STUDIES ON ILLUMINATION DESIGN OF A HYDRO ELECTRIC

POWER PLANT – A PRACTICAL APPROACH
THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF

MASTER OF ENGINEERING
IN
ILLUMINATION ENGINEERING

Submitted By
SANTANU CHAKRABORTY
Exam Roll no: M4ILN12 - 09

Under the kind supervision of
Prof. (Dr.) SASWATI MAZUMDAR

Electrical Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY
Kolkata – 700032
MAY 2012

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY

CERTIFICATE OF RECOMMENDATION
This is to certify that the thesis entitled “Studies on Illuminati0n Design of A Hydro
Electric Power Plant – A Practical Approach” submitted by Santanu Chakraborty
(Exam Roll no: M4ILN12-09 , Registration no: 113661 of 2010-2011) of this university in
fulfillment of the required work for the award of degree of Master of Engineering in
Illumination Engineering, Electrical Engineering Department is a bonafied record of the
work carried out by him under my guidance and supervision.

________________________
Project Supervisor
Prof (Dr.) Saswati Mazumdar
Illumination Engineering
Electrical Engineering Department
Jadavpur University
Kolkata – 700032
Countersigned

________________________
Prof. Nirmal Kumar Deb
Head of the Department
Electrical Engineering Department
Jadavpur University
Kolkata – 700032

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
The foregoing thesis is hereby approved as a creditable study in the area of Illumination
Engineering, carried out and presented by Santanu Chakraborty in a manner of satisfaction
to warrant its acceptance as per requisite to award the degree for which it has been
submitted. It is notified to be understood that this approval by the undersigned do not
necessarily endorse or approve of any statement made, opinion expressed and conclusion
drawn therein but approve the thesis only for the purpose for which it has been submitted.

FINAL EXAMINATION FOR THE EVALUATION OF THESIS

BOARD OF EXAMINERS

_____________________________________

_____________________________________

_____________________________________
(Siganature of Examiners)

Name : SANTANU CHAKRABORTY Roll Number : M4ILN12 – 09 Thesis Title : STUDIES ON ILLUMINATION DESIGN OF A HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT – A PRACTICAL APPROACH Signature with date : . I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work. I also declare that as required by these rules and conduct. as part of Master of Engineering in Illumination Engineering studies. All information in this document have been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct.DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY AND COMPLIANCE OF ACADEMIC ETHICS I hereby declare that this thesis contains literature survey and original research work by the undersigned candidate.

Jadavpur University for his continuous support.. Jadavpur University for providing me the opportunity to carry out my project work in Illumination Engineering Laboratory.. Mr.Jadavpur University for their timely guidance. Director – AVAIDS Technovators Pvt. Nirmal Kumar Deb. I would like to really take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtness to Dr.. Jadavpur University.. Date : .. Hydro Department.... Head. First and foremost.. Ltd.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS No work is a single human’s effort.. support and valuable suggestions in carrying out my project.. New Delhi. directions. Kamalika Ghosh. Design and Engineering Division. for permitting me to undergo my project work at AVAIDS Technovators Pvt.... Ltd. Electrical Engineering Department. AVAIDS Technovators Pvt. Lecturer. Suddhasatwa Chakraborty. New Delhi for their unconditional help.. I would really like to thank my family members for their support. Sandipa Mukherjee Ghosh. Mr. constant encouragement and intense supervision at every single stage of my thesis work.. for her valuable guidance. Assistant Professor. Jadavpur University. I would also like to thank my colleague and friend Mr. Pankil Agarwal and the entire team of AVAIDS Technovators Pvt. Ltd. ____________________ Place : Kolkata ( Santanu Chakraborty ) .New Delhi for their encouragement and support. I am also thankful to Mr. Gairik Saha. Head. I would like to thank Dr. Pradip Kumar Pal and Mr. Ltd.. which helped me a lot to improve my project work. I would obviously like to thank all my batch-mates who helped me in different ways. Illumination Engineering. suggestions. I am thankful to Mr. (Mrs. I am also highly indebted to Mr.. It is my proud privilege to express my gratitude to all those who have accompanied me and were helpful in my whole thesis work.. I take this opportunity to thank Mr. Last but not the least. Asit Kumar Sur. I would like to acknowledge my sincere thanks to Prof.. professor of Illumination Engineering.. Associate Professor of Illumination Engineering... Jadavpur University and Mrs. Rajesh Piplani. Electrical Engineering Department.. Rajendra Panda.) Saswati Mazumdar. Govinda Paul of Illumination Engineering Laboratory for their constant co-operation. & Mrs. Department of Electrical Engineering. Biswanath Roy.. Electrical Engineering Department. Head.

glare. energy requirements. outdoor area and street lighting in Hydro Electric Power (HEP) Plants including illuminance. light distribution. All the designs are done keeping the relevant standards in mind.Abstract The paper describes the general requirements for indoor office lighting. . indoor industrial area lighting. Outline guidance is given on lighting of different areas that are particular for any HEP plant. planning requirements and safety. It also provides an insight into the interior of a Hydro Electric Power Plant. It also covers objectives of lighting design. light sources and typical practical implementation according to industry practices. It provides specific recommendations for each and every design.

Acronyms and Abbreviations ADB Asian Development Bank ANSI American National Standard Institute APGenCo Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation CEA Central Electrical Authority CIE Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage ECBC Energy Conservation Building Code HEP Hydro Electric Power IEA International Energy Association IESNA Illuminating Engineering Society of North America LRT Lighting Research and Technology MNES Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources NEEPCo NorthEast Electrical Power Corporation NHPC National Hydroelectric Power Corporation .

..............................................1................................................1............................ Overview of the Projects ................................. Structural Parts ......................1..................................................................................1...3... 1 1...............................3.................................................... 2 1.......................................3. Transformer and Power House .. 9 2.... 6 2........... Turbine ................................... 6 2.1 Dam and Spillway ...............Abstract Acronyms and Abbreviations Contents Chapter 1 ................... 19 3......2 In Terms Of Size ...........................................................Introduction and Overview ....... 16 3................................................................................................................................ 13 2. Details of Projects Designed .....................................5 Summary ................................................................. 18 3..............................................................................................1........ Electric Generator .................................................4............................................3 Types Of HEP .......................................................2 Reasons Behind Developing HEP .........................................................Hydroelectric Power Stations – A brief Description .................................................................... 18 3........................ 11 2.................4 Hydropower System Efficiency[2] .................................................................................... 16 3............2........1 In Terms Of Generating Methods ................................................................................................................ 14 Chapter 3 ..................1................. Reservoirs ......................................2......Components of Hydro Power Plant ....... 16 3................................................. Main Parts ..................... 5 2......................................... 4 Chapter 2 ........................................................................................................ 19 ......................................................1 Introduction ...............................................1.....2.......................................... 9 2....................... 15 3........2.............................

.....2.2.....................2................ Ranking of Potential Hydro Sites ................1..................2..6 Caverns ...................Light Sources ................ Overview of Indian Power Sector ...............................................................1..........................................2............................ 34 5.................. List of some Important HEP Plant in India .......................5 Pressure Pipes ......... 31 5.............................. Incandescent/GLS Lamps ....................... 37 5................................................... 29 4................................................................................................3..................2...............3................ 28 4..2 Co-related Color Temperature (CCT) ............................. Prime Ministers 50.................................................................2...............................................................................2.............4...3................. 20 3........................ 26 4...5...... 21 3....................... 22 3........................ 31 5.................. 29 Chapter 5 .......................................................................................................................................2 Surge Chambers ........................................................................1..................................................................... Light Emitting Diodes (LED) ................ 32 5....................................................................1 Efficacy .................................................................. Characteristics of Light Sources ........3 Penstock ..................................................................................................................... 21 3... 23 Chapter 4 ........000 MW Hydroelectric Initiative ..................................................... Strategies for Accelerated Hydro Power Development ........................ 32 5... Fluorescent Lamps .............................................................................4 Tailrace ................... 25 4.3 Color Rendering Index (CRI) ...........7 Control Valve .....................2............................... 31 5................3...........2.................................................................2.................................. 31 5......................................2................................... 22 3..............................................................................................................6.................. 26 4....... High Intensity Discharge Lamps .......... 30 5.............................................................3............................ Introduction ............Status of HEP in India .................................. 40 ...

.. Emergency Lighting............................................1...............4......... Supplementary Task Lighting In Industry ...................Industrial Indoor Lighting ............................ Factors of Special Consideration ............................................. Introduction ....... 43 6.....................................2.......................................... 54 7............ Direct Luminaires ................................................... 42 6.........................................................................6......................................... Security Lighting .............................................................................................................................3............... Escape Lighting ............Chapter 6 .1..............................2...............7................ 46 Chapter 7 ..................2..........1.................................................. 50 7............... 42 6...............3.5............................... 49 7....................... 53 7.......................... 48 7. Factors of Good Industrial Lighting .............................................................1...................................................................................... Indirect Luminaires ....1.................... 53 7............. Road lighting luminaires ..........................................5............................... Different Types of Exterior Luminaires ........7... 45 6................. 41 6....... 49 7....................1............................................................... General Considerations for Industrial Lighting Design ..4............. 45 6.....1..................... 54 7.........7..... Different Types of Interior Luminaires ................... Security Lighting and Escape Lighting...........4. 54 ................................................................. 49 7................ 53 7..................1.. 51 7.............................. Types of Lighting Equipment ...........................................................3................................ Safety...............................................................1.......... Flood/Area Lighting Luminaires ................7................1.......Luminaires .... Emergency...................................................................... 44 6.............. Direct Indirect Luminaires ..........................2. Safety Lighting.............................. 42 6....................................................................................7....... Industrial High Bay and Low Bay Luminaires ....... 44 6.......................................................2.........................2.............2.......... Downlights ................................................

........................................................................................................10 Types of Lighting ................................................. 66 8......7.................................... Luminance and Brightness Differences .......................................................6 Electrical Lighting and Daylighting .........................2 The Importance of Visual Tasks in Offices.............. 87 ................................. 74 8. 65 Chapter 8 ................................ 67 8....................... 68 8.......................10............9 The Psychological Effects of Lighting .........................5 Control Room Lighting ........10......................................................... 69 8.............4 Color.8.......8 Glare ........................................................................1 Introduction ......................................................... 71 8........................................1 Introduction ................ 86 9..........10......... 75 8......7 Illuminance Level Selection .............................................................................................................................. 72 8................11 A Practical Design .....................................................................................3 Composition of the Luminous Environment ..................... 67 8..........................................................................Industrial Outdoor Area Lighting ..... 72 8...................................................................................................................................................................................... 68 8................................ 76 8................... 73 8. 70 8................................................ 70 8.................................................................9..............................2 Direct Lighting ............................................................................................................................................10........................................................................ Some Lighting Design Details ......................................................................... 69 8.........................2 Design Procedure ...........Office and Control Room Lighting .... 85 9............1 General Lighting and Localised Lighting ................................................................................................... Some Suggestions ...................................................................................4 Direct-Indirect Lighting ..3 Indirect Lighting ..................... 78 Chapter 9 ..10..................................... 56 7......................................................5 Transient Adaptation .............................................

......................................6 Road Lighting ............................................................................................7 A Typical Road Lighting Installation..................................................................................................4 Switchyard Lighting .............................................................................. 98 Chapter 10 ................................................... 104 ..............................9..............Conclusion .........................................................................5 A Real Life Design .............................................................. 98 9........................... 88 9........ 89 9..............................................................................3 Light Pollution...........References ......................................................... 91 9..................... 101 Chapter 11 ...............

Introduction and Overview Chapter 1 .

utilizing available illuminating engineering technology. Here in this report. It is very encouraging to know that more and more people are getting cautious about “providing right light at the right time at the right place”. lighting design is both an art and science. a brief description about Hydro Electric Power Plants is given. 1. people are trying to provide much effort for saving energy. lighting designer and more importantly the client to provide the best and feasible solutions for complex problems. Lighting design is something that needs the collective participation of architect. As energy crisis is becoming more and more an area of concern. The mentality that one must save energy and proper lighting can do a fair part of that must be known by all levels of people. The reasons for developing any HEP plant and the goods and the bads of it are described. an overview of Hydro Electric Power Plants is given and in different chapters some specific lighting designs as case studies have been described. It covers lighting of almost all the areas that are part of any Hydro Electric Power Plant. productive and enjoyable use of the environment. Ltd. That is why lighting is becoming an integral part of any building design. The main electricity generating parts and the structural parts are described in this chapter. In chapter 2. the positioning of lights also does matter to make the person work with less problem and feel more comfortable. 2|Page . Chapter 3 describes the components of a Hydro Electric Power Plant.1.Chapter 1 Lighting design is considered to be the creative process to produce lighting methods and solutions for safe. As such. Overview of the Projects In the six months tenure of the internship with AVAIDS Technovators Pvt. Lighting does not mean providing any lamp or luminaire in any arbitrary place. several lighting design in different fields of application with the help of softwares.

Chapter 1 The current status of Hydro Eletric Energy in India is unfolded in chapter 4. Chapter 8 provides some guidelines for designing of office and control room lighting. In chapter 9. some typical indoor industrial area lighting design is described. Himachal Pradesh. luminaires and their application areas are described in these chapters. The properties of light sources. 3|Page . The initiatives that have been taken by the authority to actually help the development of this renewable kind of power generating stations are written here in this chapter. the switchyard area lighting and internal street lighting of power plants are described. Aesthetics and comfort of people are to be kept in mind while designing the office. In chapter 7. The service areas mentioned in the chapter are part of Dagachu Hydro Electric Power Plant. Chapter 5 and chapter 6 gives light into light sources and luminaires respectively. Himachal Pradesh. The switchyard design given here is a part of Shontong Hydro Power Plant.

Chapter 1 1. Details of Projects Designed Project Name Areas Designed Client/Consultant Indoor Industrial Area Lower Jurala HEP Switchyard APGenCo Road Lighting Chamera II Indoor Industrial Area NHPC Subhansiri Lower Indoor Industrial NHPC Teesta Low Dam V Switchyard NHPC Indoor Industrial Area Dagachhu HEP Dagachhu Hydro Power Corp. Outdoor Area Lighting Uri –II Outdoor Area Lighting NHPC Tapovan Vishnugadh Outdoor Area Lighting NTPC – Hydro Indoor Industrial Area Shontong HEP Outdoor Area Lighting HPPDCo Road Lighting 4|Page .2.

Hydroelectric Power Stations – A brief Description Chapter 2 .

accounting for 16 percent of global [30] electricity consumption.1 Introduction Among all the renewable energy sources. but various environmental issues are restricting their development.25] There are many reasons to develop a hydro power plant. Reasons Behind Developing HEP [2.2 .000 MW. The important ones among the reasons are : Flexibility Hydro is a flexible source of electricity since plants output can be brought up and down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands.Chapter 2 2. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. There are a number of advantages and benefits of using hydropower systems. It is the generation of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. with 721 terawatt-hours of [13] production in 2010. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries. The Asia-Pacific region generated 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. a simple description of a hydropower system and its various components are discussed. representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use 2. Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electrical energy or electricity generated by hydropower. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer. A hydropower system can be used to generate a few kilowatt of electricity [2] to about 18. the contribution of hydropower to the worldwide electricity generation is the highest. Low power costs 6|Page . In this chapter.

as plants are mostly automated and have a handful of personnel on site during normal operation.1: Contribution of hydropower to the total world energy mix. The dam’s water might provide support to irrigation besides serving its main purpose of generating electricity. A Hydro Power Plant does not need any sort of fossil fuels. Fig 2. so the cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels such as oil. ( b) breakdown of the renewable portion (Source: Energy Information Administration and World Energy Council[2. Suitability for industrial applications 7|Page . Hydroelectric plants have relatively long working lives. Operating labor cost is also usually low.3] Hydroelectric plants may serve many purposes. with some plants still in service after 50–100 years. (a) contribution of the primary sources.Chapter 2 The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel. natural gas or coal.

and at times they become tourist attractions themselves. aquaculture in reservoirs is common. Dedicated hydroelectric projects are often built to provide ample amounts of electricity needed for different industrial plants. hydroelectricity produces the least amount of greenhouse gases and externality of any energy source. which would otherwise affect people living downstream of the project.Chapter 2 Many hydroelectric projects are developed to supply public electricity demands. And moreover. While some carbon dioxide is produced during manufacture and construction of the projects. Coming in second place was wind. 8|Page . Other uses of the reservoir Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for various activities like water sports. the fossil-fuel generation plants also produce green house gases while construction. this is a tiny fraction of the emissions at the time of operation of equivalent fossil-fuel electricity generation plants. some are developed especially to serve demands of specific industrial enterprises. In some countries. Multi-use dams support agriculture with a relatively constant water supply. Low maintenance cost Aside from initial construction costs and maintenance throughout the year (which is common for all kind of construction). one can say. According to that study. One measurement of greenhouse gas related and other externality comparison between energy sources can be found in the Extern-E project[14] by the Paul Scherrer Institute and the University of Stuttgart which was funded by the European Commission. and fourth was solar photovoltaic. Reduction of CO2 (Green House Gas) emissions Hydroelectric plants do not directly produce any green house gas such as CO2 because they do not burn fossil fuels. it’s fairly simple and cheap to maintain a turbine. third was nuclear energy. Large hydro dams can at times control floods.

hydroelectricity power plants have a more controllable and predictable load factor. These are subdivided into different divisions [2. nitric oxide. it can generate power when needed.4] keeping different ways of division in mind. Conventional (dams) Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of static dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. hydroelectricity generates no nuclear waste.1 In Terms Of Generating Methods In terms of generating methods HEPs are divided into following five types. has none of the dangers associated with uranium mining. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. Hydroelectricity also dismisses the hazards of coal mining and the indirect health effects of coal emissions. carbon monoxide. Pumped-storage This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. If the project has a storage reservoir. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. nor nuclear leaks.Chapter 2 Comparison with other methods of power generation Hydroelectricity completely cancels out the flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Hydroelectric plants can be easily regulated to follow variations in power demand. and mercury in the coal. 2. excess generation 9|Page . A large pipe (the "penstock") delivers water to the turbine. dust. If we compare to nuclear power. And hydroelectricity is renewable whereas uranium is non-renewable resource. 2. At times of low electrical demand. This height difference is called the head.3 Types Of HEP Hydro electric power plants can be of many types.3. including pollutants such as sulfur dioxide. Compared to wind farms.

water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels. or must be allowed to bypass the dam. so that the water coming from upstream must be used for generation at that moment. such sources Fig 2. and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs. Run-of-the-river Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity.2: Cross Section of a Conventional Hydro-Electric Dam [5] are highly predictable. Tide A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides. can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. Underground 10 | P a g e . When there is higher demand.Chapter 2 capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system.

The definition of a small hydro project varies but a generating capacity of up to 10 megawatts (MW) is generally accepted as the upper limit of what can be termed small hydro. 2. Large-scale hydroelectric power stations are more commonly seen as the largest power producing facilities in the world Small Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale serving a small community or industrial plant. only three facilities over 10 GW (10. An underground tunnel is constructed to take water from the high reservoir to the generating hall built in an underground cavern near the lowest point of the water tunnel and a horizontal tailrace taking water away to the lower outlet waterway.2 GW[1].3. or in areas where there is no national electrical 11 | P a g e . such as a waterfall or mountain lake. Hydro power plants are divided into four main types. small hydro projects may be built in isolated areas that would be uneconomic to serve from a network.5 GW). raising the total world small-hydro capacity to 85 GW. Currently. Small-scale hydroelectricity production grew by 28% during 2008 from 2005.000 MW) are in operation worldwide. facilities from over a few hundred megawatts to more than 10 GW are generally considered large hydroelectric facilities. Large Facilities There is no official definition for the capacity range of a large hydroelectric power station. the United States (3 GW). followed by Japan (3. and Guri Dam at 10. Three Gorges Dam at 22.Chapter 2 An underground power station makes use of a large natural height difference between two waterways.2 In Terms Of Size Keeping size in mind. Small hydro plants may be connected to conventional electrical distribution networks as a source of low-cost renewable energy. This may be stretched to 25 MW and 30 MW in Canada and the United States.5 GW. Over 70% of this was in China (65 GW). and India (2 GW). Alternatively. Itaipu Dam at 14 GW.

particularly in developing nations as they can provide an economical source of energy without purchase of fuel. Micro Micro hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 KW of power. Since small hydro projects usually have minimal reservoirs and civil construction work. These installations can provide power to an isolated home or small community.3: Arrangements of a small hydropower system (Courtesy of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy) photovoltaic solar energy systems because in many areas.Chapter 2 distribution network. Pico 12 | P a g e . they are seen as having a relatively low environmental impact compared to large hydro. There are many of these installations around the world. is highest in the winter when solar energy is at a minimum. or are sometimes connected to electric power networks. This decreased environmental impact depends strongly on the balance between stream flow and power production.[12] Micro hydro systems complement Fig 2. water flow. and thus available hydro power.

is in the range of 75– 90%. therefore. drop this down a gradient. The net power. and through the turbine before returning it to the stream 2. Efficiencies of around 90–95% can be expected for ⁿh .Chapter 2 Pico hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power generation of under 5 KW.4 Hydropower System Efficiency[2] Various energy losses in a hydropower system affect the net power production. It is useful in small. The overall efficiency. Pico-hydro setups typically are run-of-the-river. but rather pipes divert some of the flow. therefore. Similarly. in the range of 95–98%. Even smaller turbines of 200-300W may power a single home in a developing country with a drop of only 1 m (3 ft). These losses are ⁿ taken into account by multiplying the theoretical power by efficiencies. meaning that dams are not used. given by: n = nh x nv x nm The hydraulic efficiency is defined as: Where Hu is the head utilized by the runner and H is the net head on the turbine. remote communities that require only a small amount of electricity. the efficiency of modern hydro-turbines is in the range of 90–95%. The leakage around the runner is taken into account by the volumetric ⁿ efficiency ( v). The development of new sealing methods has increased the volumetric efficiency significantly. to power one or two fluorescent light bulbs and a TV or a radio for a few homes. The mechanical efficiency (ⁿm) takes into account various losses involving the hydro turbine and is often called the turbine efficiency. for example. The overall efficiency is. is given by: 13 | P a g e . The hydraulic efficiency ( h) addresses the head loss. therefore.

especially on fisheries and water ecosystems.Chapter 2 P = ⁿQhg Where Q is the Volumetric Flow Rate and g is gravitational force. wind and biomass account for less than 3% of renewable electricity production. killing fish and affecting the water quality.5 Summary Among renewable energy sources. the further growth of hydropower systems in a number of developed countries is limited. Various efforts and research are underway to design advanced types of hydro-turbines that can allow safe passage of fishes during their use. 14 | P a g e . geothermal. However. Other sources including solar. 2. Although hydropower systems have meaningful advantages over conventional coal and nuclear [1] power plants. Large scale hydropower installations can alter river ecosystems. Hydropower can have negative ecological and environmental impacts. various environmental issues are restricting their growth . hydropower is the leading generator of electricity providing more [2] than 97% of all electricity generated by renewable sources . which is 95% and more. Hydropower is very effective because of the high efficiency of hydro-turbines.

Components of Hydro Power Plant Chapter 3 .

1. Its role is to convert the power of water into mechanical power. In this chapter. The basic process of generating electricity in this manner is to rotate a series of coils inside a magnetic field or vice versa. Next to the turbine. Electric Generator Similarly to any other generator. The rotational speed of a synchronous generator which may be directly connected to a grid is 16 | P a g e . 3. strikes the blades of the turbine and makes the shaft rotate due to its impact or change of velocity and pressure. There are different forms or designs of hydraulic turbines in use depending on the operational requirements. i. According to their functionality. the most important part of a hydropower plant is the generator.1.2.4] impossible. 3. generation of power by a hydropower plant is nearly [2. there are many parts. The selection of the turbine is very critical for the success of a hydro power plant. This process leads to the movement of electrons inside conductors.1. While flowing through the hydraulic turbine the velocity and pressure of water diminish resulting in the development of torque and rotation of the turbine shaft. Flowing water. their will be a brief description given about these parts. these parts can be subdivided into some divisions. Turbine The turbine can be considered as the heart of any hydropower plant. Hydraulic turbines have a row of blades fitted to the rotating shaft or a rotating plate. which produces electrical current.e.while passing through the hydraulic turbine. Without these parts. 3.Chapter 3 In any Hydro Power Plant.1. by rotating the shaft. the primary function of a generator for a hydropower station is to convert the rotation of shaft into electric power. Main Parts The following are the main parts of any hydropower plant that are needed to convert the energy in water into electricity.

Chapter 3

kept constant, and dictated by the constant frequency of the grid. The relationship between the
rotational speed of generator and frequency is governed by the formula:

The number of poles indicates the number of the sets of coils in the stator of the generator in which
the electric power is generated. Two poles make one pole pair hence the number of poles in a
generator cannot be an odd number. Due to the fact that grid is operating with three phases, the
generator must also produce three phase alternating current.
In practice, the speed of large hydro turbines is not normally more than 500 rpm, requiring a
generator of around 8 or more pole pairs. Turbine and generator of a hydropower plant are connected
through a shaft.

Fig 3.1 Shaft of a Hydro Power Plant

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Chapter 3

3.1.3. Transformer and Power House
The transformers and power house of a hydropower plant act as an interface between the electric
generator and the power transmission lines. The voltage of the generated middle voltage electricity
by generator, e.g. 6,000 V, is increased into very high voltage electricity by using transformers. Such
a conversion is required since high voltage is preferred for transmitting of power over long distances
as technical losses are reduced.
From a lighting designer’s point of view, the powerhouse is the most important area of any Hydro
Electric Power Plant because all the different types of rooms, offices and control rooms are all placed
inside the power house. This is the area of concern for the lighting designer.
3.1.4. Reservoirs
Storage type hydropower plants have an upper and a lower water level with the machinery in
between. As the word ‘storage’ suggests, the water is stored in a reservoir before it comes in contact
with the turbine. Water is stored in upper reservoir because during the course of the day or with
seasonal changes, different amounts of electricity are demanded from the grid and the availability of
water in the river feeding water to the hydropower plant may not match the requirement of power
governing the requirement of water for the turbine. Such reservoirs may be
naturally available close to the site of power generation; however, in most cases they are man-made
reservoirs only.
Some storage power plants have another reservoir at the discharge end of the turbine. Such discharge
side reservoirs are found in pumped storage power plants. In such power plants, the water stored in
the upper reservoir is first converted into electricity when streaming down through the turbine. This
water is stored in the lower reservoir and is later pumped up to the upper reservoir to have potential
energy again, when surplus electricity is available in non-peak hours. The lower reservoir is usually

18 | P a g e

Chapter 3

smaller than the upper reservoir that primarily depends upon factors such as availability of water and
power demand peaks in the load profile, besides feasibility related aspects such as availability of a
suitable place for locating a lower reservoir. It may be noted that sometimes, due to the nonavailability of a natural reservoir, an artificial reservoir needs to be created.

3.2.

Structural Parts

Structural parts of hydropower station are those parts that do not directly take part in power
generation; however, they form the basic structure that facilitates controlled and safe use of water for
power generation by turbine and generator. In the following, the parts are described that constitute
the main structure of the hydropower plant.
3.2.1 Dam and Spillway
Dams are structures built over rivers to stop the water flow and form a reservoir. The reservoir stores
the water flowing down the river as explained in the previous section. This water is diverted to
turbines of hydropower stations. The dams collect water during the rainy season and store it, thus
allowing for a steady flow through the turbines throughout the year. Dams are also used for
controlling floods and to store water for irrigation purpose. The prime requirement for any dam is to
be able to withstand the pressure exerted by the huge amount of water that is stored behind it. There
are different types of dams depending upon the shape of their structure such as arch dams, gravity
dams and buttress dams. The height of water in the dam is called ‘head race’.
For creating a dam, the river needs to be diverted from the place of construction, and especially must
be drained so that construction actively can take place. This is realized by a temporary reservoir
surrounded by metal walls. The reservoir area is kept dry and the construction is quickly carried out.
As the structure of a dam spreads, sometimes it is required to shift the temporary reservoir according
to the construction plan and inflow of water.

19 | P a g e

Examples for these are the building of a pond for frogs. it is possible to regulate flow through gates provided within the dam structure that provide an opening for releasing water to the other side without passing it through the turbine. In such a situation. the environmental impact assessment provides for compensatory measures. due to a sudden stoppage of incoming water. supplying water to the turbine. When the valve of a hydro power plant. This intervention in the surrounding environment changes the local nature and has an impact on topographic habitats. It is used to provide for the release of flood water from a dam. The uncontrolled type of spillway is one which starts releasing water when water rises above a particular level. the pressure in the supply pipes rises suddenly and the pipes may even burst. As a result of the spread of water. reforestation. A spillway as the name suggests is a method for spilling of water from dams. overflow is the only way for water to reach the other side of the dam. the pressure of the water in the supply pipe gets reduced and the possibility of cavitations arises. 3. is opened. The role of surge chamber is to provide buffer space for the storage or supply or water in case of sudden increase or decrease in turbine loading. In the case of the controlled type spillway. Due to this. it may happen that the water head is interrupted. or constructing wet meadows and other biotopes. On the other hand.2. This is a construction before the inlet to the turbine that has regulatory functions. when the valve is shut. It is used to prevent over toping of the dams which could result in damage or failure of dams.Chapter 3 Spillway is an integral part of any dam. dry places become submerged under water.2 Surge Chambers These are tower like structures that provide chambers for the temporary storage of water. The surge chamber. In this type. The creating a dam leads definitely to the formation of a huge reservoir in front of the dam that expands far beyond the former riverbank. Spillways are of two types: controlled type and uncontrolled type. which is a 20 | P a g e .

Chapter 3

cylindrical water storage structure, is connected to the pipe between dam and turbine and regulates
the swaying of water. When the valve is opened, the surge chamber can feed the water it contains to
the pipes to avoid interruption of the water head. After the effect of a sudden change in flow has
stabilized, the chamber is filled with water again to the same level of the upper water reservoir. When
the valve is shut again it regulates the increasing pressure by letting water in its empty space above
the previous water level. Here the kinetic energy of water is converted into potential energy, which is
a higher level of water. Once the flow stabilizes, the high level water automatically comes down to
the level of the reservoir.
The practice and mechanism of operation of surge chambers of hydropower plants is principally the
same as for surge chambers used in large water pumps. The role of surge chambers in each case is to
prevent damage of equipment and structure against the effect of change in equipment loading.
3.2.3 Penstock
Penstocks are pipes which carry water from the reservoir to the turbines located inside the power
station. They are usually made of steel or concrete, and are equipped with gate systems for
controlling the flow. The pressure of water flowing through the penstock is very high. In some
locations where an obstruction is present between the dam and power station such as a mountain, the
tunnel connecting the reservoir and the power station itself serves the purpose of a penstock.
3.2.4 Tailrace
The tailrace is the downstream part of a dam where the impounded water re-enters the river. It is the
last part of the power plant structure, before the water enters the downstream river or lake. The tail
race widens towards the end for the reason that with an enlarging section the energetic losses will be
reduced as compared to losses in the constant section tail race. This loss of energy in outgoing water
helps to reduce the back pressure on the upstream side and consequently helps in operating the

21 | P a g e

Chapter 3

turbine more efficiently. When the water is led to the lower water level in the outtake structure, the
pressure of the lower water level makes it harder for the water coming from the turbine side to enter
the downstream river. This happens under the surface of the lower water level. In order to reduce this
problem the outlet structure is wider at its end to increase the pressure of the streaming water by
slowing it down by use a widened section.
3.2.5 Pressure Pipes
Pressure pipes or pressure tunnels, as their name suggests, lead water under pressure and normally do
not allow any air to enter the system. Their main purpose is to transfer water from the reservoir to the
power plant. They are made by placing an additional layer of ferroconcrete between the layers of
steel and rock. Its steel withstands the pressure in the pipe, while the concrete connects the pipe to the
rock. Below the tunnel, separated from the actual pipe, there are additionally grooves for draining the
pipe surrounding rock. Free level tunnels are more or less horizontal, while pressure pipes can be
sloping or even vertical. The pressure pipes may have different tilt angles ranging from 300 to 900.
What is more important for pressure pipes and tunnels is the pressure head. At the bottom of a 500 m
high pipe filled with water, the pressure would be 50 bar, for which they need to be built very strong
sturdily.
3.2.6 Caverns
Caverns, a structural part of any hydropower station, are constructed subterraneously within the
mountain. They can be built with their level below the lower water level in order to avoid cavitations.
There are different reasons for constructing a power plant within a mountain. At first there is the
visual reason. The acceptance of a power station by nearby residents is higher if it is nearly invisible.
Another reason is that the plant located within the mountain is better protected than it would be
outside. The third reason is a rather technical one, the downpipes are shorter.

22 | P a g e

Chapter 3

Caverns have further tunnels that serve other functions. At first, a drive tunnel is needed to reach
the different level in the power station with regular vehicles if machine parts need serving. Another
one is needed for ventilation for the tunnel or the power plant. A third type of tunnel leads the wires
to the necessary destinations and conducts electricity. Thus, there are four different types of tunnels
at total: the drive tunnel, the ventilation tunnel, the electricity tunnel, and the water- bearing pipe.
3.2.7 Control Valve
Control valve and Shut-off valves are needed in hydroelectric power plants for interrupting the water
flow during operation. This can be necessary for safety issues concerning the bottom water, for
draining the turbine if the turbine needs repair or service, as well as in a pumped storage power plant,
when switching between turbine working and pump working.

Fig 3.2 An example of a Control Valve
[4]

Fig 3.2 shows a photograph of a control valve of a hydropower station.

On the left side of the

picture, the connection from the penstock is visible, and on the right water is entering the turbine
spiral casing. The valve is very heavy in order to withstand the pressure of water, 30 bar in this case.

23 | P a g e

Chapter 3 It requires a special driving mechanism for its operation. 24 | P a g e . cylinders and lever for controlling the position of the valve is also seen in this figure.

Status of HEP in India Chapter 4 .

List of some Important HEP Plant in India As written earlier. Besides. projects may also be conceived as multi-purpose ones contributing not only to power but also to irrigation. it ranks fifth in the world in terms of usable global potential. India is endowed with economically exploitable and viable hydro potential assessed to be about 84. flood control.4 MW which is 21. less than 25% has been developed or taken up for development.000 MW installed capacity have been identified. Table 4. etc. Overview of Indian Power Sector India is endowed with rich hydropower potential. [27] National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC). Thus hydropower is one of the potential sources for meeting the growing energy needs of the country. The Government of India is. The present installed capacity as on 30/06/2011 is approximately 37. 4. therefore.1 gives region-wise overview of current status of hydro [23] electricity generation in India upto March’12. India was the 7th largest producer of Hydro Electric Power among the world In 2008. meeting the peak demand and also increased flexibility in grid operation. reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. navigation. In that year 114TWh power was produced [16] . An aggregate of 94.000 MW at 60% load factor. India has immense hydropower potential and only a few percentage of that is being utilized in present days. giving special emphasis to accelerated hydropower development in its power development plans.367.53% of total electricity generation in India.[16] However. 26 | P a g e .Chapter 4 4.1. Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (SJVNL). A judicial mix of hydropower in the energy portfolio can also contribute to energy security.2. Tehri Hydro Development Corporation (THDC). NTPC – Hydro are a few public sector companies engaged in development of Hydro Electric Power in India. NorthEast Electric Power Company (NEEPCo).

5.5x50 1450 Bhakra Dam Punjab BBMB 5x108.4x250 1920 Sri Sailam Dam Andhra Pradesh APPGenCo 6x150.4x250 2400 Ltd.5x150.5. 4x65. Station State Operator Generating Units Capacity (MW) Tehri Dam Uttaranchal THDC India 4x250.7x110 1670 Nathpa Jhakri Himachal Pradesh SJVNL 6x250 1500 Shravathi Karnataka KPCL 10x103.2x27.70 North Eastern 10 28 1200.40 Table 4.Chapter 4 Region Number of Stations Number of Units Capacity (MW) Northern 58 197 15178.00 All India (Total) 177 620 38990.4x75.4x80.5x157 1325 Kulinadi Karnataka KPCL 2x50.1 Region-wise Hydro Electricity Generation in India (Mar ‘12) [24] The following Table 4.3x40 1240 Indira Sagar Madhya Pradesh NHPC 8x125 1000 Idukki Dam Kerala KSEB 6x130 580 Salal Jammu & NHPC 6x115 690 Kashmir Chamera – I Himachal Pradesh NHPC 3x180 540 Omkareswar Madhya Pradesh NHPC 8x65 520 Teesta – V Sikkim NHPC 3x170 510 Uri Hydro Electric Jammu & NHPC 4x120 480 Dam Kashmir Chamera – II Himachal Pradesh NHPC 3x100 300 Table 4.00 Southern 66 239 11372.4x160 1469 Sardar Sarovar Gujrat SSNNL 6x200.1x135.45 Eastern 15 55 3847.2 A few HEP Stations in India 27 | P a g e .2x20. Koyna Maharastra MahaGenCo.25 Western 28 101 7392.2 gives some basic information about a few of these 177 stations. 4x100.x50.

With this in view. which would need to be completed by [25] 2016–2017. (Table 4.3.000 billion would be required for project implementation based on present day costs and another Rs50 billion would be required for survey and investigations.3 Upcoming Hydro Electric Projects in India 4. about Rs5. Station State Operator Installed Total Capacity Capacity (MW) Parbati – II Himachal Pradesh NHPC 4x200 800 Subhansiri Assam NHPC 8x250 2000 Uri – II Jammu & Kashmir NHPC 4x60 240 Parbati – III Himachal Pradesh NHPC 4x130 520 Teesta Low Dam – West Bengal NHPC 4x33 132 West Bengal NHPC 4x40 160 Koldam Himachal Pradesh NTPC Hydro 4x200 800 Tapovan Uttaranchal NTPC Hydro 4x130 520 Demwe Arunachal Pradesh NEEPCo 10x300 3000 Kamey Dam Arunachal Pradesh NEEPCo 4x150 600 III Teesta Low Dam – IV Vishnugadh Table 4.Chapter 4 [27] In the next table data relating to some of the upcoming Hydro Electric Power Plants in India are given. 28 | P a g e .3). This document indicated that in order to harness the entire remaining assessed hydropower potential of the country by 2025–2026. Strategies for Accelerated Hydro Power Development A need was felt to evolve a comprehensive approach for the phased development of the large untapped hydro potential. CEA prepared a vision document in 2001 giving a road map for expediting hydropower development in the country.

The installed capacity of these schemes is about 33. the Prime Minister of India announced a 50. 29 | P a g e . C. 70 are located in Brahmaputra. Prime Ministers 50.930 MW distributed across 16 states have been prepared.3. The aspects considered are resettlement and rehabilitation (R&R) issues. length of tunnel/channel. The preliminary ranking study report released in February 2002 was expected to provide information to developers on the relative risks and attractiveness of different potential sites and also to take up more detailed investigations including preparation of feasibility reports. Under this program prefeasibility reports (PFRs) of 162 new projects with an aggregate capacity of 47.2. inter-state/international aspects. Of these schemes (32. CEA carried out [23] preliminary ranking studies of about 400 schemes in the six river basins of the country.000 MW hydro initiative in May 2003 [26] . Ranking of Potential Hydro Sites As a follow-up of the recommendations contained in the vision document. Out of these 162 schemes. D and E from the point of view of attractiveness (in decreasing order) for implementation. Indus and Ganga basins in the north and north-eastern part of the country. type and height of dam.50 have been selected for preparation of detailed project reports (DPRs) and subsequent [29] implementation. 4. present status of the project and the status of upstream or downstream developments.Chapter 4 4.000 MW Hydroelectric Initiative In order to give further acceleration for development of hydro sector.3.000 MW. potential of the scheme.000 MW). accessibility of site.000 MW have been ranked into five categories as A. B. 73 schemes having first year indicative tariff below Rs2.1. Schemes totaling to about 107.

Light Sources Chapter 5 .

color rendering qualities. Light sources with less CCT (less than 3000K) are warmer sources and light sources with CCT more than 4000K are named as cool light sources. cost and the effect wanted. 5.yellow and bluish-white at the highest temperature). A blackbody radiator changes color as its temperature increases (first to red.Chapter 5 5.then orange. There are three main characteristics of light sources. Characteristics of Light Sources Electric light sources have three characteristics : Luminous efficacy. expressed in Kelvin. People usually prefer a warmer source in lower illuminance areas. such as dinning areas and living rooms. Color temperature refers to the color of a blackbody radiator at a given absolute temperature. It is expressed in lumens per watt. Introduction In Hydro Electric Power Plants or any industry. 5.1. 31 | P a g e . Sources with higher efficacy require less electrical energy to light a space. This is a measure of “warmth” or “coolness” provided by the lamp.1 Luminous Efficacy Some lamp types are more efficient in converting energy into visible light than others. different types of light sources are used. The luminous efficacy of a lamp refers to the lumen output of the lamp compared to the number of watts required by the lamp (and ballast).2. Selecting the appropriate light source depends on installation requirements. Every lamp has its advantages and shortcomings.2.2.2 Co-related Color Temperature (CCT) Another characteristic of a light source is the co-related color temperature. co-related color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index(CRI). and a cooler source in higher illuminance areas like the workshops. 5.

Chapter 5 5.1). Table 5. Now-a-days countries like New Zealand are banning the use [13] of GLS lamps because of energy saving. 5. 32 | P a g e .3 Color Rendering Index (CRI) The CRI is a relative scale (ranging from 0-100) indicating how perceived colors match actual colors. it is rather an indication of the average shift of eight standard colors. so that it emits light.2. ≥ 90 Colour Rendering Index Ra 80-89 70-79 60-69 40-59 20-39 Daylight Incandescent Lamp Compact Fluorescent Lamp Fluorescent Lamp High Pressure Mercury Vapour Lamp Metal Halide Lamp High Pressure Sodium Vapour Lamp Table 5.3. The higher the color rendering index. [8] Two different light sources may have identical CRI values. but colors may appear quite different under these two sources. the less color shift or distortion occurs. illuminated by a given light source. The basic and most popular form of the lamp is the General Lighting Service (GLS) lamp (fig 5. The basic principle of the lamp may be simple but the technology required to maintain a filament at a high enough temperature to give significant amount of light whilst ensuring the lamp has a reasonable life is highly complex. Incandescent/GLS Lamps The incandescent lamp is operated by heating a filament in the lamp to a high temperature. conform to the colors of those same objects when they are illuminaed by a reference standard light source.it measures the degree that perceived colors of objects.1 gives an idea about the CRI(Ra) of different light sources.1 CRI of Different Light Sources The CRI number does not indicate which colors will shift or by how much.

evaporating tungsten off the filament. Here. in halogen lamps the temperature of the bulb is high enough so that the tungsten combines with the halogen. The regenerative cycle starts with the tungsten filament operating at incandescence. However. however. the halogen regenerative cycle enables a tungsten-halogen lamp to provide benefits compared to a conventional incandescent lamp such as longer life. Normally the tungsten particles would collect on the bulb wall resulting in bulb blackening. higher luminous efficacy and no bulb blackening. common with incandescent lamps and most evident near the end of their life. The resulting tungsten-halogen compound is also gaseous and continues to circulate inside the lamp until it comes in contact with the incandescent filament. the heat is sufficient to break down the 33 | P a g e .1 Incandescent/GLS Bulb Tungsten-Halogen Lamps The construction and principle of operation of incendescent lamps and tungsten-halogen lamps are similar.Chapter 5 Fig 5. higher color temperature.

usually in the form of a long tubular bulb with an electrode sealed into each end. However. and 578 nm. the tungsten-halogen lamp still has a finite life. 313. This discharge generates some visible radiation. When the proper voltage is applied.4. limits the current to the value for which each lamp is designed. and halogen. and thereby maintaining lamp efficacy over time. The UV in turn excites the phosphors to emit light. but mostly invisible UV radiation. Dimmed tungsten-halogen lamps should periodically be run at full power. 34 | P a g e . fluorescent lamps must be operated in series with a current-limiting device. 365. commonly called a ballast. which is freed to continue its role in the regenerative cycle .2). 436. inducing the tungsten-halogen cycle to clean the tungsten off the bulb wall. 546. since the tungsten does not necessarily redeposit exactly where it came from. It also provides the required starting and operating lamp voltages and may provide dimming control. in which light is produced predominantly by fluorescent powders activated by UV energy generated by a mercury arc. the principal lines being approximately 254. The inner walls of the bulb are coated with fluorescent powders commonly called phosphors (fig 5. contains mercury vapor at low pressure with a small amount of inert gas for starting. Like most gas discharge lamps. The phosphors are generally selected and blended to respond most efficiently to 254 nm the primary wavelength generated in a mercury low-pressure discharge. 5. 405. The lamp.Chapter 5 compound into tungsten. which is redeposited on the filament. Fluorescent Lamps The fluorescent lamp is a low-pressure gas discharge source. This auxiliary. an arc is produced by current flowing between the electrodes through the mercury vapor.

Also available are high-output versions providing approximately 35 | P a g e . The 4-ft version of the lamp is designed to consume approximately 32 W. 1. In recent years the usage of these lamps are stopped and existing installations are being retrofitted with more efficient and energysaving T-8 lamps. Although the T-8 and T-12 lamps are physically interchangeable. or on high-frequency electronic ballasts at slightly less current. T-5 Fluorescent lamps T-5 fluorescent lamps are a family of smaller diameter straight tube lamps employing triphosphor technology. magnetic ballasts are being replaced by energy saving electronic ballast. 0. they cannot operate on the same ballast.52-. and 2. (0. It is also available in 2-. the T-5 lamps provide a higher source brightness than T-8 lamps and better optical control.Chapter 5 Fig 5.44-m) lengths. The smaller diameter makes it economical to use the more efficient and more expensive rareearth phosphors.16-. Available only in metric lengths and mini bipin bases.91-. 4 ft long with 38mm diameter. 3-.2 Elements of a Fluorescent Lamp T-12 Fluorescent lamps T-12 lamps are normally 40W.4 mm) straight tube lamps manufactured in some of the same lengths as T-12 lamps. In present years. allowing for the design of more compact luminaires. T-8 Fluorescent lamps T-8 fluorescent lamps are a family of 1-in. The lamps provide optimum light output at an ambient temperature of 35°C (95°F) rather than the more typical 25°C (77°F). T-8 lamps are designed to operate on line-frequency rapid-start ballasting systems at approximately 265 mA.-diameter (25.and 8-ft. 5.

Compact Fluorescent lamps The rare-earth activated phosphor has led to the development of a growing variety of multitube or multibend single-ended lamps known as compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs).to 100-W incandescent lamps. There are many techniques of adding. Their unique lengths. These lamps are used in shallower luminaires than the T-8 lamps. Some designs with self-contained ballasts are equipped with Edison-type screw-in bases for use in incandescent sockets. The lamps originally were designed to be interchangeable with conventional 25. while others contain both the starter and the ballast. Present compact lamp wattages vary from 5 to 55 W. T-5 lamps are designed to operate solely on electronic ballasts. depending on lamp wattage and construction. special lampholder. Because of the high power density in these lamps. while other designs use special pin-type bases for dedicated use with mating sockets designed for lamps of a particular wattage (fig 5. which are more efficient over all than luminaires for T-8 lamps. but now this lamp type includes sizes that replace conventional fluorescent lamps in smaller luminaires. Overall lamp length varies from 100 to 570 mm.8] them unsuitable for most retrofit applications. The tube portion of the lamp is sometimes enclosed in a cylindrical or spherical outer translucent jacket made of glass or plastic. and rated lumen output ranges from 250 to [5] 4800 lm. which can take the form of a simple magnetic choke or an electronic ballast. and ballast requirements make [5. high-performance phosphors are used extensively in 36 | P a g e . T-4 and T-5 tubes typically are used in compact fluorescent lamps.3). Some lamps contain the lamp starter.Chapter 5 twice the lumens at the same length as the standard versions. bending. and connecting the tubes to obtain the physical size and lumen output desired.

and color rendering ability. The construction of a HPMV lamp is shown in fig 5.4. The outer bulb of the lamp is coated internally with a phosphor that converts this UV radiation into light. 37 | P a g e . lumen maintenance.5.4 W/in2). Amalgams can be added to some versions to enhance performance under a range of operating temperatures. Mercury Vapour Lamps In this type of lamp a discharge takes place in a quartz discharge tube containing mercury vapour at high pressure (2 to 10 atmospheres). Some of the radiation from the discharge occurs in the visible spectrum but part of the radiation is emitted in the ultraviolet. The light-producing element of these lamp types is a wallstabilized arc discharge contained within a refractory envelope (arc tube) with wall loading in excess of 3 W/cm2 (19. High Intensity Discharge Lamps High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps include the groups of lamps commonly known as mercury.3 Different Types of Compact Fluorescent Lamps order to enhance brightness. metal halide.Chapter 5 Fig 5. 5. and high-pressure sodium.

they are dissociated into the halogen and the metals. 38 | P a g e . the metal halides in the arc tube are partially vaporized. and the cycle repeats. Second. [9] Commercially available metal halide lamps have efficacies of 75 to 125 lumens/watt (excluding ballast losses). This allows the introduction of metals with desirable emission properties into the arc at normal arc tube temperatures. The efficacy of metal halide lamps is greatly improved over mercury lamps. the major difference being that the metal halide arc tube contains various metal halides in addition to the mercury and argon. metal halides are more volatile at arc tube operating temperatures than pure metals. they recombine. The use of metal halides inside the arc tube presents two advantages. When the halide vapors approach the high-temperature central core of the discharge.4 Construction of a HPMV Lamp Metal Halide Lamps Metal halide lamps are similar in construction to mercury lamps. with the metals radiating their spectrum. which does not readily react with fused silica. those metals that react chemically with the arc tube can be used in the form of a halide.Chapter 5 Fig 5. As the halogen and metal atoms move near the cooler arc tube wall by diffusion and convection. When the lamp attains full operating temperature. First.

The white high pressure sodium lamp has a spectrum with minimal output in the yellow. this is at the expense of efficacy in terms of lumens per watt with respect to the low pressure sodium vapour (SOX) lamps. The low pressure variation of sodium vapour lamp has a single line spectrum. it has a long life with reasonable lumen maintenance and although the colour rendering on the standard lamp is poor it is acceptable for a number of applications.Chapter 5 Almost all varieties of white-light metal halide lamps have color rendering properties as good as or superior to phosphor-coated mercury lamps. This has the property of making a large [5] number of colours appear more vivid.5 Parts of a High Pressure Sodium Vapour (SON) lamp The high pressure sodium lamp is an efficient source of light (efficacies up to 142 lumens per watt). Fig 5. 39 | P a g e . High Pressure Sodium Vapour (SON) Lamps The high pressure sodium lamp generates light in a discharge through sodium vapour at high pressure. [8] As the vapour pressure rises the colour rendering of the lamp increases. However. As the vapour pressure of sodium in a lamp rises the spectrum at first broadens and then it splits in two with a gap appearing at about 586 nm.

Light Emitting Diodes (LED) A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source.Chapter 5 5. smaller size. When a diode is forward biased (switched on). with very high brightness. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. However. but modern versions are available across the [5] visible. longer lifetime. and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. improved robustness. electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device. they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption. releasing energy in the form of photons(fig 5. Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. faster switching.6). This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths.6. A LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2).6 Construction of Low Power (left) and High Power (right) LED The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. and are increasingly used for lighting. and greater durability and reliability. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices. Fig 5. 40 | P a g e .

Luminaires Chapter 6 .

white ceiling for efficient operation. The most common problems with lighting installations using direct luminaires is the creation of a dark ceiling and poor illuminance uniformity in obstructed spaces. They require a clean. Consequently. Direct luminaires are available with dimming or switching facilities linked to manual.Chapter 6 The lighting industry produces many thousands of different luminaires. direct luminaires are available with a wide range of luminous intensity distributions. Many different forms of optical control are available. They are described here.1.2. 6. 6. from diffusers through prismatic refractors to parabolic reflectors and louvres. 6. They are widely used in offices where the ceiling height is restricted. Indirect Luminaires Indirect luminaires are luminaires in which the light distribution is predominantly upward. Details of any specific luminaire are best obtained from the manufacturers. Given below are brief outlines of the main types of luminaire used in interior and exterior lighting.1. The usual light source is a fluorescent lamp. wall mounted or free standing. This problem can be overcome by choosing direct luminaires with a little upward light output or by having high reflection factors in the space. either linear or folded.1. occupancy sensor and photocell control. [28] corrosive or hazardous conditions. Direct Luminaires Direct luminaires are luminaires in which the light distribution is predominantly downward. Different Types of Interior Luminaires There are different kinds of interior luminaires available in the market. Direct luminaires are available for operation in dirty. Indirect luminaires are most practical where the 42 | P a g e . Such luminaires are typically recessed into or surface mounted on the ceiling. Such luminaires can be suspended below the ceiling.1.

75 m. In many ways.1 Direct Luminaire (left) and Indirect Luminaire (Right) ceiling height is over 2. Optical control is confined to ensuring that the light output from the luminaire is widely spread across the ceiling so that no hot spots of high luminance are apparent. The usual light source in suspended indirect luminaires is a linear fluorescent lamp. While indirect luminaires have a high light output ratio. This is compensated by the bright appearance of the space.75 m.1. 6. The energy efficiency of a lighting installation using direct/indirect luminaires will be higher than that of one using indirect luminaires but the problems of dark ceilings and poor illuminance uniformity are reduced by the indirect component. direct/indirect luminaires provide the best of both worlds. the high level of illuminance uniformity and the absence of discomfort glare. Optical control is different for the two directions of light output. They are difficult to use where the ceiling height is below about 2.Chapter 6 Fig 6.3. The usual light source in direct/indirect luminaires is a linear fluorescent lamp. Direct /indirect luminaires are suspended below the ceiling. lighting installations using indirect luminaires are usually less energy efficient than those using direct luminaires because of the losses caused by having to use the ceiling as a secondary reflector. being much tighter 43 | P a g e . Direct Indirect Luminaires Direct/indirect luminaires are luminaires in which the light distribution is evenly divided between the upward and downward directions. Wall mounted and free-standing indirect luminaires tend to use a high intensity discharge lamp.

They are widely used in shops.2 Direct/Indirect Luminaire (left). depending on the structure and openness of the area. the most common being incandescent. louvres. Downlights are usually recessed into the ceiling so they direct all of their light output downward. compact fluorescent and metal halide. lenses and refractors many different beam spreads and beam sizes are possible.Chapter 6 for the downward component than the upward. A number of downlights are fitted with decorative elements directly beneath the Fig 6. Many different light sources can be used in downlights. Some downlights allow for adjustable aiming which is useful when the intention is accent lighting. hotels and other places where a lighting installation with a discreet appearance is desired.0. They are surface or pendant mounted. Direct/indirect luminaires are available with individual dimming of the direct component. The most common problems with lighting installations using an array of downlights to create uniform illumination are poor illuminance uniformity caused by overspacing and dark ceilings. tungsten halogen. Industrial High Bay and Low Bay Luminaires These luminaires use HID lamps to produce general lighting in an industrial area.4. 6. Through the use of reflectors. High Bay [5] luminaires are for applications with spacing-to-mounting height ratios of upto 1.1. 6.5. Downlights Downlights are a form of direct luminaire characterised by a small light emitting aperture. These luminaires use 44 | P a g e .1. Downlighter (middle) and Task Light (Right) downlight aperture to give an impression of brightness to the luminaire.

2.0.2. The light distribution is therefore dependent on the position of the luminaire relative to the road. 6. Two broad classes of road lighting luminaire are semi-cutoff and full cutoff. Different Types of Exterior Luminaires The following gives an overview about the various outdoor luminaires.3 Examples of Industrial High Bay Luminaires 6. depending on the application and the need for vertical illuminance. These luminaires usually have wide luminous intensity distributions to provide greater horizontal and vertical illuminances in areas with restricted ceiling heights. For conflict areas and subsidiary roads the luminaires are designed with a wide light distribution so as to give a uniform illuminance across the road. metal halide or in recent years LED. Fig 6.1. Low Bay luminaires are for applications with spacing-to-mounting height ratios greater than 1. A few installations use a catenary system in which the luminaires are suspended over the median in a continuous series. Road lighting luminaires These type of luminaires are designed to deliver light to a road so that the surface is seen to be of uniform luminance and objects on the road can be seen in silhouette. The light sources used in road lighting luminaires are typically high pressure sodium. Road lighting luminaires are often provided with adjustable lamp holders and/or reflectors so as to allow the light distribution to be optimised for the light source and road layout. Most road lighting luminaires are mounted on columns placed at regular intervals at the side of the road or between crash barriers in the median. These 45 | P a g e .Chapter 6 reflectors and refractors to produce luminous intensity distributions that vary from narrow to wide.

Chapter 6 classes reflect a different balance between luminaire efficiency and the control of glare. They are almost always fitted with a photoelectric control package. symmetrical about one axis or asymmetrical about one axis. Care is necessary when using floodlights to avoid glare to passers by. Floodlights need protection against dust and moisture and so are classified according to the IP system(Table 6. This distribution is usually classified as [5. power and light distribution. medium or wide beam. Flood/Area Lighting Luminaires Floodlights can be used to wash a large surface with light or to pick out a specific feature of a building. The largest consist of a high intensity discharge lamp with power in the kilowatt range and a carefully shaped reflector. The light distribution of a floodlight can be rotationally symmetric. Fig 6. Road lighting [18] luminaires need protection against dust and moisture and so are classified according to the IP system(Table 6. Barn door baffles mounted on the floodlight can be used to modify the beam shape.1) and are often soundly constructed of materials that resist attacks by vandals. Filters mounted in front of the floodlight can be used to change the light colour.2. tungsten halogen.10] narrow.1).2. The light sources used in floodlights include incandescent. The smallest floodlights consist of little more than a 150 W linear tungsten halogen lamp with a spread reflector. 46 | P a g e . Floodlights vary enormously in their size.4 Road Lighting Luminaire(Left) and Area Lighting Luminaire(Right) 6. high pressure sodium and metal halide.

1 IP classification of luminaires according to the degree of protection against foreign bodies.Chapter 6 Table 6. dust and moisture[9] 47 | P a g e .

Industrial Indoor Lighting Chapter 7 .

and therefore speed and accuracy are always considered. or inclined planes. or both. to be successful. orientation.Chapter 7 7. material surface characteristics.2. 7. and economic considerations. the visual display terminal (VDT) screen must be considered in the lighting design. thus. and involve flat or contoured shapes. as well as the necessary safety requirements. as with offices. the lighting must provide adequate visibility. so lighting is of the utmost importance as a safety factor in preventing accidents. The speed of operations may be such as to allow only minimum time for visual perception. Many manufacturing functions are now controlled to some degree by computers. and size of the task. With each of the various task conditions. Recommended Practice for Industrial Lighting. the task may involve movement of the object. Physical hazards exist in industrial processes. For those who require data on lighting for a specific industry.1. Visual tasks may be small or large. or translucent. Introduction Visual tasks have special requirements that must be addressed by providing lighting suitable for the task. General Considerations for Industrial Lighting Design [3. information on the lighting for these industries can be found in the IESNA publication RP-7-1991. the viewer. 49 | P a g e . and therefore lighting must be a compensating factor to increase the speed of seeing. dark or light. operating conditions.3. among others. is fast-paced and competitive. Factors of Good Industrial Lighting Industry includes a wide range of visual tasks.10] The designer of an industrial lighting system should consider the following important factors: Quality and quantity of illumination suitable for the processes involved. opaque. positioned in horizontal. on specular or diffuse surfaces. Manufacturing. In addition. These include. transparent. vertical. 7.

Luminaires with an upward component of light. and they should be used only in properly shielded luminaires. easy. quantity. Luminaires are classified according to the way they control the light. Additional information can be obtained from manufacturers. All three design issues should be properly weighted and addressed in the design implementation. Energy. and diffuse the light from the lamps and should be designed to minimize glare and shadows. but it should be understood that daylighting can provide a viable contribution to the lighted environment during certain hours and should be used where appropriate.4. Daylighting has not been included in this chapter. All of these factors must be properly weighted prior to finalizing the design. The upward light reduces the perception of glare from the luminaire and creates a more comfortable environment. Most industrial applications call for luminaires designed to provide a direct or semi-direct light distribution. distribute. and practical to maintain. Types of Lighting Equipment Luminaires control. 7.Chapter 7 Lighting equipment that satisfies the design requirements by considering photometric characteristics as well as the mechanical performance required to meet installation and operating conditions. HID. and safety. economic. Certain lamps may be prone to possible violent end-of-life failures. Good luminance relationships can be 50 | P a g e . Industrial luminaires for fluorescent. and operating characteristics of the selected lighting system. and incandescent lamps are available with upward components. Quality. are preferred for most areas. because providing light on the ceiling or upper structure reduces luminance ratios between luminaires and the background. Equipment that is safe. usually 10 to 30%.

through. cross baffles. Even gasketed luminaires. no matter how effective the gasket seal. High Humidity or Corrosive Atmosphere and Hazardous Location Lighting. louvers. Enclosed and gasketed luminaires are used in nonhazardous areas where atmospheres contain nonflammable dusts and vapors.Chapter 7 achieved with direct lighting equipment if the illuminances and room surface reflectance are high. Gasketed dust-tight and dirt-and moisture-resistant luminaires are also effective in minimizing dirt collection on reflector surfaces. HID. or well-designed diffusers.5. 7. Enclosures protect the interior of the luminaire from conditions 51 | P a g e . [8] Factors that lead to more comfortable and effective industrial lighting installations include: o Light-colored finishes on the outside of luminaires to reduce luminance ratios between the outside of the luminaire and the inner reflecting surface and light source. and if all components of the space have been carefully positioned. Ventilated types of luminaires have proven their ability to reduce maintenance of fluorescent. This is particularly important with high-wattage incandescent or HID sources and very bright fluorescent lamps. so that luminaire luminance in the viewing zone can be limited. which generally minimize dirt collection on the reflector and lamp by allowing convective air circulation to move dirt particles upward. o Top openings in luminaires. Some of these areas are explained here. and out the luminaire. and incandescent types of luminaires. o Higher mounting heights to raise luminaires out of the normal field of view. Factors of Special Consideration There are some areas in any industry where special considerations must be taken. o Selection of luminaires that contain specular or non-specular aluminum or prismatic configured glass or plastic for light control. o Better shielding of the light source by deeper reflectors. have an exchange of air between the ambient environment and the inside of the luminaire.

and particular attention should be given to lamp starting and light output characteristics if fluorescent equipment is considered. Equipment has to be [8.Chapter 7 prevailing in the area. Severe corrosive conditions necessitate knowledge of the atmospheric content to permit selection of proper material for the luminaires. Turbine Pits and other areas of unusually high humidity require enclosed and gasketed luminaires. vapors. Hazardous locations like the Battery Charger rooms are areas where atmospheres contain flammable dusts. With HID equipment. 52 | P a g e . Table 7. and all electrical equipment must be tested and listed (or approved) for use in areas of specific classes and groups. Runner Pits. Luminaires are available that are specifically designed to operate in these areas. They are grouped by the National Electrical Code (NEC) on the basis of their hazardous characteristics. which are noted in Article 500 of the NEC as Class I. or gases in explosive concentrations.12] selected to operate under these cold conditions.1 : Area Classifications (Based on NEC) Abnormal Temperature Conditions Low ambient temperatures exist in the areas where the area is submerged. and Class III locations (divisions). Drainage and Dewatering Gallery. Class II.

Security Lighting and Escape Lighting These four types of lighting are a must for any sort of industry or any public area. In the event of an emergency where normal illumination is lost. They can also be used to furnish a certain luminance or color or to permit special aiming or positioning of light sources to produce or avoid highlights or shadows so as to best portray the details of the visual task.7. the lighting designer may find that poor visibility is caused by insufficient illuminance or poor contrast (such as veiling reflections). 53 | P a g e . Luminance ratios have to be carefully controlled. and subject to materials being moved in and out continuously. In analyzing the situation. Supplementary equipment must be carefully shielded to prevent glare for the user and neighboring workers. complicated. Safety. Supplementary Task Lighting In Industry Difficult visual tasks. With incandescent lamp equipment. 7. [3.10] These types of lighting helps to ensure saving many lives at the time of crisis.6. Before supplementary task lighting can be specified. Emergency. such as inspection. but the proper starting conditions must be provided. often require a specific quality and quantity of lighting that cannot readily be obtained by general lighting methods.7. neither starting nor operation is a problem at low temperatures. a worker could become confused. 7. the designer must understand the nature of the visual task as well as its light-reflecting or transmitting characteristics. Planning for supplementary task lighting also requires consideration of the visual comfort of those performing the task and those who are in the immediate area.Chapter 7 temperature variations have practically no effect on light output. Emergency Lighting Emergency lighting is a very important part of an industrial lighting system.1. The buildings are usually large. Supplementary luminaires are often used to provide better visibility in small or restricted areas [22] . 7.

the duration of the lighting in the event of a loss of power. and the types of power supplies that are acceptable to "the authority having jurisdiction. Care must be taken in the design of industrial lighting systems to ensure that the system provides not only the necessary illuminance for the tasks to be performed. Escape Lighting In case of any disastrous situation. 7. 7. hazards associated with the manufacturing process.7.7. Safety Lighting Unlike emergency lighting. like fire or any calamity. those officers in the performance of their duties.7. and not hinders. and extreme illuminance changes that can contribute to accidents.4. Safety and Security Lighting. the life of the workers must be given the highest priority. Security Lighting Security lighting in an industrial facility is usually required for protection of property. Because in a 54 | P a g e . 7. Consulting with local law enforcement departments can also aid in the design of security lighting systems by ensuring that the lighting system aids.Chapter 7 Emergency lighting requirements are often covered in codes or local ordinances that detail the levels of illuminance required. There are some particular lighting levels which should be treated as "minimum" and may require modification in some instances to provide proper visibility in particularly hazardous locations. Emergency. Security lighting should be designed in consultation with the owner and personnel responsible for the safety of property and employees. safety lighting is required at all times that the building or outdoor space is occupied in order to ensure that the occupants of the areas can safely move throughout the facility without danger. shadows. escape lighting must be provided very carefully. but also adequately indicates dangers and hazards within the facility and is free of glare.2.3. and dangers from moving equipment and manufactured goods. And to ensure that. Safety lighting is particularly important in industrial facilities where there are many obstructions.

o Near each change of direction. o Within passenger lift areas. o To ensure exterior areas of final exits are lit to at least the same level as the area immediately inside the exit. o To ensure normal pedestrian escape routes from covered parking area.1 Signage for Safety and Escape Routes (Based on BS 5499) 55 | P a g e .Chapter 7 panic situation maximum people get puzzled and for this reason escape route must be properly indicated. o In plant. o Near each staircase. o Near each intersection of the corridors. o Near any change of floor level. o In toilets. switch and control rooms. The luminaires should be installed no more than 30 metres apart – To have an uniformity ratio max:min :: 20:1 and a value of 40:1 should not be exceeded. Luminaires and signs should be positioned: o To show exit routes and final exits from premises clearly. o To illuminate fire alarm call-points and fire-fighting equipment. Fig 7.

In the following part lighting design of some of these typical areas will be described. Areas such as Runner Pits.20 m Target Lux Level : 100 lux Lux Level Acheived : 120 lux Lamp Type : 2 X 36W HF Luminaire Type : Industrial Weatherproof IP : 66 56 | P a g e . Some Lighting Design Details In Hydro Electric Power Plants there are many areas that are typical and especially found only in these plants. Project 1: Generator Pit Installation Type : Wall Mounted Luminaire Mounting Height : 3. Generator Pits or Battery Charger Rooms are particular hazardous areas for HEPs.8. Some particular fixtures are needed to be installed in these areas. There are also some highbay indoor areas like the Machine Hall and Service Bays where room heights range from 16 metres to 25 metres.Chapter 7 7.

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Obviously T5 28W lamps are more energy saving but in these type luminaires compatible to fit in T5 lamps are not available. It should be an area of development in case of waterproof luminaires.756 Lamp Type : 1 X 400W HPI BU Luminaire Type : Industrial High Bay ( IP 54) 61 | P a g e .Chapter 7 5. Project 2 : Service Bay Area Installation Type : Surface Mounted Luminaire Mounting Height : 17 m Target Lux Level : 300 lux with uniformity 0. Design Analysis In this design TLD 36W is used.7 Lux Level Acheived : 304 lux with uniformity 0.

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As the height goes up. So Metal Halide (HPI BU) lamps are the preferred choice. more than 12 mt then keeping CRI in mind lamps should be chosen and high bay fixtures with Narrow Beam Angle should be used for better results. 65 | P a g e . But TMS 122 will cause more glare than TKC. The maximum permitted LPD by ECBC is 18.Chapter 7 Design Analysis : Use of SON lamps might have reduced energy usage and number of fixtures but as because service bay areas are being used for maintenance work. 7. This design is using 16.3 W/m2. And when it comes to High Bay region. color rendering is very much important here. Some Suggestions When the height of the room is upto 5 metres then fluorescent luminaires such as TKC 203 (2 x 36W HF) or TMS 122 (2 X T5 28W) are the best options until now.9.05 W/m2 which is well within limit. in the midbay region. 6mt to 10 mt TPS 325 (4 x 54W) or HPK 225 WB ( 150 W) fixtures are preferred.

Office and Control Room Lighting Chapter 8 .

The same lighting system may contribute to both. Office lighting affects the appearance of the space and its occupants. separate luminaires should provide or augment the visual task illumination. office lighting should support the various visual tasks performed [6. leaning forward to make task details appear larger can offset reduced background luminance caused by low illuminances. and the viewing duration. the higher the background luminance. Naturally. 8.7] . Although it is important to consider the luminous environment and the lighting of visual tasks separately. Within limits. Although visual performance follows a law of diminishing returns. 67 | P a g e . the longer the viewing duration. these aspects must work together.Chapter 8 8. The visibility of task details is determined by their size and contrast with the background. Good lighting design and applications go hand in hand with energy-efficient technologies to reduce operating costs and environmental pollution. considerations should be given to the design of office interiors in an effort to achieve a stimulating work place.2 The Importance of Visual Tasks in Offices Office work consists of varieties of visual tasks. and the higher the level of visual performance. Energy-efficient lighting is critical to office lighting design. a given level of visual performance can be maintained by trading off reductions in the magnitude of one factor with improvements in another. one can say that in general the greater the contrast and size of the task details. and therefore their mood and [6] their productivity . In addition to creating a pleasant and stimulating environment. and enthusiasm are affected by the environment. interest. the absolute luminance of the background. So. lighting should provide good visibility for the visual tasks.1 Introduction Since feeling of well-being. for example. but typically.

an interior space is visible because of the brightness differences of the surfaces. Luminance and Brightness Differences Luminous differences and color contrast are necessary for vision. Office interiors should be lighted to provide for good visibility with no distracting glare. such as in lobbies and corridors and in reception.Chapter 8 Visibility also depends on the age of the worker. Fig 8. Large brightness variations can be problematic. a typical 50-year-old needs twice the illuminance falling on a task that a typical 20-year-old needs for that task to provide the same amount of light falling on the retina. which provides pools of higher brightness within a large space. As a person ages. One example is wall-washing. Brightness variations are a function of the absolute and spectral reflectances of the surfaces and of the distribution of light on those surfaces. conference. 8. 8. For example. Similarly. Careful design provides interesting variations without producing distracting or uncomfortable luminance differences. Another example is task lighting. it is important to provide enough variation in luminance or color to contribute to a stimulating. 68 | P a g e . Direct and reflected glare should be avoided.3 Composition of the Luminous Environment The visual effect of an office space depends on variations in perceived brightness and color. Where there are no prolonged visual tasks. attractive environment.1 shows the recommended surface reflectance values in office rooms.4 Color. Achromatic print can be seen because of the difference in luminance between the white page and black print. however. Shadow and light are both design elements. the pupil becomes progressively smaller (for a fixed level of ambient illumination) and the crystalline lens becomes thicker and less transparent. This later approach helps give office workers a sense of place at a workstation within an otherwise uniform open office. The effects can be achieved by varying surface reflectances and illuminance. whereby the wall has a greater luminance than the ceiling or the floor.

1 Recommended Reflectances for room and other surfaces in offices 8. which is completed after a very short time (less than 200 ms). It is nice that many new technologies such as Digitally Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI) and Integrated Building Management Systems 69 | P a g e . using attractive colors and appropriate focal points of high illuminances to catch the eye. natural light and artificial light must be integrated to have energy benefits. neurological. variations in brightness are encouraged. This is known as transient adaptation.5 Transient Adaptation The visual system adjusts its operating characteristics as a result of changes in the brightnesses within the field of view. Photochemical. and dining areas. although visual capabilities are temporarily impaired while the visual system readjusts. But during daytime. Fig 8. 8. such as moving from full daylight into a dark theater.Chapter 8 lounge. Photochemical changes occur much more slowly and are most noticeable when there is a dramatic change in ambient light level. and pupillary changes occur in this adaptation process. Neural changes occur most quickly. Pupillary changes are relatively insignificant in the adaptation process.6 Electrical Lighting and Daylighting Office lighting must be adequate for work after dusk.

19] Perhaps the most important factor with respect to lighting quality is glare .Chapter 8 [13] (IBMS) are using methods to utilize the true potential of natural light. usually will cause glare. This procedure is very much task specific and knowledge of the task is important. A louver or lens is commonly used to block direct viewing of a light source. or up lighting. a survey of future workers should be conducted to gather information about the activities that will occur in that space and the ages of people who will perform them. Standard data now provided with luminaire specifications include 70 | P a g e . too much contrast causes glare and makes the visual task much more difficult.9. Although the visual task generally becomes easier with increased contrast. One can reduce glare or luminance ratios by not exceeding suggested light levels and by using lighting equipment designed to reduce glare. Indirect lighting. If possible.7 Illuminance Level Selection Illuminance levels should be determined on the basis of visual performance specified in Indian Standards (IS 3646) as well as on the design experience. the 50 year old man will need more light than a 20 year old to do the same work. Also.8 Glare [6. Glare is a sensation caused by luminances in the visual field that are too bright. Glare in the environment might lead to discomfort. Contrast is the relationship between the luminance of an object and its background. Age is an important factor because with more age the need of light level increases. proper fixture placement can reduce reflected glare on work benches or computer screens. If a specific task is unknown then the designer should design for typical office tasks. annoyance or reduced productivity. but a bright object in front of a dark background. can create low glare environment by uniformly lighiting the ceiling. 8. A bright object alone does not necessarily cause glare. As a result. This will surely have benefits for energy saving as well as cost reduction due to less usage of electrical energy. however. 8.

fot different quality classes. in the range of critical angles from 450 to 850 from the downward vertical. A minimum VCP of 70 is recommended for commercial interiors. It can be minimized by using the luminance curve system which gives luminance limits for the luminaires. while luminaires with VCP exceeding 80 are recommended in room with PC. This can be minimized by shielding the light source from direct view. There is a body of literature that discusses the subjective responses to lighting. eyestrain and fatigue over a perod of time.2 Disability Glare and Reflected Glare Reflected Glare is experienced when bright sources are reflected by the task or surfaces in the field of view and stops us seeing the task or reduces the contrast by veil effect. Fig 8. the underlying belief is that. but also 71 | P a g e . light not only provides the physical stimulus necessary for visual performance. In general.Chapter 8 tables of its Visual Comfort Probability (VCP) ratings for various room geometries. Discomfort Glare from the luminaires in a lighting scheme can cause headaches.9 The Psychological Effects of Lighting Although office spaces are primarily task oriented. other less quantifiable effects of lighting on users' satisfaction and well-being should also be considered during the lighting design process. 8. Disability Glare or dazzles by a very bright source such as the sun or a bare lamp can cause instant impairment of vision. The VCP index provides an indication of the percentage of people in a given space who would find the glare from a fixture to be acceptable.

the general illumination should be designed with a low illuminance appropriate for circulation.3 (a) Direct Lighting. In open-plan arrangements where vertical partitions or storage cabinets over work surfaces cause shadows. and to provide the recommended luminance ratios between the task and other areas within the field of view. (b) Indirect Lighting. This is most appropriate for private offices or special situations where task lighting is inappropriate. Each kind of style has its own pros and cons. The design of the general illumination can also be better coordinated with the interior design and the architecture. localized lighting becomes essential for adequate task illumination and shadow reduction. These impressions can make a significant impact on long-term user [9] satisfaction in the office.10. 8. When localized lighting is used. 8.1 General Lighting and Localised Lighting There are basically two methods for lighting office tasks. (c) Direct/Indirect Lighting 72 | P a g e .10 Types of Lighting If any office one can design the lighting with different styles. Some of the basic types of lighting are described below. Fig 8.Chapter 8 communicates or reinforces certain cues that influence people's subjective impressions of the environment surrounding them. The other is to supply localized lighting from task-lighting luminaires in conjunction with a low level of general illumination. for casual viewing of tasks. One is to design the general lighting so that required illuminances are provided at all task locations.

furnishing. Direct lighting luminaires can be surface mounted.10.2 Direct Lighting Direct lighting uses luminaires that are designed to emit the vast majority of their light output directly down onto the nominal horizontal working plane. If this is not practical.Chapter 8 8. cave-like appearance. This problem can be alleviated in a number of ways. recessed into the ceiling or suspended. walls and ceilings.9] The main potential problem with direct lighting is the fact that the ceiling and the upper parts of the walls tend to be underlit resulting in a gloomy. Any upward light emitted plays an insignificant part in lighting the task. Fig 8.4 Direct Lighting [6. One is by using high reflectance finishes to the floor. then supplementary wall mounted uplighting can be used or a direct lighting luminaire can be chosen that diverts a small amount of light onto the 73 | P a g e .

Therefore. 74 | P a g e . In the interests of colour rendering. of the light produced by the luminaire is reflected off some surface. In the interests of energy efficiency it is important to ensure that the surface from which the light is reflected has high diffuse reflectance.3 Indirect Lighting Indirect lighting uses luminaires where all. without strong modelling or shadows. or almost all. at least 0.5 Reflectors suspended below a direct luminaire to reflect some light onto the ceiling ceiling. it is important that the reflecting surface is spectrally neutral in colour. The lighting effect produced by indirect lighting is typically diffuse.8 and higher. usually the ceiling.Chapter 8 Fig 8.10.7 and preferably 0. This will have the effect of making the office appear brighter and more interesting although care has to be taken to avoid high luminance patches appearing on the walls or ceiling as these may be seen as high luminance reflections in computer screens 8. it is important to use the office décor to provide some visual interest and variety. before reaching the working plane.

5 to 3. To avoid excessive contrast. usually the ceiling.10. Indirect lighting luminaires will usually be seen against the ceiling. Indirect lighting is most suitable for ceiling heights within the range 2. By using direct/indirect lighting the office will have not only well-lit walls and ceiling but also some modelling.Chapter 8 Fig 8. 75 | P a g e . the outer surfaces of indirect luminaires should be light in colour.4 Direct-Indirect Lighting Direct/indirect lighting uses a luminaire or a combination of luminaires that provides some lighting on the working plane directly and some after reflection from a surface. Ceiling heights greater than 3. if careful attention is paid to light distribution to avoid high luminance spots occurring immediately above the luminaire. [9] Indirect luminaires can only be used at ceiling heights in the range 2. Direct/indirect lighting can be very effective because the two components are complementary.5 m.5 m can be used but at extra cost in terms of installed power.6 Indirect Lighting Indirect lighting can be highly effective in a heavily obstructed office.3 to 2.5 m. 8.

7 Direct/Indirect Lighting The exact proportion of direct and indirect lighting is not critical in most circumstances although the appearance of the office will change with a change in proportions. flicker-free high frequency lighting. The recommendations and limitations given above for direct lighting and indirect lighting should be applied to each component separately 8.) which is normally displayed on visual display terminals or mimic diagrams. and product etc. 76 | P a g e . the minimum percentage for either component is 20 percent. is preferred where possible. Staff monitor and act upon incoming status information (plant.5 Control Room Lighting Control rooms are often crucial for the production and safe operation of a wide range of processes. The work is often multifunctional and the lighting scheme must enable a wide range of visual tasks to be performed whilst revealing incoming status information with absolute clarity. The lighting should be as flexible as possible to meet the different visual tasks with general dimming or alternative switching arrangements and/or local lighting. if the lighting is to be considered direct/indirect lighting. fuel. As a rule of thumb. Low glare or shielded.Chapter 8 Fig 8. The luminaires should blend with the room as far as practical to avoid being sources of distraction.10.

Chapter 8 Fig 8. Often incoming information will be displayed in a vertical or near vertical plane and the display screen(s) or dial(s) will often be fronted by glass or clear plastic.1 Maximum UGR Levels 77 | P a g e . The maximum permitted glare in office premises is predominantly 19 as [9] given in (Table 8.8 Control Room The lighting designer will need to establish precisely how and where the information will be displayed so that the layout geometry and light distribution of the luminaires can be co.1) .ordinated. It is essential to avoid veiling reflections in these displays. Table 8.

73 mt. [9. Lux Level Acheived : 330 lux with 0. Lamp Type : PL-L 36W/865. Luminaire Type : Decorative Recessed Mounted. Lux Level Acheived : 450 lux with 0.19] Maximum Permissible UGR Value : 19 Maximum UGR Value : 17 Maximum Permitted LPD : 14 W/m2 Designed LPD : 14. Desired Lux Level (Room) : 450 lux with 0.Chapter 8 A Practical Design Project Title : Office Room with Corridor Room Size : As per design.65 uniformity. Desired Lux Level (Corridor) : 300 lux with 0.7 uniformity.9 W/m2 78 | P a g e .62 uniformity. Room Height : 2.786 uniformity.

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the lux level and uniformity are very good.Chapter 8 Fig 8.10 Software Simulation of the Office Room Design Analysis Inside the office or main working area. the uniformity is slightly less than the desired value but the difference should not have much effect on the appearance. 84 | P a g e . Maybe more careful choice of luminaire or combination of luminaires would make the design good in terms of LPD value. In the corridor area. Only one thing that is not up to the mark for the design is the LPD value. Glare control has been done quite well.

Industrial Outdoor Area Lighting Chapter 9 .

Chapter 9 9. atmospheric loss factor should be considered.6] lighting is sufficient.1 Introduction In case of area lighting the visual size of the details to be seen are much larger. Glare : It is reduced by increasing the mounting height. It also depends on mounting height and length of the throw. by aiming the peak intensity of the floodlights at angles below 700 to the downward vertical and by ensuring that the luminance of the area and its sorroundings is as high as possible. It is better to look for a maintenance factor between 0. Maintenance factor : Actually this factor should be included to allow for a loss of light due to dirt between cleaning intervals.0 by choosing floodlights with good cleaning characteristics and accepting short cleaning cycles. season and the location. 86 | P a g e .9 and 1. o The detailed sighting of luminaires should be determined so that glare is reduced. There are some basic steps that are to be followed while lighting up an area: o The effect to be achieved should be determined. It varies with the time of the day. o The location of the luminaires should be determined. It is caused by air-bourne moisture and solid particles.(generally using some chart/nomogram). o The color rendering of the lamp should be determined. While designing. A typical loss of illuminance on a clear night in an urban playground installation (using 4 towers) can be 20-30%. so lower levels of [3.

otherwise if client specifies the light level according to their needs. Whether 87 | P a g e . performance and appearance. is there any color rendering needed.2. A site inspection is helps to design with suitable decisions like to put the obstruction or any other constrains to install a pole or a mast in a particular position. what will be the electrical load. All the cases all the steps are not needed but it may necessary where unexpected constraints have come in the design. indoor or outdoor. what type of luminaire can be used there.2.22] A logical procedure for designing lighting systems.1 Objectives At first one has to consider or select the aim of lighting design like the task or what has to be seen. with priority ascribed.2 Site Inspection Whenever possible or whenever needed one needs to visit the site before design and make sketches to extend the available plans: a) into three dimensions and b) to cover adjacent areas.4 Strategic Planning According to site.2. So CAD drawings of the site are taken from the clients and according to that the poles and the masts are located in the design.Chapter 9 9. The international standards CIE or Indian Standards IS helps us to design as the lux level. uniformity criteria for a specific purpose can be found in those. which one will be the efficient lighting design in terms of energy etc. is there any color specification of light. During design one should try to follow the codes.2. one needs to plan what will be the mast locations. It is often not possible to visit the site. designs are done on the basis of that. These six steps are as follows: 9. These are under the objectives heading of safety. 9.3 Specifications The objective needs to be translated into quantitative and qualitative design criteria. consists of six steps. 9. 9.2 Design Procedure [9. type of task etc.

the assets and liabilities of the scheme should be judged.Chapter 9 daylight is needed to be considered or not and is there any switching of lighting . It is suggested that installation consisting consisting of installation consisiting of a few large poles and high wattage lamps are more economical both in terms of energy and cost than installation of many smaller poles and low wattage lamps. by both user and designer. 9. 88 | P a g e .3 Light Pollution Light pollution is an unwanted consequence of outdoor lighting and includes such effects like sky glow.5 Detailed Planning In this stage the number and location of possible lighting units is determined to satisfy both quantitative and qualitative criteria. The light pollution.2. for the benefit of future designs.these are all under strategic planning 9. soon after the installation has been put into use. An illustration of both useful light and the components of light pollution is given in fig 9. Where possible alternate solutions are also provided.1. light trespass and glare. But this type of installation using large size poles or masts lead to another kind of problem.6 Appraisal Ideally. 9.2.

Chapter 9 Fig 9. if not properly controlled.4 Switchyard Lighting Switchyards are integral parts of any power generating industry like the Hydro Power Plants. Human invention of artificial light has done much to safeguard and enhance our night-time environment but. 89 | P a g e . A switchyard will also convert high voltages to low voltages and vice-versa to transmit and distribute power from one place to another.1 Illustration of useful light and light pollution [21] Light trespass is light falling where it is not desirable. The outdoor areas of any hydro power plant can be divided into two parts.2 shows a switchyard. [8.21] obstrusive light (or light pollution) can present serious physiological and ecological problems. Switchyard Lighting and interior roadway lighting with the plant area. The switchyard at any power generating station co-ordinates the exchange of power between the generation and transmitting lines in the area. 9. All living things adjust their behaviour according to the natural light. such as light from a street light or a floodlight that illuminates the house of a neighbour at night making it difficult to sleep. Fig 9.

1 Standard equipment level and tower height of switchyards 90 | P a g e .1) gives an [20] idea of industry standards of equipment level and tower height of switchyards.6 12. Type Equipment Level (mt) Tower Height / Mounting Height (mt) 765 KV 14 27. The following table (Table 9.0 Table 9.Chapter 9 Fig 9.0 400 KV 8 16. the equipment level height and the tower heights also differ.2 An example of a Switchyard There are switchyards with different levels of voltage rating. And according to these ratings.2 220 KV 5.0 132 KV 4 8.

65 Mounting Height : 16.54 uniformity 91 | P a g e .1 lux with 0.2 mt Lamp : 400W HPSV Luminaire : Assymetric Floodlight Type [20] Desired Lux Level : Equipment level(8 mt) : 50 lux with 0.5 A Real Life Design Project Description : 400 KV Switchyard Lighting Area : 110mt X 90mt Maintenance Factor : 0.3 uniformity Ground Level : 30 lux with 0.33 uniformity Ground Level : 32.4 lux with 0.3 uniformity Lux Level Achieved : Equipment Level : 50.Chapter 9 9.

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Chapter 9 Design Analysis 97 | P a g e .

the Indian code of practice for public thoroughfares IS 1944 (Parts I & II) – 1970 prescribes illuminance valuse to be provided. The desired lux level and uniformity are 20 lux and 0. which will guarantee for the sufficient visual comfort. 9. achieve efficient traffic movement and promote the use of facility during darkness and a wide variety of weather conditions. The typical width of the streets vary from more or less 3 mt to 5mt. 9. which provides the more accurate measure of effective light in street lighting arrangement.6 Road Lighting The principal purpose for the lighting of roads for both vehicles and pedestrians is to create a nighttime environment which is conducive to quick accurate and comfortable seeing for the user of the [18] facility. The illuminance level should be adequate to provide visibility.7 A Typical Road Lighting Installation Width of the street 1 : 4 mt Pole height : 9 mt 98 | P a g e . As the tower position and the pole height are fixed. combine to improve traffic safety.3 respectively. But the design of street lighting based on luminance will require information on the reflection properties of the surface. there is not much traffic and the number of fast moving vehicles are very less. if attained. These factors. In the absence of required data. which might cause light pollution. It is obvious that it is the road surface luminance rather than the illuminance level. In the industrial area of a power plant. Perhaps in some cases the tilt of the luminaires is more than 700. maybe a few more luminaires have to used here to achieve the lux level.Chapter 9 In the above design the lux level and the uniformity has been successfully acheived.

67 [18.20] Desired illuminance level : 20 lux with 0.Chapter 9 Light Loss Factor : 0.668 uniformity Lamp Type : 150W SON 99 | P a g e .33 uniformity Illuminance level acheived : 20 lux with 0.

Chapter 9 Fig 9. If sufficient data about the reflection properties of the street were available. But the parameters of the roadway evaluation are taken as calculated guesses. then the design could have been more accurate.3 Software Illustration of Street 1 Design Analysis The lux level and the uniformity is achieved here. 100 | P a g e .

Conclusion Chapter 10 .

This will have a significant effect on the quality of lighting and therefore productivity. Several factors need to be included in the design to ensure maintained minimum light levels over the life of a facility. Some of these are [11] : o To provide complete documentation and drawings o To provide easily located circuit disconnectors with lock out provisions o To provide individual fixture disconnectors or plugs o To point out improved mounting positions of fixtures o To use mounting arrangements to bring the fixture down to the worker. and on the overall safety of workers. and is not fully understood by designers. High maintenance areas need to be considered. such as for large rotating equipment where spare circuits for temporary supplemental lighting may be required. In addition to provide a design for effective illumination. ANSI/IESNA RP-7 and IS 6665 provides guidance for designers on all aspects of industrial lighting. a number of improvements need to be made to current designs to assist electrical maintenance staff in performance of lighting maintenance safely.Chapter 10 Lighting is usually left towards the end of the design. The result is often a sub-optimal installation which is both difficult to maintain and gives rise to safety concerns due to inadequate lighting. such as degradation of lamp output. 102 | P a g e . The profile and priority on lighting design needs to be raised. Lighting safety can be broken down into two major areas: [11. and o Maintenance work on lighting systems. has a lower priority than the rest of Electrical Engineering.17] o A better focus on understanding and addressing illumination levels as a safety factor for accidents such as slips/trips/falls and performing work tasks correctly.

In maximum industries. and much of this maintenance works are done at inaccessible or elevated locations. This mentality will change in near future. Education of the workers and the other stakeholders is the key. operators. and how they affect plant safety overall. energy savings. and most importantly by the lighting maintenance workers themselves. Reviewing circumstantial data indicates that inadequate lighting is a major factor for accidents occurred. which will eventually lead to profit. tracking and analyzing of installed lighting [17] systems. Lighting Design is treated as a luxury. There are shortcomings in understanding of lighting requirements in general. lighting design is not given any major priority.Chapter 10 Very few measuring systems are there for identifying. 103 | P a g e . well-being of the workers and increased productivity. The biggest single improvement for safety can be made by deenergizing lighting circuits prior to working on them. Proper designing of lighting can lead to safety. It must be recognized that this maintenance work is a very hazardous work. installers. This fact needs to be understood by all stakeholders such as designers. maintenance management. As significant amount of maintenance works are currently performed without disconnecting the power supply.

References Chapter 11 .

[3] Exterior Lighting for Industry and Security: S L Lyons. [6] Lighting Design Basics: Mkarlen. [13] Energy Information Administration (2007) : International Energy Outlook 105 | P a g e . [5] Lamps and Lighting.A Benya:Wiley Publications. M T Ferreira: Sci World J 2. [7] Lighting by Design : C Cuttle : Architectural Press.2011. [12] Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage.1980.2002 [2] Energy Resources and Systems vol 2 : Renewable Resources : T K Ghosh. J Haury.2003. A M Marsden: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.Lighting Industrial Facilities ANSI Approved. Publications [10] ANSI/IESNA RP-7-01. Vienna : CIE. [9] The SLL Lighting Handbook : P Boyce. CIE Publication 154 : 2003 : Maintenance of Outdoor Lighting Systems.Chapter 11 Books [1] Downstream Effects of a Hydroelectric Reservoir on Aquatic Plant Assemblages: I Bernez. P Raynham : CIBSE. [4] Introduction to Hydro Energy Systems – Basics. M A Prebas: Springer Science + Business Media.2011.2006. [8] The IESNA Lighting Handbook : Ninth Edition. Vienna : CIE. Technology and Operation : J W Hermann. CIE Publication 169 : 2005 : Guide on the Maintenance of Indoor Electric Lighting System. 1972. J Mathur : Springer.New York : IESNA. 3rd Edition:M A Cayles. [11] Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage.2008. London : 2009.London: Applied Science Publishers.

com [28] www. London : 2008.nhpcindia.in [27] www. Code of Practice of Public Thoroughfares. Can You See The Problem? : T Discroll. [22] SLL Lighting Guide 1 : Industrial Lighting.htm [24] en.cea.Chapter 11 [14] External Costs of Electricity Systems( Graph Format) : ExternE Pol.in [26] www. [18] IS 1944 – 1970.nic.nic. Code of Practice for Interior Illumination.htm [30] www.com/lighting [29] www.org/publications/surveyofenergyresource2007/hydropower/default.wikipedia.philips. [21] Outdoor Site Lighting Performance – A Comprehensive and Quantitative Framework for Assessing Light Pollution : J A Brons. [16] IEA Keystats 2010 [17] Industrial Lighting Safety.org. [15] Hydropower Development in India – A Sector Assessment : K Ramanathan. [19] IS 3646 – 1992. Technology Assesment/GaBE( Paul Scherrer Institute) : 2005.org/wiki/Hydroelectric_power_in_India. J D Bullough.R Loiselle. G Brady : IEEE paper PCIC-2006-37.worldenergy.worldbank. M S Rea : Lighting Research and Technology : 2008. Code of Practice for Industrial Lighting. M Walton.org/wiki/List_of_power_stations_in_India. P Abeygunawardena : Asian Development Bank : 2007.in/countries/India/IndiaHydropowerBrief.asp 106 | P a g e .wikipedia. Websites [23] en. [20] IS 6665 – 1972.htm [25] www.mnes.

ANNEXURE I – USED LUMINAIRES Philips Endura HPK 105 .

Annexure I NDC 203 108 | P a g e .

Annexure I

Radiance RVP 501

109 | P a g e

Annexure I

Tempo 3 – M/SWF 330

110 | P a g e

Annexure I

Xtend – TBS 669

111 | P a g e

Annexure I FBS 430 112 | P a g e .

Annexure I FBS 450 113 | P a g e .

Annexure I TMC 501/TKC 203 114 | P a g e .

TMS 122 115 | P a g e .Annexure I PENTURA .

Annexure I TMX 95 116 | P a g e .

Annexure I WATERPROOF LUMINAIRES TCW 450 117 | P a g e .

Annexure I INDUSTRIAL HIGHBAY LUMINAIRES OPTIBAY HPK 225 118 | P a g e .