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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

**Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
**

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

**Applications of fuzzy logic in renewable energy systems – A review
**

L. Suganthi a,n, S. Iniyan b, Anand A. Samuel c

a

b

c

**Department of Management Studies, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600025, India
**

Institute for Energy Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600025, India

VIT University, Vellore 632014, India

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 9 November 2013

Received in revised form

19 March 2015

Accepted 3 April 2015

Available online 28 April 2015

In recent years, with the advent of globalization, the world is witnessing a steep rise in its energy

consumption. The world is transforming itself into an industrial and knowledge society from an

agricultural one which in turn makes the growth, energy intensive resulting in emissions. Energy

modeling and energy planning is vital for the future economic prosperity and environmental security.

Soft computing techniques such as fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms are being adopted in

energy modeling to precisely map the energy systems. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review

the applications of fuzzy logic based models in renewable energy systems namely solar, wind, bioenergy, micro-grid and hybrid applications. It is found that fuzzy based models are extensively used in

recent years for site assessment, for installing of photovoltaic/wind farms, power point tracking in solar

photovoltaic/wind, optimization among conﬂicting criteria. The review indicates that fuzzy based

models provide realistic estimates.

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Fuzzy logic

Neuro-fuzzy

ANFIS

Fuzzy AHP

Fuzzy MCDM

Contents

1.

2.

3.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Energy models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fuzzy logic models in energy systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1.

Fuzzy models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.

Hybrid models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.

Multicriteria decision models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4. Applications of fuzzy logic in renewable energy systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.

Solar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2.

Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3.

Bio-energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.4.

Hybrid systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. Introduction

Energy plays an important role in the development of any

country. The source of energy is dominated by fossil fuels. The

20th century witnessed a rapid twenty fold increase in fossil fuel

consumption. Among the fuels, coal and oil are being used for

n

**Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 91 98412 44331.
**

E-mail address: suganthi_au@yahoo.com (L. Suganthi).

**http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.037
**

1364-0321/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

585

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603

603

**electricity generation which in turn is used for lighting, heating
**

and cooling. Oil is used in transportation, heating and cooling.

According to International Energy Agency (IEA) data from 1990 to

2008, the energy consumption per capita increased by 10% while

the world population increased by 27%. This was mainly due to the

growth in China, India and the Middle East [1]. The growth in

energy consumption in the G20 countries slowed down to 2%

in 2011.

Global warming resulting from extensive fossil fuel consumption has now become a global phenomenon. If developing countries

586

L. Suganthi et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607

**especially India and China are able to efﬁciently use the energy
**

and bring in a steep declining trend in its energy intensity, it will

beneﬁt the respective country, their economy as well as the global

environment.

About 16% of the global energy consumption comes from

renewable energy resources. The share of renewable energy in

electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% from hydro and 3%

from renewable energy resources. Renewable energy is environment friendly and renewable in nature. From the end of 2004,

worldwide renewable energy capacity grew at rates of 10–60%

annually for various technologies [2]. In 2010, renewable power

constituted about a third of the newly built power generation

capacities [3]. According to a 2011 projection by the IEA, solar

power generators may produce most of the world's electricity

within the next 50 years. Renewable energy technologies are

getting cheaper, through technological change and through the

beneﬁts of mass production and market competition. If policies

such as environmental tariff, net metering, emissions trading,

carbon tax, carbon emission trading are introduced, the utilization

of renewable energy can be further increased. Thus it is seen that

energy planning is the need of the hour.

2. Energy models

Proper planning is required at the global, national and regional

level to handle the energy consumption on one hand and consequent emissions on the other. The world has been endowed with

environment friendly renewable energy sources. Academicians,

policy makers and industrialists need to work in tandem for

developing energy models to circumvent the growing energyenvironment predicament.

Energy models are developed for sustainable development of

any nation. Advanced energy models are required for handling

complex phenomena. There are a variety of models used in energy

modeling. Time series, regression, ARIMA, input–output, decomposition models, grey prediction, co-integration models are used

for energy demand forecasting. Integrated energy planning models

try and balance the energy supply with energy demand. Artiﬁcial

intelligent systems namely neural network, fuzzy logic, genetic

algorithm are being used for building optimization models.

Energy models also help in integrated assessment considering

availability, potential, economics, emission, technology, social

acceptance etc. Econometric models deal with the costs of

resources, energy systems, economy of the country, technological

parameters etc. Energy-economic models are used to examine the

wider impacts of changes in the energy system and the economy.

Energy system models are technology based cost optimizing

models that are predominantly used for technology assessments.

Energy-environment models help in understanding the linkage

between energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and climate

change. With several competing energy options, energy models

based on fuzzy logic enable researchers to realistically select the

right mix of energy resources – considering the various conﬂicting

criteria like costs, availability, emission etc.

**3. Fuzzy logic models in energy systems
**

Energy projects in developing countries have proved that renewable energy can directly contribute to poverty alleviation as well as

provide for business and employment opportunities. However electricity from renewable energy is argued to be intermittent and hence

unreliable. On the one hand consumers need to be educated on the

necessity of using non-polluting cleaner energy sources while the

policy makers in the government must bring in legislations and

**reallocations in the budget spending so as to enhance renewable
**

energy utilization to a greater extent. If realistic models are developed to provide reliable, environment friendly energy from homespun commercial and renewable energy sources it would aid the

global community and leave behind a healthy environment for

generations to come. Fuzzy logic helps in conceptualizing the

fuzziness in the system into a crisp quantiﬁable parameter. Thus

fuzzy logic based models can be adopted for effective energy

planning to arrive at pragmatic solutions.

Fuzzy logic deals with reality and it is a form of many valued

logic. It deals with reasoning that is approximate having also

linguistic values rather than crisp values. Fuzzy logic handles the

concept of truth value that ranges between completely true and

completely false (0–1). Fuzzy logic has been applied in many

disciplines. Fuzzy logic and probability are different ways of

expressing uncertainty. Fuzzy set theory used the concept of fuzzy

set membership while probability theory uses the concept of

subjective probability. The various types of membership functions

normally used in fuzzy logic are ‘Λ’ triangular, ‘∏’ trapezoidal, ‘L’

function, ‘Γ ’ function, ‘S’ function, Gaussian fuzzy set. All of these

functions can be used in the modeling of energy systems.

Fuzzy logic based models in energy systems can range from the

most simple to the most complex. They can be broadly classiﬁed as

follows:

(i)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(ii)

Fuzzy models

fuzzy delphi

fuzzy regression

fuzzy grey prediction

fuzzy AHP

fuzzy ANP

fuzzy clustering

Hybrid models

(a) neuro-fuzzy, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

(ANFIS)

(b) fuzzy genetic algorithm, neuro-fuzzy GA

(c) fuzzy expert system, neuro-fuzzy expert system

(d) fuzzy DSS

(e) fuzzy DEA, neuro-fuzzy DEA

(iii) Multi criteria decision models

(a) fuzzy VIKOR

(b) fuzzy TOPSIS

(c) fuzzy support vector machine

(d) fuzzy particle swarm optimization

(e) fuzzy honey bee optimization

(f) fuzzy cuckoo search optimization

(g) fuzzy quantum particle swarm optimization

(h) fuzzy ant colony optimization.

3.1. Fuzzy models

The fuzzy logic based models are being used extensively because

it maps the realistic situation to a large extent. Fuzzy delphi method

is used when the experts' response is of a fuzzy nature. Several

rounds are conducted among experts to arrive at a consensus. In

fuzzy regression, the data for the dependent and independent

variables are captured in a fuzzy manner and the effect of the

independent variables on the dependent variable is determined

using the derived regression equation. In fuzzy grey prediction,

similar to regression approach, the fuzziness is used to capture the

grey area in the variables considered for the dependency prediction.

Fuzzy AHP and fuzzy ANP are used to ﬁnd the relative importance of

the variables. Fuzzy approach helps in accurately capturing the

fuzziness in the minds of people while ranking the variables. In

fuzzy clustering, the range given to the variables helps in clearly

Hong et al. [60] Wind Lee et al. Monfared et al. Zeng et al. extensive research has been done in neuro-fuzzy and ANFIS models. [111] Hybrid Ansari and Velusami [112. [104]. Calderaro et al. In recent years it is found that fuzzy inference systems are used extensively in solar PV control/smart grid systems. Mellit et al. [65]. [20]. [31. However Table 1 Fuzzy models in renewable energy systems. Welch and Venayagamoorthy [129]. Cavallaro [126] Hybrid Perera et al. [121] Wind Lee et al. Haque et al. Salah and Ouali [63]. [115] Wind Kasiri et al. Arulmurugan and Suthanthiravanitha [53]. [105] Hybrid Malekpour et al. [16] design Bio-energy Romeo and Gareta [118] Renewables Agrawal and Singh [10] Solar Charabi an Gastli [119]. [81]. These techniques can be classiﬁed as ‘simple’ considering its complexity involved in the technique and can be used for prediction or grading the importance of energy sources/systems. Fuzzy DEA is an optimization technique which helps in determining the best combination of resources that can be used considering the various constraints present in a situation/region. Wang and Xiong [51] Mamlook et al. Salah et al.41] solar/wind Solar Gomez and Casanovas [95] Wind Azizipanah-Abarghooee et al. [88] Renewables Heo et al. [9] Alata et al.L. Zarzalejo et al. Pousinho et al. Chen et al. [102] Bio-energy Balaman and Selim [103]. [106] Solar Azadeh et al. [12]. availability. [58]. fuzzy delphi. Sfetsos and Coonick [64]. [97]. [127] Micro-grid Moghaddam et al. [57]. Fuzzy genetic algorithm is also used in control systems for solar PV/wind and for ﬁnding the best wind energy generation terrain. Ustuntas and Sahin [99] Bio-energy Ayoub et al.84]. [40. [66] Wind Capovilla [67]. Liang et al. Sfetsos [82]. Lin et al. VIKOR. Wang and Singh [134] Renewable Niknam et al. [101] Wind Liang et al. [93] Hybrid Chen et al. Luk et al. QPSO.113]. Fuzzy expert system and neuro-fuzzy expert systems are artiﬁcial intelligent systems used for identifying the best energy resource or for maximizing the available resource. [22]. [75].125]. Shaﬁee [91]. Vahidinasab [14] Solar Benlarbi et al. fuzzy regression. Liu et al. These models may be classiﬁed as ‘medium’ in complexity. Ng et al. Cuckoo optimization Researchers Martin et al. Osorio et al. [110] Wind González de la Rosa et al. [130] Wind Aghaei et al. Ugranli and Karatepe [98]. Pousinho et al. Jafarian and Ranjbar [71]. [133]. [132]. [8] Wind Zhao et al. Yeh and Huang [92] Bio-energy Chang et al. [131]. It helps to identify the decision model given an energy situation. Tarsri and Susilawati [23] Solar Lee et al. Shamshirband et al. [120]. Kharb et al. Lee et al. [17] Renewables Zare and Niknam [44] Fuel cell/ Niknam et al. Tan et al. [89]. [47]. [50]. [81]. Mohandes et al. Yang et al. Kalantar and Mousavi [114] Solar Chekired et al. [59].32] Solar Sangawong and Ngamroo [128]. [107] Wind Azadeh et al. [39–41] Hybrid Berrazouane and Mohammedi [135]. Bigdeli [136] . They can be used for accurately simulating the system and/or its performance. [70]. [68]. Ren and Sovacool [24]. Cao and Lin [54]. fuzzy grey prediction can be used.73]. [60]. [74]. Fuzzy DSS uses a combination of various decision models. [69]. Each of these approaches are being used depending on the problem domain. Fuzzy clustering is used for grouping of resources based on selected criteria such as cost. Mellit and Kalogirou [62]. [83. [77–80]. [123] Renewables Kaya and Kahraman [21]. Kahraman et al. [90]. [52]. [89] Bio-energy Bitar et al. Kaneko et al. pollution etc.2. [73]. [116] Renewables Kaminaris et al. ANP Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy optimization Neuro-Fuzzy DEA Fuzzy GA Neuro-Fuzzy GA Fuzzy expert Neuro-fuzzy expert Fuzzy MCDM Fuzzy TOPSIS. [48] An et al. For prediction purposes. [87] Hybrid Rajkumar et al. [122]. [42] Solar Ahmadi et al. Ramedani et al. Suganthi et al. [13]. [94] Space heating Jaber et al. [7]. [72. [85] Bio-energy Jurado and Saenz [86]. [108] Solar Kisi [109]. Sengul et al. [61]. [56]. [49]. Hybrid models Neuro-fuzzy models and ANFIS models have been used extensively during the past decade especially in control systems. [76]. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 demarcating the clusters and draw boundaries. Techniques Area of research Fuzzy regression Solar Wind Renewables Solar Neuro-fuzzy. [100] Renewables Ho et al. [117] Building Dounis et al. [124. Ren et al. fuzzy ANP can be used for ﬁnding the relative importance of the energy resources. ANFIS Fuzzy AHP. [96]. Fuzzy PSO Fuzzy honey bee optimization Fuzzy PSO. Landeras et al. Chaabene and Ammar [55]. De Giorgi et al. Fuzzy AHP. As seen 587 from Table 1. Chaouachi et al. Bahmani-Firouzi et al. Li et al. Jurado et al. Kyriakarakos et al. Syafaruddin et al. Liu et al. 3. Wu et al. Lin et al.

energy utilization and GHG emission control were determined by Li et al. Yu and Dexter [18] have used hierarchical fuzzy supervisory controller for optimizing the operation of a low energy building which uses solar energy for heating and cooling the interiors. wind and hydropower are the best options while nuclear and fossil fuel based electric power are the least preferred. The method integrated interval linear programming. fuelwood. Kaya and Kahraman [21] have determined the best renewable energy alternative for Istanbul by using an integrated fuzzy VIKOR and AHP methodology. Kaminaris et al. reliability and energy security. environment. The options considered are fossil fuel. [19] have developed an interval-parameter superiority–inferiority based two-stage programming model for supporting community-scale renewable energy management (ISITSPCREM) considering system cost. wind and hydropower systems. 4. gas turbine and diesel engine) planning in electricity networks. cuckoo search optimization. quantum particle swarm optimization. 3. Tradeoffs among system costs. to name a few. It was found renewable energy (namely solar and wind) based heating system was more favorable. [16] have proposed a fuzzy logic expert system in the design of solar buildings to achieve optimal thermal and visual comfort conditions within the living and working space. fuel cell. Ludwig [6] has used a novel fuzzy based method for assessing the various energy conversion technologies taking into account the environmental aspects and have concluded that renewable energy needs to utilized for sustainability. Suganthi et al. two-stage programming (TSP) with superiority–inferiority based fuzzystochastic programming (SI-FSP). Kyriakarakos et al. The model helps to effectively balance between system costs. Based on the cost-to-beneﬁt ratios. The energy allocations for cooking considering economic. photovoltaic. [7] have developed a fuzzy based expert system model to determine an unique fuzzy project priority index for prioritizing Renewables-toElectricity system. Dounis et al. nuclear. Kahraman et al. The uniqueness of their research is in the use of fuzzy axiomatic design and fuzzy AHP in the selection of alternatives from among the renewable energy sources. emission reduction. [8] have presented the design and implementation of fuzzy cognitive maps based decision support toolkit for renewable energy systems planning and has tested it in Crete Island. environmental. solar. biogas. When various options are thrown open to policy makers. [5] have identiﬁed optimal strategies in the planning of energy management systems under multiple uncertainties using fuzzy-random interval programming model. socio-political and technological. particle swarm optimization. Fuzzy AHP using fuzziness in the range values determine the relative importance scores of various renewable energy dissemination programs in Korea based on ﬁve criteria – technological.588 L. micro-turbine. [12]. Vahidinasab [14] have presented a probabilistic multiobjective optimization model for distributed energy resources (DER) (which includes wind turbine. solar thermal energy. The variables consider the life cycle analysis and hence this priority index will be highly useful to practitioners to choose a renewable energy based electricity system. A multiobjective linear programming model has been developed by Ho et al. ant colony optimization are all machine learning tools which helps to unravel the mystery behind the data and accurately predict the possible outcomes. It is predominantly being used to test models using numerical analysis and simulation studies. [17] using beneﬁt to cost ratio from fuzzy AHP evaluated conventional and renewable energy based space heating systems using multicriteria analysis. The method integrates interval linear programming (ILP). [15] has done a review of grid integrated schemes for renewable power generation system including fuzzy logic control mechanism. grid electricity are considered in the model. Support vector machine. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 use of these models can be undertaken only if the accuracy justiﬁes the cost and complexity.3. the results indicate that solar. it becomes imperative to rationally and optimally choose the best resource considering several constraining factors. These techniques require the intense computation. This toolkit will be very useful for decision makers to critically evaluate their investments in renewable energy systems in local communities. Fuzzy logic based models have emerged as an effective tool to meet this need. It uses a fuzzy two stage algorithm for energy conservation and increased renewable energy utilization so as to reduce CO2 emission. honey bee optimization. Cai et al. Such integrated models will be highly useful in analysing competing scenarios to determine various decision alternatives. This model can be used for selecting a low carbon energy conservation system in buildings and campuses. A hybrid fuzzy C-mean/Monte-Carlo simulation (FCM/MCS) model is used for scenario based modeling of the electricity prices. LPG. Applications of fuzzy logic in renewable energy systems Groscurth and Kress [4] have adopted fuzzy set theory and fuzzy c-means clustering to compress the data which is used in energy optimization for minimizing the primary energy inputs and emission of pollutants. Fuzzy based multiobjective optimization models are being used to ﬁnd the best combination of resources to be used in a constraining environment. energy utilization and GHG emissions to arrive at optimal renewable/non-renewable energy solutions. It is found that fuzzy logic is also being used extensively as an assessment/evaluation tool. the multicriteria decision models have gained momentum. technical factors have been determined by linear fuzziﬁcation of multiple objectives [10]. The uncertainty (fuzziness) in human preferences creates vagueness in the decision making process. A review is carried out on the various types of fuzzy models applied to renewable energy systems. Fuzzy expert systems and fuzzy based hierarchical processing have been adopted in buildings to increase the comfort level with minimum energy use resulting in passive building designs. Specialized softwares are being used to arrive at accurate conclusions. fuzzy stochastic programming and mixed integer programming. [9] have used a neuro-fuzzy program to assess the different electricity power generation options for Jordan. Multicriteria decision models With the latest advancements taking place in information technology sector. [20] have utilized multi-criteria decision making methodologies and found wind to be the best alternative for Turkey considering the four main criteria – economic. [13] using a fuzzy dual-interval multistage stochastic (FDMSP) optimization framework. The fuzzy based MCDM techniques are classiﬁed as ‘complex’ since it requires specialists to run the packages and interpret the results. The same approach is also used to determine the energy production sites. ElTamaly and Mohammed [11] have determined the impact of interconnecting photovoltaic/wind energy system from reliability point of view using fuzzy logic based reliability index for each hybrid electric power system. grid applications. This is overcome using the proposed fuzzyVIKOR–AHP methodology which clearly brings out the relative importance score for each resource. Fuzzy logic has thus helped in effectively capturing and compressing the data and uncertainties present in energy modelling. Fuzzy VIKOR and fuzzy TOPSIS are used for renewable energy optimization. Cai et al. A new concept ‘operational adequacy measure’ as a measure of the degree of satisfaction has been introduced in the optimization model. These are now being used in renewable energy sector for control systems. Veena et al. Jaber et al. Mamlook et al. .

The comparison of various methods indicate how inclusion of fuzzy logic improves the precision accuracy. Ishaque and Salam [45] have reviewed the research carried out for maximum . The fuel cost and CO2 emission that will result from such systems are also analysed. the voltage deviations. A fuzzy clustering algorithm and fuzzy based decision maker is adopted to select the optimal solution. A fuzzy satisfying method is used for the decision making process [38]. emission and losses of distributed system and optimization of voltage proﬁle. Three to six fuzzy sets have been used to map the input variable into a fuzzy set. Suganthi et al. the total electrical energy costs and the total emissions of renewable energy sources and substations. temperature. A self-tuning fuzzy PI controller is proposed for frequency regulation when there are large load variations on micro-hydro power plants [30]. wind turbine and fuel cell based electrical generators to determine the siting and sizing of renewable electricity generators using pareto based Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO) algorithm. As fuzzy logic was found to be an highly appropriate tool in capturing uncertainties. Canada [25]. With the escalation in the computing power several complex algorithms such as PSO. investment cost. 589 location etc. The above research indicates how fuzzy logic has been effectively deployed in optimization problems to arrive at optimal output either for constraining conditions or for optimal scheduling of renewable energy resource in grid optimization. Niknam et al. creation of jobs. The optimization problem has been solved using simulated annealing heuristic technique. operation and maintenance cost. The algorithm aims at controlling the power available from different sources while giving top priority to renewable energy sources. Fuzzy logic has also been tried with other advanced optimization techniques such as honey bee optimization for determining the best renewable energy resource for electricity generation. and policy-related – and 17 factors [22].e. [26] have compared the prediction models such as Kalman ﬁltering. Smart grid is an emerging topic of interest among both researchers and practioners. Twenty four criteria were initially identiﬁed of which nine criteria only were selected for analysis. land use. The scheduling of energy sources in a micro-grid comprising of microturbine. Zheng et al.) in energy modeling have increased in recent years. It also helped in proposing adaptation measures. Salhi et al. for smart grid applications [36]. It is suggested to run the model with all the criteria depending on the region chosen for study. The review clearly indicates how linguistic values are made measurable using fuzzy logic and also when used along with advanced forecasting/optimization/scheduling techniques. Integrating fuzzy logic with these techniques have been researched in renewable energy systems. An integrated modeling system (IMS) has been developed for planning of the energy management system and the climate change – impact analysis in the Province of Manitoba. The applications of soft computing techniques (namely fuzzy logic. estimating the solar energy was found to be difﬁcult using mathematical and regression models. economic. the electrical energy losses. Fuzzy logic was used for modeling and estimating the solar energy using the sunshine availability. The effectiveness was checked using two standard distribution systems. environmental. Moghaddam et al. installed capacity. Benachaiba et al. CLS. fuzzy sets was used to model the uncertainties. The authors have compared the above results with conventional PSO and GA [32]. payback period. The decision making process adopts fuzzy logic technique. However a major concern in smart grid implementation is the integration of renewable energy sources for optimal distribution of electricity. Ren and Sovacool [24] have used fuzzy AHP to determine the relative weights indicating the importance of energy security factors in China. This helps in controlling the size of the repository. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 market-related. Normal boundary intersection technique is used to solve the multi-objective optimization and generate the Pareto set. fuel cell and wind energy. Fuzzy AHP has been used in the selection of the best renewable energy source for electricity generation in Indonesia [23]. The fuzzy reasoning introduced in their model helped in visualizing the impact of climate change on energy management systems. their forecasting versatility for wind and PV power generation. Fuzzy logic technique has not only been used in identifying alternatives. Fuzzy logic technique is found to be very compatible even when used in conjunction with other complex algorithms for arriving at effective solutions. The optimization process has been based on Chaotic Local Search (CLS) mechanism and a Fuzzy Self Adaptive (FSA) structure. neural network. To combine efﬁciency and simplicity of design. fuzzy inference and biological intelligence algorithm. Clustering is used for grouping items of similar characteristics. the methodology becomes robust and the decision outcomes are more accurate. A fuzzy model has been used in the constraining condition. CO2 emission. [39] have considered photovoltaic. genetic algorithm etc. A fuzzy clustering technique has been used to group the enormous amount of data into groups for further analysis. [27] have tried power conditioning of fuel cell using fuzzy logic control for standalone systems and grid connections. [31] have presented an expert multi-objective Adaptive Modiﬁed Particle Swarm Optimization (AMPSO) algorithm for optimizing the operation of a micro-grid with renewable energy sources.41] to study the distribution feeder conﬁguration (DFR) considering renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics. Rezvani et al. efﬁciency. in forecasting but also in the control devices in energy systems. The objectives consist of minimization of costs. [33] have applied fuzzy logic technique within micro-grid energy system. battery units and wind turbine have been carried out using fuzzy based optimization models with two objective functions of minimizing the total operation cost and emission. Since there is always ambiguity in predicting the climatic conditions. wavelet transform and artiﬁcial intelligence such as neural networks.L. The technique was adopted for Turkey [42] to rank the resources considering the amount of energy produced. data mining. simulated annealing. Hanmandlu and Goyal [28] have proposed a fuzzy proportional integration (PI) controller for micro-hydro power plants to improve its performance. Sakhare et al. i. [37] have performed economic and environmental pareto optimal scheduling of a micro-grid for using renewable energy sources. Fuzzy TOPSIS is yet another MCDM technique which has been used for ranking of renewable energy supply systems under conﬂicting scenarios. PI controllers are synthesized for each considered operating point. Such range values adopted in fuzzy based models help in arriving at quantiﬁable crisp scores. Earlier reviews indicated how fuzzy AHP has been used to ﬁnd relative scores or ranking of resources. GA have become solvable today. The authors have presented Modiﬁed Honey Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) [40. It is used to track the disturbance of the grid and improve the quality of system. Renewable energy unit commitment in a micro-grid formed by a mix of intelligent buildings of both ofﬁce and residential nature has been found [35]. [29] have used Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy system to model and control a micro hyrdro power plant. Zare and Niknam [44] have developed a multi-objective problem considering conﬂicting objectives. PV. Mohamed and Mohammed [34] have proposed an algorithm for optimizing the distribution system operation using a fuzzy based smart controller in a smart grid considering cost and system stability. Adaptive chaos clonal evolutionary programming (ACCEP) has been used by Hong and Lin [43] for short-term active power scheduling of a stand-alone wind and solar PV system. fuel cell.

Overall fuzzy weights is given for each solar system. Liu et al. honey bee optimization etc. Fuzzy densities have been obtained for criteria and sub-criteria.1. [52] has utilized Sugeno fuzzy inference system for modeling and controller design in sun tracking system. The authors claim that the numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. fuzzy TOPSIS. Altas and Sharaf [144] state that the fuzzy logic design proposed can also be used for other power system applications such as voltage control. This conversion from fuzzy to crisp value helps in accurately sieving through the decisions existing in the minds of the consumers. The criteria used are energy factor. to ﬁnd the relative importance of the resources. When fuzzy logic is integrated to these techniques the results are found to be more precise and accurate. It is found that any system incorporating fuzzy approach gives better results in terms of tracking efﬁciency. [143] have evaluated the challenges for solar energy utilization in Taiwan and have identiﬁed strategies for energy development in the future using fuzzy delphi method. [137] have presented a fuzzy set methodology for comparing the beneﬁt to cost ratios of different solar systems for various applications in Jordan. neuro-fuzzy-DEA. simulation data. In addition to conventional fuzzy. It is clear from the table that neuro-fuzzy and ANFIS models were predominantly used in the early years. storage. [146] have proposed a new switching approach using fuzzy logic for obtaining optimum output when connecting domestic appliances to either the electrical grid or a photovoltaic panel. The Simulink and Virtual Reality toolboxes of MATLAB are used in the simulation studies. The authors state that power point trackers play an important role in photovoltaic (PV) power systems because they maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions such as changing insolation and temperature. fuzzy genetic algorithm. fuzzy DEA. However researchers are exploring newer and complex techniques in recent years to accommodate heuristic based reasoning and obtain better results. Karlis et al. The fuzzy control is made intelligent using genetic algorithms for optimization. Similarly Gunderson et al. [141] have proposed an energy management strategy in buildings which uses PV. The model in turn maximizes the drive speed and the water discharge rate of the centrifugal pump. Suganthi et al. Zhai and Willaims [142] have developed a fuzzy logic inference model relating consumer perception variables to the probability of purchase of energy from solar PV. fuzzy AHP. The increase in computing power and advancement of technology has resulted in the extensive use of MCDM techniques. Nafeh et al. The table clearly highlights how the number of research papers that have been published using fuzzy based models in renewable energy systems have increased several fold in the recent years. Wu et al. The applications of fuzzy logic in renewable energy systems have been reviewed and was found that fuzzy logic based AHP. A subtractive clustering algorithm is used with least square estimation (LSE) to generate fuzzy rules that are again tuned by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). index data from reliability models to identify potential sites for solar system installations. Purchasing probability distribution has been obtained among adopters and nonadopters using fuzzy logic model. 4. US. Each of these criteria has its own sub-criteria. A fuzzy logic power tracking controller has been developed for a standalone photovoltaic energy conversion. The . Zhang et al. Fuzzy logic is found to be an adequate tool to handle spatial data from GIS. online fuzzy dynamic search are being researched into. A fuzzy management algorithm has been proposed in this paper. land factor. The applications of fuzzy logic in solar and wind energy research are found to be more than in other energy systems. GIS based spatial fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation was carried out at Oman by Charabi and Gastli [119. fuzzy simulated annealing have been used for optimization. The survey was conducted among consumers in Arizona. The optimized fuzzy logic MPPT controller is evaluated under varying conditions and was found to be more robust giving better performances as compared to conventional perturbation and observation (P&O) MPPT algorithms. The modelaims to reduce the cost of energy bill and CO2 emission using fuzzy logic. fuzzy ant colony optimization etc.138] to assess the land suitability for large PV farms implementation. power system stabilizers and speed control application. The fuzzy ranges are then converted to crisp accurate values using the fuzzy set methodology. power variation. DEA have been used for ranking of renewable energy resources. [147] present a Maximum Power Point Tracking Method (MPPT) using fuzzy cognitive network. fuzzy ANP. Neuro-fuzzy. [139] have adopted graphical method based on fuzzy logic to determine the potential sites for PV power plants. fuzzy genetic. fuzzy cognitive. [149] have presented an intelligent fuzzy logic control method for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system under variable temperature and irradiance conditions. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 power point tracking (MPPT) for PV systems while Roy and Saha [46] have reviewed the research in soft computing techniques to optimize the various parameters and the efﬁciency of Savonious wind rotors. Simulation studies indicate the proposed fuzzy controller provides a highly accurate online tracking system for ﬁnding the efﬁciency of the PV pumping system. Fuzzy based hybrid models used in renewable energy systems are categorized based on the techniques used and the areas of research wherein they were adopted and presented in Table 1. ANP. infrastructure factor. [145] have evaluated the controller performance for maximum power point tracking using conventional PI controller and fuzzy logic controller using an experimental setup. The energy management in buildings using PV power becomes complex because of several reasons such as intermittent supply. neuro-fuzzy controllers. Chaabene et al. An online fuzzy optimization procedure [101] has been designed for maximization of the efﬁciency of a photovoltaic water pumping system. detection and tracking controller for a standalone solar PV is developed to ensure maximum power point (MPP) operation for variations in solar insolation. fuzzy PSO. This has led to the emergence of techniques such as ant colony. Larbes et al. Dynamic fuzzy reliability models were used to resolve the problems in dealing with the interaction between the fuzzy stress process and the stochastic strength process in folded solar array system [140]. The rating scale incorporates the fuzzy ranges for various parameters in survey based studies measuring consumer's preferences. Eight objectives and forty ﬁve criteria have been studied to determine the strategies. especially in the emergence of integrated models such as fuzzy expert. Solar Mamlook et al. and therefore maximize the array efﬁciency. environmental and social factor. particle swarm.590 L. Table 2 clearly highlights how fuzzy based integrated models have increased tremendously over the years in various application domains. An on-line fuzzy logic-based dynamic search. The electricity generation potential using solar PV technology on highly suitable lands have been estimated. Fuzzy logic based controllers have been compared with conventional PI controllers and in various combinations thereof for maximum power point tracking in solar PV systems. [121] have used fuzzy measure to weigh the important criteria and linguistic Choquet operator to rank the various solar thermal power plant sites. Alata et al. fuzzy VIKOR. ambient temperature and electric load [148].

ANP Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy MCDM Fuzzy PSO Neuro-fuzzy. Li et al. [107] González de la Rosa et al. [123] Ahmadi et al. Ustuntas and Sahin [99] Salah et al. [68]. [115] Kyriakarakos et al. ANFIS Neuro-fuzzy. Mohandes et al. [81] Niknam et al. [52] Zarzalejo et al. [89]. Jurado et al. [7] Ayoub et al. [59] Lee et al. ANFIS Fuzzy Fuzzy Fuzzy Fuzzy 2011 2012 2013 AHP. [69]. [74]. [87] Gomez and Casanovas [95] Benlarbi et al. [41] Chen et al.125] Perera et al. [75]. [97]. [47] Chaouachi et al. Shamshirband et al. [90] Niknam et al. ANFIS Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy optimization Neuro-fuzzy. [122] Martin et al. ANP Fuzzy optimization Neuro. ANP GA TOPSIS. ANFIS Fuzzy AHP. Pousinho et al. [76] Kahraman et al. Vahidinasab [14] Balaman and Selim [103] Azadeh et al. Kharb et al. [9] Agrawal and Singh [10] Jurado and Saenz [86]. [72] Heo et al. [39. Lin et al. [106] Kasiri et al. [105] Malekpour et al. ANFIS Fuzzy AHP. [56] Haque et al. Lin et al. ANP Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy optimization Neuro-Fuzzy GA Fuzzy MCDM Fuzzy PSO Fuzzy honey bee optimization Neuro-fuzzy. [57] Liu et al. [65] Monfared et al. 2014 Fuzzy PSO Fuzzy regression Neuro-fuzzy. ANFIS Fuzzy AHP.80]. Yang et al. ANFIS Fuzzy AHP. ANFIS Neuro-fuzzy. [17] Calderaro et al. [41] Azizipanah-Abarghooee et al. [96] Tan et al. [108] Kisi [109] Chekired et al. Liu et al. [88] Lee et al. Chaabene and Ammar [55]. Petkovic et al. [120] Wang and Singh [134] Syafaruddin et al. [8] 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Fuzzy AHP. Salah and Ouali [63] De Giorgi et al. Kalantar and Mousavi [114] Kaya and Kahraman [21] Cavallaro [126] Welch and Venayagamoorthy [129] Kaneko et al. [127] Aghaei et al.84] Ren and Sovacool [24]. [22] Chen et al. [111] Charabi an Gastli [119] Moghaddam et al. [78] Zare and Niknam [44] Ugranli and Karatepe [98] Ren et al.L. [81]. [66] Kaminaris et al. [83. [50] Lee et al. Mellit and Kalogirou [62]. [85] Rajkumar et al. [31] Liang et al. [73]. [131]. Fuzzy DEA Fuzzy GA Neuro-Fuzzy GA Fuzzy expert . [49]. [20] Chang et al. [110] Sfetsos [82] Mamlook et al. Wang and Xiong [51] Arulmurugan and Suthanthiravanitha [53]. [60]. ANFIS Building design Solar Wind Renewables Renewables Bio-energy Solar Solar Solar Fuzzy expert Fuzzy clustering Neuro-fuzzy. Year Techniques Area of research Researchers 1995 1999 2000 2001 Fuzzy expert Fuzzy GA Neuro-fuzzy. VIKOR. Bahmani-Firouzi et al. [100] Cao and Lin [54]. [12]. [102] Azadeh et al. [13]. [133]. [70]. Suganthi et al. [89] Moghaddam et al. [132] Ramedani et al. Tarsri and Susilawati [23] Yeh and Huang [92] Ho et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 591 Table 2 Applications of fuzzy logic in renewable energy modeling over the years. Jafarian and Ranjbar [71]. ANP AHP. Lin et al. ANP Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy optimization Neuro-Fuzzy DEA Fuzzy GA Fuzzy MCDM Fuzzy PSO Fuzzy PSO Fuzzy honey bee optimization Neuro-fuzzy. Mellit et al. [58] Capovilla [67]. [93] Romeo and Gareta [118] Bitar et al. Hong et al.113]. ANP 2010 Neuro-fuzzy expert Fuzzy MCDM Fuzzy regression Neuro-fuzzy. [40] Liang et al. ANFIS Fuzzy MCDM Neuro-fuzzy. [48] An et al. Pousinho et al.40] Landeras et al. ANFIS Renewables Bio-energy Solar Space heating Wind Solar Wind Solar Wind Renewables Bio-energy Bio-energy Bio-energy Solar Solar Wind Renewables Hybrid Hybrid Renewables Solar Solar Wind Solar Wind Hybrid Solar Fuel cell/solar/wind Wind Solar Wind Solar Micro-grid Wind Renewables Solar Wind Fuel cell/solar/wind Wind Bio-energy Hybrid Wind Wind Micro-grid Renewable Solar Wind Renewables Wind Bio-energy Solar Hybrid Wind Solar Wind Solar Wind Renewables Wind Renewables Bio-energy Wind Solar Solar Renewables Dounis et al. ANFIS Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy MCDM Fuzzy TOPSIS. [60] Niknam et al. [94] Ansari and Velusami [112. ANFIS Neuro-fuzzy. [116] Lee et al. [73]. VIKOR Fuzzy PSO Fuzzy regression Neuro-fuzzy. [61] Jaber et al. [101] Alata et al. [32] Niknam et al. [16] Luk et al. [79. Petković et al. [124.

[150] have proposed a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) method. Mazouz and Midoun [153] have proposed a technique for deriving maximum power point (MPP) in a photovoltaic array using fuzzy logic. The authors have concluded from the simulation and experimental results that fuzzy logic controller gave better results. convergence speed. through a DC converter. The proposed system was designed and testing using MATLAB/ Simulink. Salah and Ouali [63] compare two types of controllers – fuzzy logic and neural network controllers. [104] Sengul et al. Rajkumar et al. for maximum power point tracking. They found Type-2 FLC performed better when noise was present. [117] Wu et al. Dounis et al. D’Souza et al. line frequency transformer. the model gave better results. A fuzzy logic-incremental conductance (FL-IC) MPPT scheme for PV array is proposed by Niapour et al. The functioning of fuzzy logic controller is analysed among different types of PV systems and modules [154–157]. [152]. analog or digital. Gheibi et al. Ramaprabha et al. The simulation results proved that the proposed MPPT method resulted in higher efﬁciency as compared to a conventional neural network and Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm. [162] have designed a fuzzy logic based (DC/DC) converter for MPPT of solar PV. Messai et al. output ﬁlter. [77] Shaﬁee [91] Ng et al. The electricity is used for solar pumping. In this paper the authors have tried modeling with type-2 FLC to minimize uncertainties. They have presented the type of MPPT technique to be adopted under certain conditions. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 Table 2 (continued ) Year 2015 Techniques Area of research Researchers Fuzzy MCDM Neuro-fuzzy. However because of the complex analytics involved the processing took more time than type-1 FLC. Larabi et al. [42] Sangawong and Ngamroo [128]. The comparison is made between Perturb and Observe. Such systems which mime human reasoning were found to produce higher precision accuracy. [167] have carried out simulation and experimental investigation of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) in PV systems. The proposed system was simulated for various conditions and the effectiveness of FL-IC MPPT was validated. Also fuzzy logic integrated approaches were found to be even more versatile. periodic tuning. . [161] have presented a modiﬁed Fibonacci search method with fuzzy controller for MPPT of a partially shaded solar PV system. [168] have proposed a methodology of designing a MPPT controller for photovoltaic systems (PV) using a Fuzzy Gain Scheduling (FGS) of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) type controller (FGS-PID) with adaptation of scaling factors (SF) for the input signals of FGS. Eltawil and Zhao [164] have compared the major characteristics such as PV array dependent. Subiyanto et al. [121] Osorio et al. [159] have adopted Genetic algorithm optimized fuzzy logic controller for maximum power point tracking on a Xilinx reconﬁgurable Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip for a standalone PV system. ANFIS Fuzzy AHP. As already found the results again conﬁrm that when fuzzy logic is integrated with neural network the performance of the system is better. implementation complexity etc. Suganthi et al. Rebhi et al. The above research conﬁrms the usefulness and effectiveness of fuzzy based controllers in maximum power point tracking. [158] in their paper describe the hardware implementation of a fuzzy logic controller on a Xilinx reconﬁgurable Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). [130] Berrazouane and Mohammedi [135] Bigdeli [136] research by Lalouni et al. A meta-heuristics search algorithm using ant based controller optimization is proposed for maximum energy transfer after comparing with PI and fuzzy control mechanisms. true MPPT. Altin and Ozdemir [165] have proposed a system which consists of three-level neutral point clamped inverter. A fuzzy P&O MPPT algorithm yielded improved outcomes. [160] have proposed a MPPT method for obtaining maximum power from solar PV cells based on type-2 fuzzy logic control. Messai et al. [169] have compared the electrical performances of DC-DC converter for MPPT of PV systems. Several research has compared the use of fuzzy logic controller with various types of controllers for MPPT in PV systems. The MPPT algorithm is solved by fuzzy logic controller. [151] have discussed the use of fuzzy logic and non-switching zone schemes for implementing variable size perturbations for improved transient and steady-state responses in the tracking for solar PV system. The simulation and experimental results show that even when the atmospheric conditions vary the system is capable of tracking the maximum power point of PV system. The results clearly indicate the superiority of fuzzy based controllers. The system consists of a photovoltaic array and a DC engine connected to a centrifugal pump. [56] have presented a methodology for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a grid-connected 20 kW photovoltaic (PV) system using neuro-fuzzy network. Their experimental results validate the theoretical model and highlight the utility of the fuzzy controller for system optimization. Zeng et al.592 L. QPSO. The neurofuzzy network is composed of a fuzzy rule-based classiﬁer and three multi-layered feed forwarded Artiﬁcial Neural Networks (ANN). Type-1 FLC was being conventionally used to model complex nonlinear systems. for various MPPT techniques in PV applications and have concluded that intelligent methods (namely fuzzy logic with heuristic reasoning) are efﬁcient in obtaining maximum energy from varying temperature and irradiance conditions. Chaouachi et al. [163] have used Hopﬁeld neural network (HNN) optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for MPPT of PV energy harvesting system. Fuzzy logic was explored with artiﬁcial intelligence algorithms and the results were analysed. The method was found to give good results when the PV system was operating at maximum power regardless of the weather variations with good tracking mechanism. Adly and Besheer [166] have analysed the problems of MPPT for stand-alone solar PV systems. To adapt the rotor time constant a fuzzy tuning mechanism is designed based on the reactive power of the machine. The FLC is aimed to derive maximum power from photovoltaic modules. PI current regulator and fuzzy logic based maximum power point tracking algorithm. based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The review clearly illustrates the usefulness of fuzzy logic controllers in all types of PV systems for MPPT. ANP Fuzzy optimization Fuzzy TOPSIS. VIKOR Fuzzy PSO Fuzzy PSO. Cuckoo optimization Wind Solar Wind Wind Bio-energy Renewables Solar Hybrid Zhao et al. Fuzzy controllers are synchronised with neural networks to check its performance against the conventional MPPT in grid connected systems. The review thus indicates that whenever fuzzy logic is integrated to conventional methods. The review also highlights how when fuzzy logic is integrated with other techniques such as genetic algorithm better performances are obtained. applied to a stand-alone photovoltaic system which is run on battery storage.

measured in a household. The control system operation was simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. fuzzy logic (FL). the ﬂexibility. The review indicates fuzzy based controllers for MPPT helps in tracking maximum power. It was found that fuzzy logic optimized by genetic algorithm was the best. Improved P&O operates better in terms of energy efﬁciency and cost effectiveness. for photovoltaic systems over the years have been reviewed [174]. This was then used to evaluate the investor owned solar PV projects. Visek et al. winter's method and ARMA were being used to predict solar irradiance. . Incremental Conductance (Inc Cond) techniques and fuzzy logic controller (FLC) are adopted and the results compared. humidity and wind speed. The magnitude of solar radiation is essential to determine the size of solar PV systems. Kharb et al. The results validate the effectiveness of the Hopﬁeld NN using the optimized fuzzy system. [58] have proposed an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based 593 on maximum power point tracking controller (MPPT) to extract maximum power. linear. This has been established using theoretical models. neural networks and fuzzy logic models. All the above research indicates the primacy. Sangawong and Ngamroo [128] have highlighted how the frequency can be stabilized in multi area grid-connected large PV farms using a PSO based optimal Sugeno fuzzy logic controller. Gomez and Casanovas [95] have carried out fuzzy clustering of solar irradiance on inclined surfaces. Several softwares have been developed integrating fuzzy logic with AI techniques in their toolbox. Simulation was performed using ModelSim and ISE. The authors [66] state that this model is found to give better results as compared to multivariate regression based model. ant colony optimization etc. GA. Fuzzy MPPT control is found to provide quick stability and higher performance precision. However it was found that when fuzzy. The use of low step-up DC-DC converter with fuzzy based Perturb and Observe (P&O) MPPT algorithm helps in mitigating the voltage sags and swells. the integratability of fuzzy logic. Sfetsos and Coonick [64] have adopted univariate and multivariate techniques. feed-forward. [177] have used fuzzy PID control with TRNSYS and MATLAB simulation for improving energy efﬁciency in a solar cooling system. The fuzzy approach is applied at three sites to measure the solar irradiation in Turkey. power consumption etc. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 PID and fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to loading a storage battery. [171] have analysed the impact of MPPT methods for PV systems: Perturb and Observe (P&O) and Incremental Conductance. [173] have presented a neural network based modiﬁed incremental conductance algorithm for MPPT in PV system under partial shading conditions. Chekired et al. Researchers are experimenting with different techniques in isolation and in combination and comparing it with fuzzy and fuzzy integrated systems for MPPT in PV modules. as variable tracking step. genetic algorithm. as tracking step constant. Rajesh and Mabel [175] propose a multi-fuzzy logic based maximum power point tracking controller to track the maximum power from PV system. Ramasamy and Thangavel [172] have proposed a PV based dynamic voltage restorer (PV-DVR). The system can also be used for estimating other meteorological parameters such as temperature. [130] have used fuzzy approach to deal with uncertainties in the levelized cost of electricity from solar PV. Santigosa et al. Punitha et al. Lalouni and Rekioua [170] have presented MPPT algorithms for grid connected PV system. Mellit et al. Arulmurugan and Suthanthiravanitha [53] have proposed an optimized fuzzy logic controller coupled with Hopﬁeld neural network maximum tracking technique to extract maximum amount of power from PV modules. The PV system along with the proposed MPPT algorithm was simulated using MATLB/Simulink.g. The results of the study indicate battery protection and power supply stability is achieved by the system. Traditional forecasting tools such as regression. Fuzzy logic has also been used to predict solar radiation. time series. A neuro-fuzzy model has been used by Chaabene and Ammar [55] to dynamically forecast irradiance and temperature for solar energy systems. particle swarm optimization. Zeng et al. The results from the simulation [179] show the effectiveness of advanced fuzzy MPPT controller during both steady-state and varying weather conditions for a standalone PV system. non-linear regression and fuzzy inference system to evaluate the daily ultraviolet radiation using data from three Spanish locations. and improved P&O and Fuzzy Logic based MPPT. FMEA is used to calculate the RPN for each failure in power generation. Fuzzy logic and neural networks have been used to measure global irradiance in Spain. Simulation studies were carried out using MATLAB/ Simulink. neuro-fuzzy or ANFIS and fuzzy logic optimized by genetic algorithm) for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV systems. The use of fuzzy optimizes the number and deﬁnition of the sky categories. Perturb and Observe (P&O). [181] have used three models based on multivariate linear regression. [178] have proposed a fuzzy logic methodology for off grid installation with PV panels. [61] have adopted neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimating the sequences of mean monthly clearness index and daily solar radiation in remote areas. The studies have indicated that fuzzy inferencing helped in better prediction capability. Sen [180] have developed a fuzzy algorithm using linguistic variables for estimating solar irradiation. recurrent Elman and Radial Basis neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference scheme to forecast hourly solar radiation. [47] have predicted global solar irradiance for applying in solar thermal power plants using autoregressive. Experimental results conﬁrm the efﬁciency of this method. simulation models as well as in experimental research. To determine the optimal energy that can be drawn under varying solar irradiance and temperature conditions. Houssamo et al. ANN) fuzzy approach yielded better performances. Yahyaoui et al.L. temperature. The above research has validated the claim that any heuristic based (namely PSO. The MPPT algorithms for PV power system have been compared experimentally. [115] have compared the various intelligent methods such as neural networks (NN). The shunt active ﬁlter (SAF) topology consists of ﬁve level cascaded multilevel inverter with fuzzy PI controller to regulate the DC side voltage. and Fuzzy based Modiﬁed Hill Climbing algorithms. A fuzzy PI controller is used as power ﬁlter for grid connected photovoltaic system [176]. The simulation study indicate fuzzy PID control is the best method. It was found fuzzy inference system gave good results. Suganthi et al. The various applications of MPPT based artiﬁcial intelligence techniques such as neural networks. The review clearly brings forth the emergence of fuzzy logic and fuzzy logic integrated models as a robust tool for renewable energy modeling. neuro-fuzzy was integrated to these traditional models. fuzzy logic. The results are compared with Perturb and Observe. the algorithms though complex yielded higher accuracy. Fuzzy logic is used for mapping nonlinear functions to forecast hourly and daily global solar irradiance. A multiple objective particle swarm optimization (PSO) method was then deployed to deal with the uncertainties in levelized cost of electricity and the risk levels of failure modes. genetic algorithm (GA) and hybrid systems (e. Detailed tests were carried out using the data on irradiation. Capture of dynamic behavior is ensured by the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model associated with Kalman ﬁlter. A diagonal recurrent wavelet neural network (DRWNN) is developed by Cao and Lin [54] using recurrent neural network (RNN) and wavelet neural network (WNN). [182] have used fuzzy logic algorithms for evaluating atmospheric transmittances for use of solar energy. Paulescu et al. Thus fuzzy logic has been used with NN to improve the predictive ability of the models. Martin et al.

or for maximum power point tracking. Azadeh et al. In addition to solar PV systems. Lygouras et al. Spain. The authors claim their results are able to realistically match with the future solar PV plans. The simulation results were found to be consistent with theoretical analysis and conﬁrmed the excellent performance of the proposed scheme. The optimal solution is obtained using various decision making techniques such as fuzzy Bellman–Zadeh. or evaluate the alternatives. Fuzzy ANP. [48] have predicted the solar radiation using fuzzy linear regression and support vector regression in Iran and found SVM gave better results. three inputs and found how a three input fuzzy model improves the accuracy in the prediction of performance of a thermosyhon solar water heating system. [191] have presented a Two-Input/Two-Output (TITO) variable structure fuzzy-logic controller for a solar-powered air-conditioning system.188]. [195] have converted the DC electrical energy from solar photovoltaic panels to AC electrical energy using fuzzy logic based controller. costs and risks to analyze strategic products for photovoltaic silicon thin-ﬁlm solar cell power industry. [107] have used a ﬂexible neuro-fuzzy approach for location optimization of solar plants. GEP approach when used to model global solar radiation using daily atmospheric variables resulted in higher predictive capability. in the three models – each with one. solar site selection to name a few) in . Reddy and Kumar [186] have proposed a 3-D numerical model to estimate the natural convection heat loss from modiﬁed cavity receiver (WOI) of fuzzy focal solar dish concentrator. Suganthi et al. (ii) ambient temperature (iii) solar irradiance. Fuzzy logic's linguistic terms were used to deﬁne the operational characteristics of the solar driven ejector absorption refrigeration system (EARS). Fuzzy based approach have been investigated in various disciplines such as solar air conditioning. [120] have proposed a multi-criteria fuzzy algorithm which makes decision for energy management using a domestic photovoltaic panel. This mixed fuzzy controller is found to improve the control performance. Kisi [109] has determined the solar radiation in Turkey using fuzzy genetic (FG) approach. Kaushika and Reddy [183] have investigated the performance of a low cost solar paraboloidal dish steam generating system. resources. Syafaruddin et al. The review clearly highlights how fuzzy based models are better in terms of realistically assessing the site. The behavior of a three phase grid connected photovoltaic system using fuzzy logic controller is investigated by Hamzaoui et al. A comparison has been made among the techniques and it was found GEP. solar pumping. Feature space. [110] have proposed a genetic algorithm based fuzzy logic control of a solar power plant using distributed collector ﬁelds in Almerfa. monthly and daily changes. the authors have claimed how fuzzy based algorithm is a technique which aids in accurate modeling of any system. Three objective functions namely maximization of output power and overall thermal efﬁciency and minimization of the rate of entropy generation of the Stirling engine have been considered. The review indicates that several researchers have worked on fuzzy logic controller for MPPT in solar PV systems. or optimise the functioning. solar water pump etc. solar desalination. [59] have estimated the daily incoming solar radiation in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) using Gene Expression Programming. A coupling fuzzy controller is incorporated into the traditional fuzzy controller. Lee et al. An optimization model for extension of the operation time of the water pump using fuzzy rules has been presented for a photovoltaic water pumping system [187. Ramedani et al. Further advanced algorithms were tested for solar radiation predictions. A comparison is made with the results obtained from ANN and ANFIS models and it was found the results from FG model had higher predictive capacity. Kishor et al. Chen et al. or predict the radiation. [65] have used real-time simulation technique of PV generation system by using dSPACE real time interface system. support vector regression were all adapted in the model to enhance the predictive power. Cavallaro [126] has proposed fuzzy multi-criteria TOPSIS approach for assessing thermal-energy storage using different heat transfer ﬂuids in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. opportunities. [190] have presented a fuzzy logic controller implementation for a solar air conditioning system. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 Since the meteorological data has various seasonal. [57] have forecasted solar radiation using fuzzy logic and neural network under varying weather conditions. Semi-cavity and modiﬁed cavity receivers which are thermally optimized. ARMA model was adopted for prediction. Lygouras et al. Ammar et al. Kumar and Reddy [185] have studied the natural convective heat loss from three types of receivers for a fuzzy focal solar dish concentrator.594 L. [193]. neuro-fuzzy and neural network. ANN and fuzzy logic controller are adopted and the system used polar information to verify the availability and stability of the system. [60] have developed a conceptual model using fuzzy analytic network process with interpretive structural modeling and beneﬁts. LINMAP and TOPSIS methods. Fuzziness has been used in the focal image in solar dish concentrators and the theoretical investigations revealed that in such systems the heat loss was better optimized using fuzzy approach. In all these research. Sozen et al. solar concentrators. Chekired et al. Luk et al. The review indicates that whether it is fuzzy GA or fuzzy SVM or any fuzzy based model helps in effective modeling of any system. The ﬂexible approach is composed of artiﬁcial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy data envelopment analysis (FDEA). The model is validated by testing the model using data from four different scenarios.125]. Mellit and Kalogirou [62] have developed a ANFIS based model for modeling and simulating the photovoltaic power supply system. Welch and Venayagamoorthy [129] have adopted particle swarm optimization algorithm to optimize the membership function of the fuzzy logic controller for a grid independent photovoltaic system. A multi-objective thermodynamic based optimization from the Solar Dish-Stirling engine using evolutionary algorithms have been proposed by Ahmadi et al. Landeras et al. with the fuzzy focal image have been investigated. FDEA is found to be a better model in the presence of uncertainty and noise in the dataset. The authors state that when they compared it with NN and ANFIS models gave better results. Kumar and Reddy [184] have investigated using a 2-D model the natural convention heat loss in modiﬁed cavity receiver for fuzzy focal solar dish concentrator. [196] have used neuro-fuzzy method to forecast the energy need for the subsequent day using the previous few day's generation from a household photovoltaic panel. two. radial basis function kernel. The review indicates that fuzzy logic not only helps in capturing the fuzziness in the environment but also enhances the accuracy of prediction when used with other algorithms. Salah et al. The simulation was conducted using MATLAB/Simulink. [189] present performance prediction of a solar driven ejector-absorption cycle using fuzzy logic controller. fuzzy DEA are techniques which help to systematically optimise and arrive at relative scores among several competing criteria. [192] have used three inputs: (i) inlet water temperature. fuzzy logic has been used in a variety of applications. Measured climate data and electrical data had been used in modeling the system. Saglam et al. The review indicates the varied ﬁelds (solar PV. Some researchers have used fuzzy logic modeling for solar farm site selection. [124. [194] using fuzzy logic has optimized the storage and distribution of energy of a standalone photovoltaic system. Table 3 gives a comprehensive picture of the various fuzzy based models used in solar energy applications.

It is found that safety and quality. The use of fuzzy based systems will improve the functioning and performance of any system. There is still wide scope for using fuzzy integrated systems such as neuro-fuzzy. Techniques Researchers Fuzzy regression Neuro-fuzzy. [60] Gomez and Casanovas [95] Benlarbi et al.2. This method can be used for developing a Decision Support System. Lee et al. The model was used to interpolate the missing and invalid wind data in North China. Zeng et al. wind energy assessment etc. Chaabene and Ammar [55]. Arulmurugan and Suthanthiravanitha [53]. The results from the review revealed how fuzzy approach can clearly capture the heuristic reasoning among individuals.L. [85] have used wind shear coefﬁcient and ANFIS and found using MAE and RSME. Yeh and Huang [92] has identiﬁed the factors that determine wind farm location using GQM. Zhao et al. that the accuracy of the results was higher when ANFIS was used. In both instances fuzzy approach gave good results. Ramedani et al. Liu et al. [117] have carried out a fuzzy cognitive mapping methodology to establish a ﬂexible operating mechanism for wind power industry. fuzzy DEA. The probable sites where wind energy conversion systems can be located have been identiﬁed using fuzzy based risk analysis [197]. [121] Ahmadi et al. fuzzy AHP. [65]. Sfetsos and Coonick [64]. Landeras et al. [66] Lee et al. The accuracy of this method when compared with conventional methods was found to be higher. DEMATAL and ANP. Kharb et al. Zarzalejo et al. [58]. The quality of the fuzzy controller with respect to parameter evaluation is conducted using FORM\Sorm probability estimates of performance. A fuzzy controller has been adopted [200] to mitigate the response of a structure subjected to environmental excitations (wind). Syafaruddin et al. VIKOR Fuzzy PSO Azadeh et al. The techniques used are interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and fuzzy analytic network process (FANP). As already seen in solar systems. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 595 Table 3 Applications of fuzzy logic models in solar energy. [90] have used fuzzy AHP for ranking the different types of integration schemes among wind power projects. fuzzy ANP). Salah et al. González de la Rosa et al. for short-term wind power prediction in Portugal. economic analysis. It is for this reason. . This was then converted to a crisp optimization problem using GAMS software as a mixed integer non-linear programming problem. Chaouachi et al. Fuzzy approach was found to effectively analyse the uncertainties present in wind energy. combining particle swarm optimization and ANFIS. for evaluation of wind energy conversion systems (WECS). roughness and obstacles in the surrounding area. fuzzy GA. The authors in their paper have used fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm based method to generate the local wind conditions and to optimise the wind by creating terrains. [57]. A fuzzy ANP model based on Chang's extent analysis is developed by Shaﬁee [91] to mitigate the risks associated with offshore wind farms consisting of 30 wind turbines of 2 MW. Siahkali and Vakilian [202] have developed fuzzy optimization method for electricity generation scheduling from large scale wind farms. The genetic fuzzy learning mimes human intelligence and is found to provide the best solution according to the variables and conditions imposed. Wu et al. A tolerance matrix is introduced in the fuzzy AHP and then the judgement matrix is obtained which helps in ﬁnding the relative importance of each scheme. [201]. Salah and Ouali [63]. Fuzzy modeling has also been used for estimation and optimization of wind energy. [130] which researchers have experimented with. The impact of the uncertainties in wind generation and its penetration are analysed using fuzzy sets by Mangueira et al. Pousinho et al. As already noted Charabi and Gastli [119. The increased integration of wind power into the electric grid poses new challenges due to its intermittency and volatility. Also the computing power has increased exponentially in recent years which give a greater impetus to use these techniques for effective energy modeling. prediction (ANFIS) and optimization (ANFIS and PSO) of wind energy systems. The model is based on questionnaire surveys and expert interviews. Chen et al. ANFIS Martin et al. To capture the thought pattern among individuals in analysis and decision making fuzzy approach was adopted. [47]. [198] have used GIS data and fuzzy sets to determine the site for installation of wind energy systems in Western Turkey. several researchers have started experimenting with fuzzy integrated systems either in the form of controllers or with techniques.125]. Wind Fuzzy approach has been applied in wind energy for site identiﬁcation. The problem was ﬁrst formulated as a crisp problem. [56]. Cavallaro [126] Sangawong and Ngamroo [128]. Mellit and Kalogirou [62]. capturing uncertainties. Luk et al. 4. fuzzy based models are used for ﬁnding the relative importance among alternatives (using fuzzy AHP. The approach is based on a multi-linearized fuzzy power ﬂow. Jafarian and Ranjbar [71] have adopted fuzzy modeling techniques and artiﬁcial neural networks to estimate annual energy output of a wind turbine. Mellit et al. [124. The model using FANP helps in selecting suitable turbines for a wind farm.138] had used spatial data with fuzzy logic to identify solar PV farm site at Oman while Aydin et al. [107] Kisi [109]. [115] Charabi and Gastli [119]. [59]. [60]. The proposed approach was tested and the robustness of the model was established. [101] Fuzzy AHP. The variables used in the analysis are wind speed and its frequency of occurrence. Lee et al. [81] have proposed a novel hybrid approach for Portugal. Welch and Venayagamoorthy [129]. ANP Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy optimization Neuro-Fuzzy DEA Fuzzy GA Neuro-Fuzzy GA Fuzzy MCDM Fuzzy TOPSIS. Fuzzy set theory has been used to combine the economic and investment options. Then using fuzzy membership function a fuzzy optimization problem. Skikos and Machias [199] have developed a fuzzy based economic criterion. fuzzy PSO in several solar energy applications. Cao and Lin [54]. fuzzy ANP. environment and ecology are the two major factors. [111] state that local wind climate is usually measured using regional wind climate modulated by local topography effects. wind prediction. [61]. [110] Chekired et al. [52]. [89] have evaluated using multi-criteria decision making technique the criteria for installation of wind turbines in wind farms in Taiwan. [120]. [48] Alata et al. Yang et al. Suganthi et al.

Suganthi et al. Kairous and Wamkeue [218] have used the sliding mode control technique with fuzzy logic to study the performance of a DFIG of WECS. The model not only helped in achieving the desired PMSG control objectives but also improved the performance of the overall system. high efﬁciency and high reliability. It is found that when fuzzy integrated techniques are adopted. Eltamaly and Farh [221] have proposed a variable speed control scheme that adopts fuzzy logic for obtaining maximum power from a grid connected wind energy conversion system. Two computer simulation packages (PSIM and Simulink) are used to carry out the simulation effectively. The Fuzzy Rule Extraction from Neural network using Genetic Algorithm (FRENGA) rejects wind disturbance in Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) input with pitch angle control generation. Further the fuzzy inference mechanism with center adaptation is used to determine the optimal bound of uncertainties. Fuzzy based systems are compared and analysed. [217] have compared two types of controllers – PI and fuzzy PI for wind energy conversion systems (WECS) in terms of tracking and robustness of the system. PSO techniques and how these models helped in the optimal functioning of the system. The proposed control and monitoring system acts as a power quality control system. Reference tracking and robustness was checked using simulation analysis. Besheer et al. Dadone and Dambrosio [204] have developed an adaptive fuzzy logic control technique for a wind turbine-generator system. Li et al. online fuzzy neural network controllers are proposed and analysed for wind energy conversion systems. Simulation results indicate the effectiveness of the controller in smoothing output power ﬂuctuations with a very small drop of output power. Three fuzzy logic PI controllers and one hysteresis current controller are used to extract the maximum energy from the wind turbine. The design of fuzzy sliding mode loss minimization control for optimizing the speed of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in a wind generation system is carried out by Lin et al. To derive maximum power from the wind energy system. Velusami and Singaravelu [205] have used graph theory and fuzzy logic based steady state analysis of wind driven single phase single winding self-excited induction generator. Calderaro et al. Wind power smoothing has also been done using fuzzy logic pitch controller and energy capacitor system for improving the micro-grid performance [210]. Pichan et al. Lin et al. MATLAB simulation was carried out in the mathematical model. [220] have proposed two fuzzy logic based direct power control (DPC) strategies for wind energy conversion system. Stability conditions are expressed as linear matrix inequalities and solved using convex optimization techniques. A numerically simulated wind power plant is considered. Qi and Meng [219] have applied the theory of fuzzy control and PID control to the control of generator speed and blade pitch angle of a wind turbine. Deraz and Kader [223] have suggested a current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI) with an electronic load controller (ELC). This is based on fuzzy logic control principles. The simulation results conﬁrm the effectiveness of adaptive fuzzy PI speed controller. [203] have adopted fuzzy logic control technique for tracking wind energy and sending this power to a wind energy conversion system having an asynchronous (DC–AC–DC) link. [72] have presented an online fuzzy neural network controller for output maximization in a wind energy conversion system. Abdeddaim and Betka [224] have proposed two objectives – a MPPT algorithm based on fuzzy logic to optimally extract maximum energy from DFIG wind turbine. An adaptive ﬁlter with fuzzy logic based MPPT controller is used for handling the ﬂuctuation of wind speed and wind rotor inertia for small-scale WECS by Narayana et al. [211] have adopted fuzzy logic pitch angle controller for enhancing the micro-grid performance during islanding mode using storage batteries. GA. The effectiveness of the proposed DFIG – WECS control is compared with ﬂywheel energy storage system (FESS) using computer simulation. models gave better predictive capability. The results show that in fuzzy controlled SMC there is enhancement of power quality and produce more clean power to the grid. [214] have proposed smoothing wind power ﬂuctuations using fuzzy logic pitch angle controller. The model was validated using MATLAB/Simulink. [212]. In addition to the conventional fuzzy controllers. Kamal et al. [213] have compared two voltage control methods – one based on sensitivity analysis and the second based on fuzzy control system for wind power distributed generators. and a sliding mode control to achieve smooth regulation of both stator active and reactive power quantities. The wind power plant is composed of a three blade horizontal axis wind turbine connected to a three phase synchronous generator. It was established that fuzzy controllers gave better performance and hence researchers started exploring it in renewable energy systems. Particle swarm optimization (MPSO) is used to adapt the learning rates in the back-propagation process of the RFNN and to improve the learning capability. Li et al. In . Aissaoui et al. Hamane et al. A sensorless MPPT fuzzy controller is developed for a doubly fed induction generator 10 W (DFIG) wind turbine system by Bezza et al. Chowdhury et al. [116] have obtained fuzzy rules from neural network using genetic algorithm. [215]. adaptive and traditional PID control design for direct driven PMSG wind turbines. Kamel et al. Comparison is made with conventional PI pitch controller to evaluate the effectiveness of the two controllers using MATLAB/Simulink. studies have been carried out to compare the energy output from different types of wind energy conversion systems – by adopting different controllers/generators/pitch angle/wind speed etc. Mohamed et al. [222] have developed a fuzzy-PI speed controller to extract optimal power from wind turbines. The sliding mode observer has been used. [206] have evaluated the stability of micro-grid operation and discussed the control techniques of combining a micro-turbine with the fuel cell and electrolyzer hybrid system using a fuzzy PI controller. This further justiﬁes the inferences also drawn in Section 4. [208] have proposed a direct current based d-q vector control technique by integrating fuzzy. Kasiri et al. [209] have developed maximum wind power extraction algorithms for variable speed wind turbines in hybrid wind–diesel storage system (HWDSS). The authors [73] have also presented the design of an on-line training recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN) controller for wind generation system with a high-performance model reference adaptive system (MRAS) observer for the sensorless control of an induction generator (IG). It was found that fuzzy method was more efﬁcient than the sensitivity method. The fuzzy DPC are found to be robust against machine parameters mismatches and grid voltage disturbances. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 It was seen from the review of literature that several research has been carried out since the early 90s on fuzzy logic controllers in power generation. The system delivered maximum power with light weight.1 for solar energy systems. The performance between the fuzzy controller and the conventional PI controller is compared. The proposed algorithm utilizes Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy controller. It improves the frequency ﬂuctuation caused by random power ﬂuctuations on the generation side and in the interconnected microgrid power system. The above review presented the various fuzzy based NN.596 L. The effectiveness of the proposed method is conﬁrmed using MATLAB/Simulink under transient and steady state condition. The review here presents the use of fuzzy logic controllers in wind energy systems. [207] have developed the design of fuzzy state feedback controller that not only stabilize the fuzzy model but also the transient behavior in the wind energy conversion system. [216].

[70] have forecasted hour ahead wind power and speed using simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm and neural network with fuzzy inputs. Fuzzy logic based MPPT method is used for extracting maximum power from a wind turbine system driven by a DFIG [226] while Varzaneh et al. [232] have proposed a fuzzy scheduler fault tolerant control to deal with the multivariable non-linear systems that is subject of sensor faults. SarriasMena et al. The model has used Fuzzy and Monte Carlo Simulation to model the uncertainties. Fuzzy logic has also been tried with stochastic and probabilistic modeling among wind energy systems. A hybrid possibilistic–probabilistic uncertainty model has been used to study the impact of stochastic renewable and controllable power generation on energy losses in distribution networks [235]. fuzzy approximation and estimation of regression values were also used for accurate wind speed prediction [49]. short-term ahead wind speed is predicted by using least-squares method. ARMA (autoregressive moving average – Box Jenkins) feed forward and Elman recurrent neural networks including ANFIS and Neural Logic Networks on mean hourly wind speed data. They have adopted a Nonlinear Unknown Input Fuzzy Observer (UIFO) with a Fuzzy Scheduler Fault Tolerant Control (FSFTC) algorithm for fuzzy Takagi–Sugeno (TS) systems. genetic algorithm (GA) and recursive least square (LS) optimization methods. [234]. parametric uncertainties. It was found that a good damping performance has been achieved with the fuzzy supervisor during wind speed variations. The authors state that the results show an enhancement of the power quality. The proposed system used wireless coded power control with quarternary phase shift-keying modulation and low density parity check. The design methodology uses fuzzy clustering to partition the data and is then integrated with GA and recursive LS optimization. It was found that the AI based models (namely fuzzy logic. Since there are several unknowns present in these systems Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy models are found to be very appropriate as it handles both fuzzy and crisp values. [76] have predicted wind speed using fuzzy logic and artiﬁcial neural network. [68] have used ANFIS for wind power prediction. actuator faults and parameter uncertainties. Neural Logic Network gave the least error. Fuzzy membership functions are used to capture the dispatcher's attitude in economic power dispatch toward the wind power penetration. [227] proposed a fuzzy PID controller with a DFIG for a variable speed wind farm. . GA. This is subject to sensor faults. The authors have validated the model with numerical simulations. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the models the theoretical simulation study is compared with a realistic distribution system and the results indicate the supremacy of the proposed models. Galdi et al. [97] have used fuzzy clustering methods for partitioning the input–output space. The review further conﬁrms how fuzzy integrated models can be used as a good predictive and optimization tool in wind energy systems as seen in solar energy systems. Fuzzy logic based power management strategy was investigated with various types of generators namely DFIG. The experiment results indicate that the proposed model performs in less computational time with better wind speed prediction. In order to improve the power output of Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator Wind Turbine (SCIG WT) Duong et al. For ﬁxed speed wind energy conversion system Krichen et al. Output power of wind turbine generator (WTG) is not constant and ﬂuctuates due to wind speed changes. [233] have adopted an adaptive Takagi–Sugeno–Kang (TSK) fuzzy model for extracting maximum energy from variable speed wind power generation systems. Fuzzy rough sets consisting of fuzzy partition. The methodology using fuzzy set theory has been established as an accurate forecasting tool. The simulation results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. [229] have presented the design of a fuzzy logic supervisor for the control of active and reactive power. To regulate the output power command of the wind farm according to changing wind speed. [50] have presented an integrated control method for a wind farm to reduce frequency deviations in a small power system. Monfared et al. A Takagi–Sugeno–Kang fuzzy model has been used for extracting maximum energy from variable wind speed turbines. [75] have used ANFIS for wind speed proﬁling while De Giorgi et al. Considering the variable speed from wind turbine the research presented the merits and demerits of a certain type of generator. Advanced complex techniques such PSO. [230] have worked on fuzzy logic for a variable wind speed conversion system. and time varying unknown inputs. An adaptive neuro fuzzy control [67] is used to optimize the use of wind energy in smart 597 grids. A rotor inertia is used for energy storage. The model considers probabilistic presentation of wind speed using a Weibull PDF and possibilistic description of loads and generation pattern of dispatchable DG units for modeling the uncertainties. The fuzzy PID controller helped in delivering optimal rotational speed of the turbine and smoothening of output power. As the wind power generation is intermittent Hong et al. The authors state that the model provides signiﬁcantly less rule base and increased estimated wind speed accuracy when compared to traditional models. neural networks) gave better results and among the AI models. [228] have proposed a hybrid controller for pitch angle based on PI and fuzzy technique. Sfetsos [82] have performed a comparative study of various forecasting techniques such as time series. Ustuntas and Sahin [99] have found cluster center fuzzy logic model gives better accuracy than classical least square polynomial model for estimation of the power curve of a wind turbine. The research reveals that fuzzy logic controllers are very adaptive to both variable speed and ﬁxed speed wind energy conversion systems. recursive LS and TSK have all adopted fuzzy logic integrated algorithms to enhance the functioning and performance of systems. A fuzzy logic supervisor is established to control the Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) operation and the DC bus voltage in order to smooth the active power ﬂuctuations due to the random wind speed variation. The adaptive characteristic of the fuzzy controller is found to continuously optimize its internal parameters in order to compensate for all the non-linearities and the time variances of the system under control.L. Kamal and Aitouche [231] have proposed a Fuzzy Dedicated Observers (FDOS) method. Wang and Singh [134] have used multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm to balance system risk and operational cost. To arrive at the fuzzy model Calderaro et al. SCIG. Suganthi et al. Fuzzy logic methodology is very versatile in handling uncertainties and unknown parameters since it captures human reasoning and tries to mime human beings. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 all instances it was found that fuzzy logic integrated systems gave better performance. The simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm is used to train the multi-layer feed forward neural network (MFNN). Fuzzy reasoning is used to deﬁne output power control corresponding to wind speed condition and changing capacity of power system by Senjyu et al. The predicted wind speed adjusts the output power command of the wind farm as a multiplying factor with fuzzy reasoning. Kaneko et al. Kamal et al. Mohandes et al. The system is found to improve system robustness and reliability. Wang and Xiong [51] have used a hybrid forecasting model comprising of outlier detection and bivariate fuzzy time series to predict the daily wind speed in one of the China's largest wind farm. The effectiveness of the system is tested using a wind energy system with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). Jerbi et al. Takagi– Sugeno fuzzy model has been employed to represent the nonlinear wind energy systems. [225] proposed power management strategies for wind turbine system working on a multi-MW doubly fed induction generator (DFIG).

[108] have presented a hierarchical fuzzy DEA approach for location optimization of wind power generationtransmission system for 25 cities in Iran. [102] have used fuzzy optimization approach for solving the Volt/Var control problem in a distribution system under uncertain environmental conditions. wavelet transform and ANFIS. ANFIS. Azadeh et al. Table 4 gives a comprehensive picture of the various fuzzy based models used in wind energy applications. The review clearly indicated that fuzziﬁcation of uncertain indicators led to more realistic estimates of any system/problem domain. The time varying characteristics of both load and wind-generation proﬁle is analysed. [69] have predicted wind speed using soft computing models formulated on a back propagation neural network (BPNN). radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS). An adaptive neuro fuzzy estimation was used to simulate the augmented power and wind velocity [79] and an ANFIS based regulator to maximize the power extraction from a wind turbine was designed [80]. Liang et al. [87] have proposed a . The proposed methodology can be used for different power systems that uses wind sources. Fuzzy based methods are also used for improving the reliability and maintainability of systems. fuzzy genetic algorithm etc. fuzzy PSO require higher capacity computing power along with technical software packages. time series and Artiﬁcial Neural Networks. [239] using mathematical models. Jurado et al. Bio-energy Similar to use of fuzzy controllers in solar and wind. [238] have proposed a fuzzy synthetic model that is based on a real-time assessment of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system (WTGS). The model is validated through numerical simulations and theoretical analysis. power controllers. helps in balancing between the costs against emissions to arrive at maximum power output. The results show how energy loss can be reduced signiﬁcantly by adopting the above methodology. Bououden et al. A population based optimization algorithm is used to ﬁnd a set of non-dominated optimal solutions. Suganthi et al. [240] have proposed a Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model for modeling the uncertain nonlinear system of wind energy conversion systems. To improve the quality of the solutions obtained from PSO. This method is augmented using similar day (SD) mechanism which indicated that there is a 48% improvement while using this method. They have the compared the results with Neuro-Fuzzy. wavelet packet. Wake effects are speciﬁc to wind turbines and neuro-fuzzy approach is adopted to include the wake effects in wind power generation systems using ANFIS approach [83. wavelet transform etc. power optimization. Liang et al. Realistic estimates helped in more detailed planning and execution of projects. The conditions are designed as a convex optimization problem. cost and emission minimization etc. Particle swarm optimization using fuzzy or fuzzy clustering. Multi criteria decision models (MCDM) are used for wind energy optimization. The model captures the dynamical behavior of the system using fuzzy control. Li et al. The Wavelet Packet-BFGS was found to give the best performance. [131] have presented a scenario-based multi-objective dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED) method with fuzzy adaptive improved particle swarm optimization algorithm. Strategies were proposed to eliminate the chaotic behavior to steady state. 4. Osorio et al. [132] have adopted a multi-objective optimization approach wherein the total electrical power generation costs and combustion emissions are minimized. The research is generally being carried out on wind farm identiﬁcation. wind speed estimation. It was found that the Wavelet Packet-BFGS is better than the Wavelet Packet-ARIMA BFGS. However the computational burden of the genetic algorithm is high. a self adaptive probabilistic mutation strategy is used. Jurado and Saenz [86] have proposed a neuro-fuzzy controller for a wind– diesel system which uses biomass.3. researchers have worked predominantly in neuro-fuzzy/ANFIS systems. Fuzzy-c means clustering is used to reduce the execution time and allow long term planning. [96] have investigated the wind-thermal electrical cost and emissions minimization using multiobjective economic emission dispatch (EED). The method minimizes the total electrical energy costs and emissions from wind turbines. However advanced MCDM techniques such as fuzzy GA. fuzzy PSO. Ugranlı and Karatepe [98] have used genetic algorithm for optimal sizing of wind turbines to minimize the energy loss. It is found from the table that extensive work has been done mostly in wind energy as compared to other renewable energy sources. Wavelet Packet-Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Persistent Model (PM) models. Kamal et al. [77] proposed wind power forecasting in the short term using an a new hybrid model which integrated the evolutionary PSO. Bahmani-Firouzi et al. The model improved the operational reliability and maintainability. [78]. The effectiveness of the TS fuzzy model is validated by checking in two different wind energy systems. [74] have forecasted wind speed using three hybrid models [Wavelet Packet-BFGS. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) has been used to estimate optimal power coefﬁcient value of the wind turbines by Petković et al. The proposed model can resolve the tradeoff between the conﬂicting objectives of the SDEED (stochastic DEED) problem through an interactive procedure. Similar to Gheibi et al. fuzzy expert. [133] have presented a fuzzy based hybrid particle swarm optimization approach to forecast load demand and wind speed errors to obtain optimal power ﬂow. Azizipanah-Abarghooee et al.598 L. Liu et al. wind power tracking. The costs invested towards this can be obtained from the beneﬁts accrued through the high precision accuracy and performance of the models. The study used wind turbines for power generation. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 To further enhance the predictive and optimization capability more intense techniques such as PSO. Aghaei et al. Also the review on the applications of fuzzy logic in wind energy systems indicates. A fuzzy self-adaptive learning particle swarm optimization approach is used considering load and wind power uncertainties. Wavelet Packet-ARIMA-BFGS and Wavelet-BFGS] based on the theories of wavelet. [237] have developed a fuzzy model based multivariable predictive control (FMMPC) using linear matrix inequalities (LMI) technique for wind turbine generators. Also the Wavelet Packet-BFGS is better than the Wavelet-BFGS.84]. RBFNN. maximum wind power extraction. [160] work type-2 fuzzy modeling was carried out by Siahkali and Vakilian [236] to handle the linguistic uncertainty of type-1 membership function. The ﬂuctuating nature of wind energy has led to stability problems of power networks. The design also uses parallel design approach. This model showed signiﬁcant improvements over other conventional methodologies. This set is kept in external memory and the size of this is controlled using fuzzy clustering. while very few researchers have worked on fuzzy multicriteria decision models namely fuzzy GA. The results have been validated using principal component analysis and numerical taxonomy methods. Also fuzzy integrated models help in arriving at realistic values for any parameter chosen. are being explored and found to be very effective. power schemes selection. The results indicate the robustness of the hybrid neuro-fuzzy controller and its superiority over the linear PID controller. Theoretical analysis has been carried out by Chen et al. namely wind farm site identiﬁcation. There is wide scope to do research in wind energy systems using MCDM models in addition to hybrid models. convex optimization. Linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) are used for stabilizing the uncertainties in the nonlinear system. Haque et al.

Fuzzy DEA Fuzzy GA Neuro-Fuzzy GA Fuzzy expert Fuzzy MCDM Fuzzy PSO An et al. The results indicate that the AI technique proposed increased the power production by approximately 3. optimum response can be achieved. social and ecological sustainability. Sfetsos [82]. Yang et al. distribution of energy is done. Ustuntas and Sahin [99] Liang et al. This single variable is then optimized. . Lin et al. [131]. public health and industrial aspects. [70]. [244] have proposed an assessment methodology using fuzzy set theory and fuzzy mathematics for assessing the performance of agricultural biogas plants in Germany. Bitar et al. Fuzzy set theory is also used as an assessment tool for ﬁnding the performance of biogas plants and biomass based technologies. The method is very timeconsuming. Taiwan. Fuzzy optimization is adopted to trade-off individual economic interest (investment vs beneﬁt) and stability of each processing plant. The method is used to adopt the new developments in biogas technology or new biogas plant installation in any geographical region. Lin et al. The methodology allows for ranking of the various criteria in the two cities and depending upon the relative scores. Romeo and Gareta [118] have developed a control strategy with neural network (NN) and fuzzy logic expert system (FLES) for optimizing the biomass boiler cleaning for maximizing heat transfer over time. Moran et al. conventional gasiﬁcation and fermentative hydrogen production has been studied. [76]. [90]. [81]. De Giorgi et al. Ugranli and Karatepe [98]. [122] have adopted fuzzy multi-objective mathematical programming to evaluate the problems encountered in the expansion of isolated electrical system from ﬁrewood and diesel in Amazon region. It was found biomass gasiﬁcation as the most sustainable option. [111] Kasiri et al. The above data mining techniques deﬁne the optimal size and location of the conversion plants and simulation models with a user interface that evaluates the supply chain from economical and technical point of view. The optimized network conﬁguration achieves the target with minimum biomass value losses. ANFIS Fuzzy AHP. socio-economic. [73]. Lewis et al. [73]. [117] Lee et al. Shaﬁee [91]. [49]. [96]. [50]. The costs. conjoint. However the outcome from the model was found to be very useful in identifying sustainable determinants in bioenergy production. Djatkov et al. Liang et al. water and carbon footprint constraints. The integration of all these techniques requires enormous amount of qualitative and quantitative data. technical. The researchers have highlighted that their model can be further extended to include district heating network. The bio-energy potential in a region is assessed considering economic. Balaman and Selim [103] have developed a fuzzy multiobjective mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for design and management of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chain. [243] have used fuzzy c means algorithm to determine the biomass energy conversion among microorganisms. Shamshirband et al. Wang and Xiong [51] Capovilla [67]. The model reﬂects biomass production and consumption under land. Calderaro et al. [97]. A real world problem was explored using the fuzzy MILP model and it was found that the model can be effectively used for bioenergy supply chain design problems. environmental. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is used to determine the energy generation from municipal solid waste by integrating with GIS [93]. [116] Zhao et al. It is found that by tuning the FCs using NN. Ren et al. [83. Ng et al. Pousinho et al. temporal and spatial data. fuzzy C-means clustering and decision trees for planning bioenergy production from biomass in Japan. [69]. [68]. The fuzzy AHP model ensures there is a fair distribution considering political. Liu et al. [81]. Suganthi et al. Bahmani-Firouzi et al. [85] Lee et al. The model has been designed to handle different types of feedstock and transportation problems. Tan et al. Acosta-Michlik et al. Wang and Singh [134] neuro-fuzzy controller for gas turbine in biomass-based electric power plant. [78–80] Pousinho et al. Fuzzy approach helps in removing the vagueness present in the decision making process. Lin et al. Cheng et al. [72]. Kaneko et al. [89] Aghaei et al. [89]. The grey relational analysis of different energy and emission variables led to the deﬁnition of a single variable ‘grey relational grade’. [108] González de la Rosa et al.L.5%. [77]. Fuzzy logic has been used to assess the crops that can be proﬁtably cultivated for bioenergy generation while fuzzy optimization methodology had been used for maximizing the beneﬁts in a bioenergy park. The neural network has been designed to tune the gains of the FLC. [105] have used a fuzzy multi-regional input–output optimization model. CO2 emission. [123] have developed a fuzzy multi-actor multi-criteria model for sustainability assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. logit and path analyses for assessing the trade-offs and pathways in bioenergy development. Four biomass based technologies including pyrolysis. [133]. Petković et al.84]. The linear programming model helps in determining the electricity generation from biomass and ethanol based on the regional level biomass inputs. [242] have used different empirical techniques like fuzzy logic. [100] have used genetic algorithm. [75]. Mohandes et al. Jafarian and Ranjbar [71]. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 599 Table 4 Applications of fuzzy logic models in wind energy. [102] Azadeh et al. Ayoub et al. Monfared et al. ANP Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy optimization Neuro. [74]. [241] have adopted grey relational and fuzzy analysis to analyse the energy content and emission levels in burning mixtures of pellet and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) to arrive at a single variable. Techniques Researchers Fuzzy regression Neuro-fuzzy. [245] has used a fuzzy spatial suitability model with physical and economic variables to identify nonagricultural areas that can be usefully cultivated with bioenergy crops that are more drought tolerant. It was found that in both instances fuzzy based analysis helped in identifying realistic solutions. Haque et al. Hong et al. number of direct jobs generated from both models – crisp mathematical programming and fuzzy based are compared and analysed. Liu et al. opportunities and dilemmas in bioenergy production for ﬁnding the interconnections and measuring them for decision making. Yeh and Huang [92] Azizipanah-Abarghooee et al. Two fuzzy logic controllers have been developed using speed and mechanical power deviations along with neural network to tune the gains of the fuzzy logic controllers. [104] have presented a methodology for setting up symbiotic bioenergy park. This method is used to ﬁnd the most appropriate distribution strategy between two towns in Taipei County. Osorio et al. The potential for biomass production is heavily dependent on the availability of land and water resources. [132].

microturbine. The research in bioenergy is mainly on bioenergy crops identiﬁcation. Simulation results show that the proposed model is effective in levelling PV power ﬂuctuations and reducing the frequency deviations. fuel cell for providing back-up power and a battery unit for storing the possible excess energy production and supplying the transient load. [87] Chang et al. proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC and battery. [105] Romeo and Gareta [118] Bitar et al. As witnessed in Table 5. A comparison is made between fuzzy logic controller and adaptive controller. minimization of energy conversion. neuro-fuzzy. Bilodeau and Agbossou [246] have presented a model for standalone renewable energy system with hydrogen storage controlled by a dynamic fuzzy logic controller (FLC). Also techniques such as PSO. optimal biopower extraction. [248] have used fuzzy logic controller in a wind–hydrogen stand alone power system wherein the hydrogen subsystem functions as both energy storage and active load controller. biofarm location. Fuzzy logic controllers are found to be useful for building efﬁcient peak power control. geographical and climatic conditions. environmental. To control the exchange of real and reactive powers between the superconducting magnetic energy storage and the wind–diesel system. Such criteria can be incorporated into the models and studied. fuzzy logit. A fuzzy logic controller has been designed to handle the different types of load demands. Erdinc et al. Table 5 gives a comprehensive picture of the various fuzzy based models used in bio-energy applications. fuzzy expert systems. This method has helped in considering the conﬂicting objective of output power levelling and maximizing energy captive. temperature etc. The excess power feeds are used to generate hydrogen to feed the fuel cells. The system produces sinusoidal voltage waveforms with constant magnitude and frequency. Techniques Researchers Neuro-fuzzy. [88] using ANFIS. Various disturbances like wind park disconnection. In tropical countries where there is a rich endowment of bio-resources. [123] wind gusts. photovoltaic panels. They can be adopted for optimal planning of the resources considering economic. Tan et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 They have also stated that social objectives such as maximization of job creation. Jurado et al. a control strategy based on fuzzy logic has been proposed. maximization of system reliability can also be analysed using their model. Datta et al. [250] have used fuzzy logic controller for the speed control loop of the diesel engine in the PV–diesel autonomous power system. Both research indicates the robustness of the controller because of the use of fuzzy logic. The heuristic search methods will analyse the various options using heuristic reasoning algorithms to arrive at realistic estimates for any problem domain/system. photovoltaic (PV) solar unit. Kalantar and Mousavi [114] have optimized the dynamic behavior of a standalone hybrid power generation system comprising of wind turbine. Table 5 Applications of fuzzy logic models in bio-energy. It is found that fuzzy AHP. A fuzzy logic based intelligent controller considered in the system controls the overall energy ﬂow during insufﬁcient power and excess power conditions. ANFIS. [253] have investigated energy management using fuzzy logic in a stand-alone hybrid system with wind turbine. The performance of the system is studied under different operating conditions of insolation and load variations. GA can be integrated with fuzzy logic methodology for predicting the bioenergy needs or for solving optimization problems. solar array and battery storage based on economic analysis using genetic algorithm. 4. It was found that such heuristic reasoning methodologies integrating genetic algorithm with simulated annealing improved the system's performance extensively. Miland et al. The fuzzy based controllers in power systems either in standalone systems or in grid connected systems are found to be very useful in dealing with variable speed and temperature. Hybrid systems Fuzzy logic controllers have been used for extracting maximum power from either solar PV systems. [122]. The intelligent controller regulates . Ng et al.4. A dual mode linguistic hedge based fuzzy logic controller has been used for an isolated wind–diesel hybrid power system which has a battery energy storage unit [112] and with superconducting magnetic energy storage unit [113]. It has already been established in both solar and wind that fuzzy logic can be used as an effective tool for realistic energy modeling. This is used in the fuel cell to produce on-peak electricity. A techno-economical optimization of hybrid PV/wind/battery system was carried out by Rajkumar et al. fuel cells. social acceptability of the energy system. The results were then compared with Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) and Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms (HOGA) and their model was found to have a higher accuracy. El-Shatter et al. wind turbines or hybrid systems. The inclusion of fuzzy logic in the MLIP model has helped in arriving at feasible solutions for various types of scenarios. research can be carried out by using fuzzy logic based models to optimally use the bio-resources for national and global beneﬁts. The design incorporates linguistic hedges and hybrid genetic algorithm simulated annealing algorithms. Rashed et al. The performances of the dynamic fuzzy logic controller is analysed and it was found that the model is useful for efﬁcient peak power control. [93] Ayoub et al. The model presents an electrolyzer which produces hydrogen and oxygen using the off peak electricity generated from renewable energy namely wind and photovoltaic. This model was found to be very robust even when it was functioning under different operating conditions present in the hybrid power system and was less sensitive to changes in the parameters of the system such as speed. opportunities. [247] have used fuzzy logic control to obtain maximum power tracking for PV and wind energy. Erdinc and Uzunoglu [252] have evaluated the performance of a grid independent renewable energy system which considers multi-source hybrid power system consisting of wind turbine (WT). Hence there is wide scope to do research in bioenergy discipline considering techniques namely fuzzy ‘C’ means clustering. [251] have used fuzzy control mechanism for levelling output power ﬂuctuations of photovoltaic – diesel hybrid power system. abrupt wind changes and load perturbations was studied. fuzzy multi-objective programming. It was found that the proposed system maintained the power quality within limits. [104]. The model highlights the effectiveness of the proposed model. it is seen that the applications of fuzzy logic in bio-energy are very few in number. Lone and Mufti [249] have analysed the performance of a wind–diesel power system subjected to various disturbances. Ren et al.600 L. [100] Balaman and Selim [103]. Suganthi et al. The simulation study proved the accuracy fo the FLC. temporary energy storage using batteries. fuzzy AHP. ANP Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy optimization Neuro-fuzzy expert Fuzzy MCDM Jurado and Saenz [86]. ANFIS Fuzzy AHP. GA are techniques being used in hybrid systems to ﬁnd the optimally operating parameters and systems. Fuzzy AHP is being used to ﬁnd a suitable solar-wind power generation unit considering beneﬁts. cost and risks [94]. The supervisory controller has been designed to manage the energy generated from wind turbine/solar system and energy load demands at all times.

QPSO. It is found that the effectiveness of the system improves for lighter load proﬁles. map the realistic situations and accurately predict outcomes. Fuzzy TOPSIS and level diagrams are used to arrive at optimal solutions. 2¼hybrid models. In addition to using fuzzy logic being used as controllers in hybrid power systems. The relative weights of the objective have been obtained. MCDM models are very few and they are slowly Table 6 Applications of fuzzy logic models in hybrid energy systems. cuckoo search algorithm. fuzzy GA. Table 6 gives a comprehensive picture of the various fuzzy based models used in hybrid systems. A fuzzy optimization method with a max–min operator ﬁnds solutions for distribution companies considering economical. neurofuzzy expert. Mukhtaruddin et al. Fuzzy logic controller. Bigdeli [136] compare the different hybrid techniques for management of a hybrid PV/fuel cell/battery power generation system. [127] have proposed a multi-objective optimization methodology with multi-criterion decision making technique. wind and fuel cell [254]. selection of the best energy resource. This indicates that research work is presently being carried out with simpler fuzzy models to a large extent. PSO. neuro-fuzzy DEA. Perera et al.L. wasted renewable energy (WRE) and fuel consumption in hybrid systems are used. fuzzy PSO. fuzzy honey bee optimization. fuzzy AHP. neuro-fuzzy controller. Aydin et al. More importantly it is seen that majority of the research work is near the ‘x’ axis. Fuzzy models will include fuzzy regression. A consolidated review is done on the research papers and a graphical presentation is given in Fig. ANFIS. The results of CSO were found to yield better results than PSO. fuzzy ANP. honey bee) improves the capability of the model performance immensely. The ﬁgure also highlights how very little research work has been done in bioenergy ﬁeld. The four quadrants (in the anticlockwise manner) represent the research carried out in Solar. Berrazouane and Mohammedi [135] have carried out parameter optimization via cuckoo search optimization 601 (CSO) algorithm and PSO of fuzzy logic controller of a standalone hybrid power system. When MCDM techniques are used along with fuzzy the capability of the models in handling different types of problems/situations increases several fold. Environmental acceptability and economic feasibility is determined for a hybrid wind solar-PV system using fuzzy decision making that uses ordered weighted averaging algorithm for aggregating multiple objectives. Hybrid models will include neuro-fuzzy. [106] Ansari and Velusami [112. The authors have conducted real time performance analysis using fuzzy logic to determine the optimum sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system comprising of solar. VIKOR. ant colony. There is enormous scope to do research in bioenergy. Zhang et al. QPSO. There is very little research work being carried out with higher order models. ANFIS. Wind and Others quadrant. hybrid energy etc. excess energy (EE) and levelized energy cost (LEC). it is also being used to ﬁnd the sizing of energy systems. researchers have started working on PSO. fuzzy AHP have been applied in hybrid systems. The total cost of the hybrid system is found to be low when the unutilized surplus power is minimized. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Malekpour et al. fuzzy TOPSIS. A new optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper based on Improved Shufﬂed Frog Leaping algorithm (ISFLA). honey bee optimization have also been explored. fuzzy AHP. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 the overall energy ﬂow. VIKOR Fuzzy PSO. Four conﬂicting objectives namely levelized energy cost (LEC). However with the advancement of technology in computer hardware and software. honey bee optimization in recent years as witnessed in Solar. 3¼MCDM models as mentioned in Section 3. It was found that fuzzy logic controller with QPSO gave the best performance. Still there is a huge research gap in this area. MCDM models will include fuzzy optimization. The review clearly highlights how fuzzy based decision making incorporating fuzzy values instead of crisp values helps in clearly categorizing different options. Also from the ﬁgure it is found that majority of research work has been done using hybrid models in ‘Solar’ and ‘Wind’ energy. [88] Chen et al. cuckoo optimization. unmet load fraction. The research publications over the years based on the above grouping is given in Fig. A hourly energy management system uses a fuzzy logic control to maintain the energy ﬂow while optimizing the utilization cost and lifetime of the energy storage system. ANP. fuzzy QPSO. A numerical study was conducted on the model and it was found that the model promotes the utilization of wind energy thus making the model more ecofriendly and economical. fuzzy expert. However there is still wide scope to do further research in this area in several problem domains. neuro-fuzzy GA. The ﬁgure clearly highlights how the number of research using fuzzy have increased over the years. battery system at minimum cost and maximum reliability. The techniques were grouped as 1¼fuzzy models. Wind. [258] have proposed a GIS based site selection methodology for setting up hybrid renewable energy systems in Turkey. Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA). The ﬁgure clearly highlights the extensive research done in ‘wind’ sector followed by ‘solar’. [256] have used an iterative pareto fuzzy technique to determine the best combination size for a hybrid-PV. ANP Fuzzy optimization Fuzzy GA Fuzzy TOPSIS. [106] have used a probabilistic approach to multi-objective Volt/Var control of distribution system considering hybrid fuel cell and wind energy sources. wind turbine. It is found that research using fuzzy logic has been done in a variety of disciplines namely maximum power withdrawal from controllers. Techniques Researchers Neuro-fuzzy. Suganthi et al. fuzzy GA. fuzzy clustering. Advanced algorithms have been investigated along with fuzzy and it was found that fuzzy integrated with such heuristic based optimization techniques (cuckoo search optimization. parameter optimization. The optimized fuzzy logic controller is able to minimize loss of power supply probability (LPSP). Bigdeli [136] . operational and environmental perspectives. [94] Malekpour et al. The review indicates the techniques adopted gave good realistic estimates and the models developed using fuzzy based concepts were of high accuracy. [255] have developed a fuzzy chance constrained model considering demand response and electric vehicles to promote the use of wind power. [257] have developed an optimal hourly energy management system for standalone wind turbine/photovoltaic/ hydrogen/battery hybrid system with supervisory control based on fuzzy logic. 1. 2.113]. Bioenergy and Others (renewable in general. Kalantar and Mousavi [114] Perera et al. Also the size of the bubble is dense near the ‘x’ axis for the quadrant ‘Solar’ and ‘Wind’.). Quantum behaved Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO). Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA) were used to manage the load sharing. fuzzy PSO. [127] Berrazouane and Mohammedi [135]. Fuzzy PSO. Cuckoo optimization Rajkumar et al. Garcıa et al. ANFIS Fuzzy AHP.

VIKOR. fuzzy GA. neuro-fuzzy expert. 3¼MCDM models. 14¼ fuzzy honey bee optimization. 9¼ fuzzy expert. Note: the number inside the bubble indicates the technique and size of the bubble indicates the no. 3¼ fuzzy AHP. QPSO. 10¼neuro-fuzzy expert. ANP. 2 ¼hybrid models will include neuro-fuzzy. fuzzy AHP. fuzzy honey bee optimization. 6¼ neuro-fuzzy DEA. fuzzy TOPSIS. 7¼ fuzzy GA. 1¼ fuzzy models will include fuzzy regression. of research publication. 2 ¼hybrid models. 4 ¼fuzzy clustering. ‘x’ axis – denotes year. ANP. 0]. . 5¼ fuzzy optimization. the origin is [2006. QPSO. the origin is [2006. The techniques are grouped as 1¼ fuzzy models.602 L. 0]. 3 ¼ MCDM models will include fuzzy optimization. 8 ¼neurofuzzy GA. fuzzy clustering. The techniques are 1¼fuzzy regression. 12¼fuzzy TOPSIS. Suganthi et al. Research in renewable energy modeling using fuzzy based techniques. ‘x’ axis – denotes year . cuckoo optimization. Note: the number inside the bubble indicates the size of the bubble which is representative of research publications. neuro-fuzzy GA. Fig. 11¼ fuzzy MCDM. fuzzy PSO. ANFIS. fuzzy expert. 13 ¼fuzzy PSO. 15¼fuzzy PSO. ‘y’ axis – denotes the techniques in increasing complexity. fuzzy PSO. 1. fuzzy ANP. ANFIS. neuro-fuzzy DEA. 2. Cuckoo optimization. fuzzy AHP. VIKOR. ‘y’ axis – denotes the techniques. Extent of fuzzy based research in renewable energy modeling. 2¼ neuro-fuzzy. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48 (2015) 585–607 Fig.

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