D.

Basic concept of tolerance

E. Interaction/ relationships

Symbiotic relationship = One benefiting and intimate
1. Mutualism (+, +) close relationship where both parties benefit. Both species will benefit from the relationship
and many of these relationships are ling-lasting.
Example: Cleaning symbiosis
In the ocean, certain species, like shrimps and gobies, will clean fish. They remove parasites, dead
tissue, and mucous.
Example: Dogs and humans have enjoyed a mutualistic symbiosis for centuries.
The dogs supply protection and companionship and the humans provide food and shelter.
2. Commensalism (+, 0) – one of the organisms benefits greatly from the symbiosis. The other is not helped but
is not harmed or damaged from the relationship. In other words, this is a one-sided symbiotic relationship.
Example: The relationship between cattle egrets and cattle.
The cattle egret will eat insects that have been disturbed when the cattle forage.
 The organism that is reaping the benefit will use the other for protection or transportation.
Example: A hermit crab taking up residence in an empty seashell.
Example: A spider building a web on a tree.
This is in contrast with mutualism, in which both organisms benefit from each other, amensalism, where one is
harmed while the other is unaffected, and parasitism, where one benefits while the other is harmed.
3. Phoresy - the act of 'hitching a lift' on another organism. As invertebrates are small and not all have wings
many travel comparatively long distances by using other, more mobile, organisms. For example, flower mites are
wingless and so use foraging bees to travel to new flowers.
An association between two species in which one transports the other, for example when a mite attaches
to a beetle and is carried to anew food source.

Trophic relationship
1. Herbivory - Herbivory is the eating of plant material for energy and can assist the plants
with seed distribution.
- The prey does not necessarily have to be an animal, but can also be a plant. When prey is a
plant, the relationship would be called anherbivore plant relationship.
A perfect example of this would be,” Galapagos tortoises e cactus plants that grow on the Galapagos
Islands.” (Bar-Yam, 2011).
Example are the koalas. They have a special digestive system that allows them to break down tough
eucalyptus leaves and remain unharmed by its poison (National Geographic).
Finally, a squirrel is the herbivore (predator) and the nuts he eats are the plant (prey).

It covers the entire surface of the earth from the top of Mount Everest to the bottom of the Mariana Trench. carnivory. This crust is inorganic and is composed of minerals. . water and air G.) one organism benefits from the relationship but at the expense of the other.is all of the portions of the earth inhabited by life. Behavioral Relationships 1. The organism may live inside the other’s body or on its surface. but may have some pain or itching. it is important that the host remain alive. In some of these parasitic relationships the host dies and in others. Most of our atmosphere is located close to the earth's surface where it is most dense.process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits. so don't forget it! If resources are unlimited or plentiful. but the act of predation often results in the death of its prey and the eventual absorption of the prey's tissue through consumption. The idea of a limited resource is key here.  Hydrosphere is composed of all of the water on or near the earth. Example: Tapeworms Tapeworms do more damage to their hosts because they eat partially digested food and that deprives the host of some food and nourishment. Decomposers ( detritivore/ saprotroph ) break down dead or decaying organisms.is the solid. the host needs to stay alive and it is not damaged greatly. Thus predation is often. Competition . Parasitism (+. including ecosystems on land. Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them. though not always. carry out the natural process of decomposition F. rocky crust covering entire planet. -) is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked). 2. at least in part. The air of our planet is 78% nitrogen and just under 21% oxygen. Cooperation . Predation (+.negative interaction that occurs among organisms whenever two or more organisms require the same limited resource. In this type of parasitic relationship. to increase the reproductive success of the actor's social partners. Trophic level 1. The whale is not harmed greatly.is the conflict between organisms for a limited essential resource. It is commonly defined as any adaptation that has evolved.  Biosphere. Consumers ( heterotroph ) must consume its energy from other source 3.2. Example: Barnacles that attach to the bodies of whales. and in doing so. the small amount remaining is composed of carbon dioxide and other gasses. . Spheres  Lithosphere . Producers ( autotroph ) makes its own food 2. Energy and nutrient relations . Example: Aphids Aphids eat sap from plants.  The atmosphere is the body of air which surrounds our planet. 3. Example: Fleas and mosquitoes feed on blood from other organisms. then competition will not occur because organisms will not waste time or energy in a pointless fight.

Population growth and regulation a. Characteristics of population 1. Natality – birth rate – fecundity 2.relative number of individuals of each age  Pre-reproductive  Reproductive – sustains pre and post  Post-reproductive 5.pattern of spacing in the area  Random – no formal distribution. Types of population growth 1.compete with nutrients (maganda) 6.  Autotrophs – produce own food Heterotrophs – not capable of producing own food H.even spacing . Migration – mass movement as opposed to DISPERSAL=movement of individuals b. no effect with each other  Clumped. it has what is known as exponential growth. With exponential growth the birth rate alone controls how fast (or slow) the population grows. Dispersion/distribution. Mortality – death rate Type 1 curve Type 2 curve Type 3 curve 3.Resource = large clumping  Uniform. Exponential growth (k-selected) If a population has a constant birth rate through time and is never limited by food or disease. Density –number of individuals per unit area  Counts  Sample size estimate  Indirect indication  Mark recapture 4. Age structure . .grouping/ patchy aggregation .

or even millions of years after a mass extinction. Pollutants.  Desertification the process by which fertile land becomes desert. transforming a forest into cleared land . Primary succession is initiated when a new area that has never previously supported an ecological community is colonized by plants and animals. The time scale can be decades (for example. This is more common than primary succession. as well as human interference – logging and clear cutting H. Environmental problems  Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. in most real populations both food and disease become important as conditions become crowded. the components of pollution. Community a. after a wildfire). Succession . or inappropriate agriculture. and is often the result of natural disasters such as fires. Secondary succession occurs when an area that has previously had an ecological community is so disturbed or changed that the original community was destroyed and a new community moves in. I. However.  Red tide is a phenomenon caused by algal blooms (Wikipedia definition) during which algae become so numerous that they discolor coastal waters (hence the name "red tide"). This could be on newly exposed rock surfaces from landslides or lava flows. and also very common in many places where rains fall. can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. deforestation.observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological communityover time. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy. Characteristics Species diversity can be measured   Species richness as the number of species Species evenness as the relative abundance of species J. heat or light. typically as a result of drought. Ecologists refer to this as the "carrying capacity" of the environment.  Deforestation is the clearing of trees. floods.1. The algal bloom may also deplete oxygen in the waters and/or release toxins that may cause illness in humans and other animals  Flooding is a common natural disaster. Populations in this kind of environment show what is known as logistic growth. and winds. There is an upper limit to the number of individuals the environment can support. such as noise. Logistics growth(r-selected) In a population showing exponential growth the individuals are not limited by food or disease.

 Scarcity of resources . and farmers in all areas attributed deforestation to kaingin rather than to commercial logging. aquatic animals and infrastructure. meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).  Smog-fog or haze combined with smoke and other atmospheric pollutants.  Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer). a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth's climate. Farmers had responded to deforestation by planting or regenerating trees on their lands.  Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic. It can have harmful effects on plants. and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozonearound Earth's polar regions.  Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and its oceans. slash-and-burn with no return to forest.