Designation: D 2024 – 65 (Reapproved 2003

)

Standard Test Method for

Cloud Point of Nonionic Surfactants1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 2024; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the solubility inversion temperature or “cloud point” of nonionic
surfactants or detergent systems which are characteristically
less soluble in water at higher temperatures than at lower
temperatures. It is limited to those surfactants and detergent
systems for which the visible solubility change occurs over a
range of 1°C or less at concentrations of 0.5 to 1.0 % in water
between 30 and 95°C.
1.2 Chemical Limitations—Nonionic surfactants that exhibit a characteristic cloud point in general terms consist of a
water-in-soluble moiety condensed with 50 to 75 % by weight
of ethylene oxide.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

not sharp, that is, if it does not take place within a range of 1°C, this test
method is not appropriate.

4. Interferences
4.1 Ionic surfactants or detergents in concentrations down to
1 % or less of the nonionic surfactant drastically raise the
characteristic cloud point of the latter. The presence of salts and
bases (that is, non-surface active materials) will lower the
characteristic cloud point. Acids tend to raise the cloud point.
5. Apparatus
5.1 Thermometer—An ASTM Partial Immersion Thermometer having a range from −20 to +150°C or 0 to 302°F and
conforming to the requirements for Thermometer 1C or 1F in
accordance with Specification E 1.
6. Procedure
6.1 Prepare a 1.0 % test solution by weighing a 1 6 0.1-g
sample into a 150-mL beaker and add 100 mL of distilled or
demineralized water which is at a temperature of less than
30°C. Agitate until the sample is dissolved. Pour 50 6 5 mL of
test solution into a 25 by 200-mm test tube of borosilicate
glass. While agitating the test solution slowly with the thermometer, heat the test tube with a bunsen burner until the test
solution becomes definitely cloudy. Remove from heat. While
stirring slowly with the thermometer, allow the test solution to
cool slowly until it becomes clear. Record the temperature
(Note 1).

2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards: 2
E 1 Specification for ASTM Thermometers
3. Significance and Use
3.1 The cloud point temperature is a reproducible characteristic of certain pure nonionic surfactants. It is also characteristic of certain nonionic surfactant formulated systems. This
test method is appropriate for both systems.

7. Precision
7.1 The following precision data provide a reasonable basis
for judging the significance of the results:
7.1.1 Repeatability—Duplicate results by the same operator
should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more
than 0.5°C.
7.1.2 Reproducibility—The average result reported by one
laboratory should not be considered suspect unless it differs
from that of another laboratory by more than 1.0°C.

NOTE 1—If the transition from a distinctly cloudy to a clear solution is

1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D12 on Soaps
and Other Detergents and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D 12.15 on
Physical Testing.
Current edition approved Aug. 31, 1965. Published October 1965. Originally
published as D 2024 – 62 T. Last previous edition D 2024 – 62 T.
2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.

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1

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