Topic - I

The gift of a common tongue is a priceless boon - it is our task to safeguard this boon.
To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and
use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others.
Anthony Robins

Man is a social animal. He needs to communicate.
To exchange ideas.
To understand others.
To project some views (written or oral).
It is goal oriented.
It conveys more than the immediate words.
It holds people together.
Communication through any language is not only for competition and
exclusion but also for sharing, inclusion and interaction.
Communication opens the gates of future knowledge and broadens one’s
Communication is used for various other purposes like negotiation,
persuasion, teaching, interaction etc.
Good communication gives one access to all stratas of society.


As connectivity expands, time and distance have collapsed. The world
situation today demands a global language. A global language is a
language which has significance beyond geographical boundaries and
English is a link that holds the world together.
Knowledge of English gives greater opportunity to a person.

English opens the window to science, technology, internet, information and communication.
English is the language of trade and commerce, globally.
Some of the best books of recent world knowledge are in English.
The knowledge of the world today is stored in English Language.
English as the medium of instruction plays a major role in acquiring scientific knowledge.
English helps one to attain competitive edge in the global job market.
Almost all telex messages and telegrams are sent in English.
80% of Computer Data are processed and stored in English.
Satellite communication takes place in English.
Professional practice is carried out in English internationally.

 English music and its closeness to Indian music has built a new bridge of understanding.  English builds a bridge within the country and its people as a second language. in India. SAT. The same role has been played by American and British movies.  Indian.  English teaching in PDPM IIIT DM aims at greater exposure of students to the world environment.  Use of English in the entertainment world has raised the knowledge of English of the common man.  English is no longer considered as a foreign language. is a cause for concern to the Teachers and employers.  Technical knowledge and terms have been capsuled in English. It is the most extensively used language by globe-trotters. American and British films have raised the standard of cultural awareness and mutual understanding.  English learning begins with:     Listening Speaking Reading Writing .  Students appearing for CAT.  English is a unifying language along with Hindi. Thus.  English is a must for all students as it is the stepping stone to all other subjects of any technical course. Imperfect knowledge of English. TOEFL. serious technical communication between the students and the teachers is naturally in English.  English has a major role to play in international political deliberations. Most Tourist Information is readily available for all countries in English.  Inadequate knowledge of English hampers the social growth of a person in modern times.  Knowledge of English grants better opportunity to the students.  Hindi and Regional films have gained popularity globally through dubbing and subtitles in English. MAT. GRE and other competitive examinations are expected to have a sound knowledge of English.  English is very important for International travel. CDSE.  Perfectly spoken English leaves an enduring mark on the employers.

The communication is not only done with words but also with voice quality. The Process of Communication: Communication has a definite process with distinct steps. It is true that all kinds of barriers are demolished by communication. The reasons are many and one can conquer the negative reasons with strong determination and some physical practice. One may ask the reasons for these opposite reactions. listening and viewing decodes the message reacts sends the feedback to the original sender. the need of the hour. complex. All living organisms communicate in some way or the other but among the humans it is not only a highly developed skill but is also an integral part of all existence. Infact. A communication is ineffective because of many factors like physical problems. it is essential to direct and develop one’s abilities and skills in three inter-related areas: communication. Sounds. communication is the life line of all successful and meaningful actions in the commercial world and the work area of the engineers. insufficient knowledge of grammar. Once the barriers are demolished one can move easily on the path of global interaction and understanding. it depends upon the person or group or the object of transferring certain ideas to the other. For some. Before one is able to reach this happy and ideal state one has to destroy the communication barriers. But we must understand clearly that no matter what methods we use for communication. persuasion. decision making and leadership. It is not what we say but how we say that makes all the difference. Methods and Channels of communication are many: . facial expression. reading.II Effective Communication Skills If one is searching for results while working with other people. The process is cyclic as the last step brings back the first step. The more detailed flow diagram can be presented in the following manner: The sender gets an idea  encodes through written or spoken words. actions. speaking. It begins with the communicator who sends the stimulus and then after decoding the message it is received by the listener. Communication is always goal oriented and thus.  the receiver receives the encoded message through reading. Communications of various types can be simple. Communication is a multidimensional word that covers everything like interaction. Human communication is as old as man though it has evolved and almost perfected itself through the ages. negotiation etc. differences in understanding etc. the important factor is what we convey finally and so it is not only essential to communicate effectively but also to ensure that the receiver is receiving it in the right perspective and is being made aware of the communicating idea. conscious and unconscious. spoken words. designing of sentences. The whole process can be explained through a diagram.Topic . behavioral distractions. Its significance cannot be underplayed especially in all commercial activities and intercourse. listening and the modern sophisticated methods of communication have not only expanded the world of communication but has also brought it to the level of near perfection. body language and even silence. verbal communication is a simple task but for others it may be as strenuous as climbing the Mount Everest. Communication is the means to an end. gestures. The process of communication is completed when the feedback is sent to the original communicator. writing. One very broad diagram is Message is sent by the sender  received by the listener. casual conversation. Communication conveys more than the immediate words used for the purpose. teaching. weak vocabulary. silent or vocal.

like stammering. problems can rise. (5) Effective communication presupposes that there must be interesting communication and an attentive listener who has to be created in certain cases. (6) mass communication. ‘you understand’ etc may effect communication. repetitive vocabulary like ‘I mean’. (8) Behavioral distraction. body language. bias. While speaking on the telephone or making a speech or conducting a productive meeting or presenting a product/idea. (2) Lack of conceptual skills. illegible hand-writing. (4) Faulty transmission may take place due to errors in use of words. Making conversation on different occasions successfully is an art. If the level of understanding is different. Conversation in an office is quite different from casual communication. (5) interactive communication. (6) Free flow of communication may be hindered because of man related factors. Improper balance of words and thoughts may result into structural imbalance. Communication may not be total.’ If this purpose fails. Silence 6. This is difference in vocabulary skills. Non-verbal 3. presentation etc. (3) formal and informal communication. Authority. incorrect pronunciation. wrong spellings. Body Language Oral can be further sub-divided into following channels of communication: (a) Talks (b) speeches (c) discussions (d) meetings (e) seminar (f) counselling (g) interface These activities are carried out through a (a) Telephone (b) Microphone (c) Loudspeaker (d) Amplifier (e) Tape Recorder (f) Radio (g) Plain speaking. Written form of communication has a great variety: (a) Letters (b) Memos (c) Circulars (d) Notes (e) representations (f) reports (g) brochures (h) books (i) telex (j) fax (k) mail (l) telegram (m) photocopy (n) print. (4) internal communication. punctuation errors. The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines communication as ‘the activity or process of expressing ideas and feelings or of giving people information. Written 7. The reasons may lie in the problem of Communication Barriers. etc may create barriers for communication because of fear. reaches the audience effortlessly. physical incapabilities (stammering). (3) All kinds of conceptual vagueness may result into incoherence. The communicator may lack the power to think and imagine worthwhile ideas to communicate. Oral 2. Though in recent years. (c) It would be foolish to forget the basic communication skills which should be mastered to be an effective communicator: reading. the distance between the two has been reducing rapidly. . (2) business. status.Methods of Communication: 1. writing. The following may cause communication barriers. Accordingly the level and quality of communication have to be adjusted. (b) One can never ignore the target audience. Communication includes all forms of expressions which serve the purpose of mutual understanding. Visual 4. (1) The power of expression of the communicator determines the quality of communication. That is the communicator must know “what” he has to communicate and then. It may hamper clarity and precision. awkward movements and gestures. Effective Communication depends on the following major factors: (a) For Effective Communication one must have a clear idea of the purpose. Types of Communication: (1) personal. (7) Grapevine communication. one has to use different methods. may dilute the power of communication. time. listening. Audio-Visual 5. (d) Visual and verbal communication when combined. speaking. Barriers may rise due to faulty expression and faulty construction. follows the next step of “how” to communicate. one has to look into its reasons. (7) The organization/situation may not be conducive to communication. suddenness etc.

the order to be followed. (vii) The previous six purposes. The speaker/writer must ascertain in advance the message to be conveyed. (v) Advertisers and politicians try to persuade. Different situations compel one to record. (iii) to find out (iv) to influence (v) to regulate (vi) to entertain (vii) to record (i) One must remember the specific purpose and communicate accordingly. values. diary writing. Lists. control and regulate the views of others regarding the rightness of a particular method and manner of action. time management has acquired great significance and so. a communicator must manipulate time effectively. letters or any other process the feedback is collected to make communication effective. The information can be given in two different ways: (a) Direct communication. norms and experiences have impact on good communication. sound. (m) Whenever any form of communication is carried out. Major purposes of communication through writing. the communication to inform is indistinct. (f) Communication can succeed only through good planning. (iii) To find out we need to ask questions. At times. Care should be taken to make it distinct. Thus there is a need to train oneself and to speak effectively in the given time. So one must ensure that through questions. there is a need to get the feedback. (vi) To entertain the language becomes a -tool in the hands of the speaker. or to give opinion. connotation. Humour and emotions are added to the normal way of speaking. It also highlights the sincerity of the speaker. The communicator must decide when he has to use the written method or the verbal method. the method to be adopted. (iv) We speak or write to influence others. This knowledge is passed on to the audience. We need to use questions while interviewing a person or meeting the media. To influence others with speech or writing one needs vocabulary. All the perspectives of a subject are available to a speaker/writer when he is well informed. (l) Perceptions. (g) The positive approach in communication is most effective though the pitfalls should be suggested. the detail to be given and the feedback to be received. answers. beliefs. the mood and tone etc. (j) In modern times. (b) Selling some information through indirect ways. A good communicator must consider the above mentioned facts in relation to the audience also.(e) Communication succeeds when one is well informed. One should restrain one’s emotions. formal. (h) Extreme feelings have no place in good communication unless of course when a little playacting is required. attitudes. pre-supposes that there is an audience. The meaning. communication system. To Interact or for “Small Talk” for social intercourse one often requires a more leisurely approach. (k) Communication becomes effective and simple when right modes and channels are used. Vocabulary and sentence structure in such conditions are also of a lighter mode. the words to be chosen. speaking and visual presentation are: (i) to interact – “small talk” (ii) to inform – information can be official. To fill up forms we need to answer questions in formalized situations. is of a different quality. This quality increases the trust of the audience and also enables the speaker to handle the problems individually according to their importance. But when one communicates to record. (i) A good communicator is consistent and logical. Things are recorded to give it a relative permanency and authenticity. formal business like personal. Doctors and teachers also do the same but it is done quite frankly. (ii) To inform one can use official. The attempt to influence is very discreetly carried out in advertising and political communication. combination are all combined to influence. business or personal.. We communicate to persuade others. on the next occasion. . Writing and speech of others also influence us. The adults and children both need it. While speaking/ communicating with a purpose to entertain. there is no immediate audience and yet there is a future reader.

right word in the right place. Short. Ethical vision. The Process of Communication 1. receives and decodes Reacts Sends the feedback. Remember we all have different perspectives so be receptive. Assess the target audience. Emotional balance. Consistent and logical. to find out to influence to regulate to entertain to record . Time management. Convincing. Rich vocabulary. personal. 2. direct. While listening or reading it is useful to analyze the purpose of communication. The Purpose of Communication a) b) c) d) e) f) g) to interact –small talk. 6. business. 4. The speaker has an idea Encodes in a language/media Sends it to the receiver Receiver. attendance registers. 3. are samples of some kind of recording.logbooks. The circle of communication is thus complete. It is good to remember the primary purpose and communicate accordingly. Correct grammar. Correct tonal variations. WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT Components of Effective Communication                  The purpose should be clear ‘what’ and ‘how’. simple and interesting expression.. good planning. Correct pronunciation. 5. confident congenial presentation. indirect. Correct attitude. Enthusiasm. Sense of respect for others. Good listener (active listener and not passive /blank listener). scientific reports. to inform – information can be formal. Positive approach. all official documents letters etc. When we communicate there is usually one major and other minor purpose.

Communication Learning skills are 1. 4. 3) Incoherence: Improper balance between thoughts and words can create problems. physical disability. 4) Faulty transmission due to incorrect pronunciation. and time. (4) eye contact. awkward body movements.Communication Barriers 1) Faulty expression and faulty construction. (5) facial expression. wrong spellings. 7) Organizational situations. 6) Communication can be hindered due to authority. 5) Different levels of understanding. Listening Speaking Reading Writing 1 and 3 are non-verbal skills 2 and 4 are verbal skills. status. extra-grammatical words. (8) Sign language. . 9) Nervousness. It hampers clarity and precision. errors. 2. (2) postures. illegible hand writing. Non-Verbal Skills are : (1) gestures. 8) Behavioral distractions like stammering. punctuation. 3. (6) body language(conscious and unconscious). 2) Lack of conceptual skill. (7) Space distancing. (3) attires.