cases: Ombudsman v CA,
G.R. 168079 (17 Jul 2007)
Marohomsalic v Cole,
G.R. 169918 (27 Feb 2008)
Jason v Torres, 290
SCRA 279 (1998)
Socrates v
Sandiganbayan, 263 SCRA
775 (1996)
Castro v Gloria, 363
SCRA 417 (2001)
Caniete v Secretary of
Education, 333 SCRA 849
(2000)
Nalupta, Jr. v Tapec,
220 SCRA 505 (1993)
Office of the Court
Administrator v Librado, 260
SCRA 624 (1996)
RTC Makati
Movement Against Graft and
Corruption v Dumlao, 247
SCRA 108
(1995)
Nieva v AlvarezEdad, 450 SCRA 45 (2005)
Civil Service
Commission v Dacoycoy, supra
Santos v Macaraig,
208 SCRA 74 (1992)