Composite Structures 68 (2005) 167–175

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Free vibration of laminated composite plates subjected
to in-plane stresses using trapezoidal p-element
A.Y.T. Leung
a

a,*

, Cheng Xiao

a,b

, B. Zhu a, Si Yuan

b

Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Tatchee Avenue, HKSAR, China
b
Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, China
Available online 9 April 2004

Abstract
A new trapezoidal p-element is applied to solve the free vibration problem of polygonal laminated composite plates subjected to
in-plane stresses with various boundary conditions. Legendre orthogonal polynomials are employed as enriching shape functions.
The element stiffness and mass matrices are analytically integrated in closed form. Since one can always break a triangle into three
trapezoids by simply drawing three lines parallel to the three edges from any point in the triangle, the trapezoidal element is as good
as the triangular element. Free vibration of rectangular, triangular and polygonal laminated plates with various boundary conditions and stacking sequences is analyzed. The present solutions are monotonically convergent, and they are in good agreement with
the available published results. 
2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Vibration; Laminated plate; Trapezoid; p-element; In-plane stresses

1. Introduction
Laminated plates are widely used in aircraft
and space systems because of their advantages over
isotropic plates in the higher stiffness-to-weight and
strength-to-weight ratios. However, compared with
conventional isotropic plates, the analysis of layer plates
is more difficult due to their complex mechanical characteristics.
There are two commonly used conventional plate
theories for the laminated plates. One is the classical
plate theory (CPT) based on Kirchhoff’s assumption.
Liew et al. [1,2] applied it to the free vibration analysis
of laminated triangular and trapezoidal plates by the
Ritz method, but for plates with complicated shapes, the
finite element method (FEM) can readily be used just by
assembling the elements. The other is the first-order
shear deformation plate theory (FSDT) [3]. The theory
taking into account the shear deformation effect is more

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +852-2788-7600; fax: +852-27889643/2788-7612.
E-mail address: andrew.leung@cityu.edu.hk (A.Y.T. Leung).
0263-8223/$ - see front matter  2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2004.03.011

reasonable for the analysis of laminated plates. Unfortunately, to the best knowledge of the authors, most
existing methods based on this theory are limited to
rectangular plates [3–5].
The performance of a FE model may be improved
usually by finer mesh (h-version) or by refined interpolation (p-version). In general, the convergence rate of pversion elements is more rapid than that of h-version
elements for the same number of degrees of freedom
(DOFs) [6]. Because of the geometrical characteristics of
the trapezoidal elements, the stiffness and mass matrices
can be analytically integrated [7–9]. Since one can break
a triangle into three trapezoids by simply drawing three
lines parallel to the three edges from any point in the
triangle, the trapezoidal element is as versatile as the
triangular element.
In this paper, free vibration of laminated composite
plates based on FSDT subjected to in-plane stresses is
considered. Legendre orthogonal polynomials are employed as shape functions to improve the accuracy and
to avoid the shear-locking problem. Rectangular, triangular and polygonal plates with various boundary
conditions are analyzed. Comparison with published
results shows good accuracy and efficiency of the present
trapezoidal p-element.

b) (c) Fig. yÞ w wk. The fiber direction is indicated by an angle b. Laminated plate theory ou ow þz x ox ox owy ov ey ¼ þ z oy oy owy ou ov ow þ þz xþz cxy ¼ oy ox oy ox ow þ wy cyz ¼ oy ow þ wx cxz ¼ ox ex ¼ For simplicity. The trapezoidal element co-ordinate transformation. y η y (b.0) x 1 (0. Each layer of the laminate is of equal thickness. y. v. The hierarchical shape functions. it can be interpolated in the following form wðn. consider a symmetrically laminated plate of thickness h. / Composite Structures 68 (2005) 167–175 The linear strain–displacement relations of the laminate are 2. additional DOFs appear along the four edges and in the interior. Fig.l Nk. the DOFs in the interior are represented by both k. wy take the similar interpolation. yÞ vðx. v and w the x. w. The configuration of the laminated composite plate. l > 2. the DOFs along the four edges are represented if one of k.c) 3 (1. All displacements u. Formulation 2. Stiffness and mass matrix y x The co-ordinate systems used to define a trapezoidal plate element are shown in Fig. the x-axis are all parallel to the hemline of the geometry of the element in the local co-ordinates. yÞ þ zwy ðx. In this paper.Y. 1.1) (c. l ¼ 1 and 2. Leung et al. 1. y and z axes. respectively. wx . y. zÞ ¼ uðx. Finally.a) 4 3 1 2 4 ξ 1 (0. 2(a) and (b) depict the x co-ordinate and y co-ordinate along one of the two sides parallel to each other respectively. . For the layer 1 Fig. The modulus of elasticity for a layer parallel to fibers is E11 and perpendicular to fibers is E22 . u. l > 2. When k. The DOFs at the four corner nodes are represented by k.  are the displacement components along where  u. yÞ In two dimensional problems. and fk ðnÞ. taking the transverse displacement w as an example.1. l ¼ 2.l ðn.c) 4 (d. gÞ ¼ ð1Þ pþ2 X qþ2 X k¼1  ðx. With enriching orthogonal functions.168 A. Eq. y. 2(c) describes the mapped n  g square plane region.T. v and w are the associated mid-plane displacements. z b a ð2Þ β layer n h/2 h/2 2. gÞ ð3Þ l¼1 where the assumed shape functions Nk. respectively. when one of k. zÞ ¼ vðx.0) x 2 (a) (b) (c. Fig.0) 2 (a.l ðn. fl ðgÞ are the C 0 Legendre orthogonal polynomials [10]. with the co-ordinate system at the mid-plane of the laminate in Fig. wy are the rotations of the normal about the y and x axes. (3) represents the usual FEM interpolation. yÞ þ zwx ðx. lead to zero displacement at the corner nodes. The displacement fields of FSDT are assumed to be of the form [3]  uðx. and wx .2. 2.d) 3 (0. l > 2. zÞ ¼ wðx. gÞ ¼ fk ðnÞfl ðgÞ. which is the positive rotation angle of the principal material axes from the arbitrary xy axes. 2.

y4  ð4Þ where xi and yi are the values of Cartesian co-ordinates at the four corner nodes. y3 . N1. N2.1. Leung et al.1 I. .1 as 8 9 u > > > > > > > = < v > w u¼ > > > > > > > wx > .1. y2 . ð1 þ nÞð1 þ gÞ. . . It is obtained from the work done by the initial stresses acting on the non-linear parts of the corresponding Green’s strain components of elasticity theory [12] which are 1 2 eN x ¼ ðow=oxÞ 2 1 2 eN y ¼ ðow=oyÞ 2 1 eN xy ¼ ðow=oxÞðow=oyÞ 2 ð10Þ So the potential energy of the element becomes Rh nR R 0 P V e ¼ nk¼1 hkkþ1 ½rx ðow=oxÞ2 þ r0y ðow=oyÞ2 o þ 2s0xy ðow=ow  ow=oyÞdx dy dz ð11Þ The kinetic energy is given by n Z hkþ1  Z Z 1X ½qðu_ 2 þ v_ 2 þ w_ 2 Þ Te ¼ 2 k¼1 hk  2 2 2 _ _ þ z qðwx þ wy Þdx dy dz ð12Þ For free vibration. x3 . Substituting the expressions of the displacement fields into Eq. ð1  nÞð1 þ gÞ 4 T  ½y1 . : 0 0 o=oy 0 1 cxz e u¼Bd ð8Þ For free vibration of laminated composite plates. / Composite Structures 68 (2005) 167–175 case of Fig.2 I. N1.z2 N  jJjdndgdz 1 ð15Þ . the potential energy of the element should be included. ð1  nÞð1 þ gÞ 4  ½x1 . ð1 þ nÞð1  gÞ. x2 . x4 T 1 y ¼ ½ð1  nÞð1  gÞ. e Z 1 k¼1 hk n Z hkþ1Z 1 X k¼1 X Z Z Z ð13Þ 1 1 BTr r0 Br  jJjdndgdz q  NT diag½1. .T. 2(a).z2 . To account for the in-plane stresses r0x . Then the determinant of Jacobian is jJj ¼ cðd  b þ a þ egÞ=8.qþ2 I.11].1.1 I. Q global reduced stiffness matrix which can be referred to any standard literatures such as [3. Npþ2. . the equation of the eigenvalue problem is obtained ðK þ Kr  x2 MÞd ¼ 0 where X K¼ Ke . ð1 þ nÞð1 þ gÞ.qþ2 Ide ¼ N  de ð7Þ where de is the vector of generalized DOFs.  is the n is the total number of layers of the plate. (2) gives 8 9 2 3 o=ox 0 0 zo=ox 0 ex > > > > > 6 > > > 7 > 6 0 > o=oy 0 0 zo=oy 7 > = 6 < ey > 7 o=oy o=ox 0 zo=oy zo=ox 7 e ¼ cxy ¼ 6 7 6 > > > > 7 6 > > 0 0 o=ox 1 0 c > > 5 4 > > > yz > . ð1 þ nÞð1  gÞ. .z2 Ndxdy dz 1 q  NT diag½1. respectively. wx and wy are interpolated using the C 0 Legendre orthogonal polynomials mentioned in Section 2. . hk and hkþ1 are the z-coordinates of the laminate corres- 169 ponding to the bottom and top surfaces of the kth layer.A. v. : wy ¼ ½N1.1. Kr ¼ e Ke ¼ n Z X k¼1 ¼ Ker ¼ e M ¼ ¼ hkþ1 hk n Z X k¼1 ¼ hk n Z X k¼1 hkþ1 hkþ1 hk n Z X hkþ1 k¼1 hk n Z hkþ1 X 1 Z Z Z 1 Z Z hk 1 Z M¼ X Me ð14Þ e  BT QBdxdy dz 1   jJjdndgdz BT QB 1 BTr r0 Br dxdy dz Z 1 Ker . the Cartesian co-ordinates x and y can be defined by 1 x ¼ ½ð1  nÞð1  gÞ.Y. The Jacobian matrix is defined in terms of the Cartesian co-ordinates at the four corner nodes " #   oy ox 1 d  b þ a þ eg 0 on on ð5Þ J ¼ ox oy ¼  4 d þ b  a þ en 2c og og where e ¼ d  b  a. w. when the Hamilton principle is applied. (2).z2 . and I is the 5 · 5 identity matrix. the strain energy of the element is given by  n Z hkþ1  Z Z 1X e T  Q dx dy dz U ¼ 2 k¼1 hk  n Z hkþ1  Z Z 1 eT X T ¼ d ð9Þ B QB dx dy dz  de 2 hk k¼1 where  is the strain components defined by Eq. . and " # c 0 2jJj 1 J ¼ ð6Þ 2  dþbaþen c 4jJj The displacement fields u. r0y and s0xy .

847 8.734 14.027 9.262 4.965 9. The problem becomes obvious for higher order polynomials involved in the shape functions [13]. The first eight nonpffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi dimensional frequency parameters k ¼ xb2 =p2 qh=D0 of the laminated plates with different thickness are listed in Table 1 along with those of the Ritz method [4].061 6.811 4. numerical integration errors will influence the computed results and monotonic convergence of the predicted natural frequencies cannot be guaranteed [14].511 20. 0.792 6.924 10.249 4.616 17. / Composite Structures 68 (2005) 167–175  0 0 o=ox Br ¼ 0 0 o=oy  0  s0xy r x 0 r ¼ 0 sxy r0y 0 0 0 0  conditions are considered to demonstrate the high efficiency of trapezoidal p-element.614 12.6a Fig. Introducing the Gaussian quadrature. G12 ¼ 2 G31 ¼ 0:6E22 .942 12.823 5. the stiffness and mass matrices of the case in Fig.1.905 7.697 7. 3.847 18.6a b It is noted that Eq. it is rather difficult to analyze plates with complicated shapes.688 0. Similarly.704 14.4a 0.045 3.300 3 4 5 6 .581 6.Y. In this paper. 3).840 14. (15) should be integrated analytically.248 5. For the rectangular element and the skew element.05 p¼3 p¼4 p¼5 p¼6 Liew [4] 4.170 A.051 3. where D0 ¼ E22 h3 =12ð1  m12 m21 Þ. Numerical results and discussion There are four common types of support conditions for laminated plates: free (F).536 6. The present solutions with six hierarchical terms are in excellent agreement with those of the Ritz method. Trapezoidal mesh for rectangular plate.940 5.905 5.779 4. since the determinant of the Jacobian jJj is only related to g.560 14.787 4. Leung et al.249 4.308 17.850 9.250 4. From the table.792 5.809 12.703 14. G23 ¼ 0:5E22 . For the trapezoidal element. clamped (C). 3.691 7. Three-ply rectangular plates with fully clamped boundary conditions 3. geometry parameters and boundary 0. 2(b) can also be formulated.545 6. The Ritz method can obtain very accurate solutions.4a 0.908 5. m12 ¼ 0:25. the derivative in B and Br should be replaced by     o=ox 1 o=on ð17Þ ¼J o=og o=oy Free vibration for the fully clamped three-ply laminates with stacking sequence (0/90/0) is considered.044 17. but as a global method. j ¼ p =12Þ h=b Method Mode sequences 1 2 0.045 3.905 5.348 5. Two trapezoidal p-elements with different number of hierarchical terms are used in the analysis.801 5.519 12. it can be observed that the convergence rate of the present hierarchical element is very fast with respect to the number of hierarchical terms.963 7. hard type simply support (S) and soft type simply support (S*) [16].045 4. ð16Þ In view of the coordinate mapping.047 3.403 17.779 4.688 7. one can use only the first several terms of the additional higher order functions to compute some lowest natural frequencies of the plates [15] as the higher order terms are highly oscillatory. there is no problem in integrating the coefficients of mass and stiffness matrices analytically. The aspect ratio of the plates is a=b ¼ 2 (see Fig. otherwise. Table 1 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Frequency parameters k ¼ xb2 =p2 qh=D0 for fully clamped three-ply laminated rectangular plates (0/90/0) ðE11 =E22 ¼ 40. MAPLE or MATHEMATICA.T.2 p¼3 p¼4 p¼5 p¼6 Liew [4] 3. n and g can be integrated independently and the exact values of these integrals may readily be obtained by some commercial packages such as MATLAB. laminated plates with different stacking sequences.779 8.932 8.840 8.703 23.535 7.841 8.

991 48. Two trapezoidal 3.143 56.169 12.991 30. They are fully clamped and their circumscribed circles’ radius is R.06 81.933 30. 4) are computed using four present trapezoidal p-elements.163 30.822 22.3. G23 ¼ 0:2E2 . Fast convergence rate of the present element and excellent agreement with Reddy’s solutions are also observed in both tables. simply supported anti-symmetric cross-ply laminated plates with various laminated sequences (two-ply and eight-ply).184 15.183 15.729 18.211 60.932 30. For instance.451 34.438 46.729 32. Four trapezoidal elements for simply support square plate.223 56. while L2 and L3 are clamped.071 18. j ¼ 5=6Þ simply supported three-ply square laminated plates (0/90/0) h=a Method Mode sequences 1 2 3 4 0.705 66.764 5 6 7 .4a 171 0.263 40.434 58. / Composite Structures 68 (2005) 167–175 3. 4.183 15.991 30.905 70.465 33.582 42.163 12. 6. boundary condition SCC represents that edge L1 is hard type simply supported.98 84.606 42.795 42. Table 2 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Non-dimensional frequencies k ¼ xa2 q=E22 h2 for hard type ðE11 =E22 ¼ 25.160 40.042 61. 6). Leung et al.366 66.364 485.817 64.01 p¼1 p¼2 p¼3 p¼4 p¼5 p¼6 Reddy [3] 16.210 358.153 40.266 22.183 15. The triangular plate is meshed by three trapezoidal p-elements and six hierarchical terms are involved in the vibration analysis.856 71.817 22.842 42.2.6a 0.273 40.295 60.765 70.5a 0.583 42. 0.817 22.247 15.435 34. respectively (see Fig.775 70.730 18.401 34. the in-plane displacements are uncoupled from the transverse deflection.995 30. The natural frequencies of the symmetric cross-ply (0/90/0) square plates with hard type simply supported boundary conditions (see Fig.Y.1 p¼1 p¼2 p¼3 p¼4 p¼5 p¼6 Reddy [3] 12. The results are compared with those of Reddy [3].435 34.163 19.6a Fig.073 31.923 0. The thickness of the laminates is h ¼ 0:1R.272 41.828 51. The two polygons are meshed into four and six trapezoidal p-elements respectively (see Fig.834 19.109 48.267 60. 5).435 34.608 24.163 12.1.932 36. Triangular plates with various boundary conditions Since there are only a few published papers considering the vibration of triangular laminated plates [1].4a 0.A. m12 ¼ 0:25.T.933 66. G12 ¼ G13 ¼ 0:5E2 .253 31.210 56.036 45. modulus ratios and aspect ratios.729 18. Polygonal laminates with three-ply symmetric cross-ply layers A hexagonal and octagonal three-ply symmetric laminates (0/90/0) are shown in Fig. The first six non-zero non-dimensional frequency parameters pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi k ¼ xb2 =p2 qh=D0 are presented in Table 4.620 66.388 12.763 70.153 73.246 56. are carried out in Table 3 to validate the present element. Simply supported symmetric cross-ply square plate p-elements with four hierarchical terms are used in the analysis of plates with the same mesh of the first studied case.130 44.948 30.183 28.333 30. Because of the symmetry of the laminates. It should be noted that the definition of each boundary condition corresponds to the three edges of the triangular plate L1 .224 60. Compared with Reddy’s solutions for another case.163 12.896 15.4. The first pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi seven non-dimensional frequencies k ¼ xa2 q=E22 h2 of the flexural vibration are given in Table 2.956 34.09 65.923 45.058 81.696 48.585 66.210 56.163 12.734 18.950 45.991 30.5a 3.211 411. The first five natural frequencies of the polygonal laminates computed with different 0. The material properties of the laminated plates are the same as those of the first example in Section 3. equilateral triangular plates with various boundary conditions and different thickness are analyzed herein.211 60. L2 and L3 .839 22.

m12 ¼ 0:25.900 8.47 28.42 30.1 0.65 16.38 65.34 48.1 0.1 0.354 8.76 29.450 10.25 29.928 7.846 7.153 11.04 45.74 24. G12 ¼ G13 ¼ 0:5E2 .170 17.84 17.172 A.450 9.953 5.242 14.926 8.1 0.05 0.83 26.269 11. / Composite Structures 68 (2005) 167–175 Table 3 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Non-dimensional fundamental frequencies k ¼ xa2 q=E22 h2 ðE11 =E22 ¼ 25.Y.90 CSS 0.36 27.05 0.19 2.48 29.84 30.592 6.01 CFF 0. The first six non-dimensional frequencies of the plate subjected to in-plane stresses of the proposed element are compared with those of Liew et al. G13 ¼ G12 ¼ 0:6E22 . Leung et al.475 9.86 41. j ¼ 5=6Þ h=b Method for E11 =E22 ¼ 10 hard type simply supported anti-symmetric E11 =E22 ¼ 25 laminated E11 =E22 ¼ 40 (0/90) (0/90)4 (0/90) (0/90)4 (0/90) (0/90)4 Square plate a/b ¼ 1 0.346 10.44 12.102 10.61 30.419 Rectangular plate a/b ¼ 3 0.924 2 7.05 Present Reddy [3] 0.237 9.33 16.61 6.369 18.769 2.910 4.799 5.258 6.48 55. G23 ¼ 0:2E2 .319 6.981 isotropic square plate with different thickness is analyzed first.562 17.39 19.454 7.65 10.1 Present Reddy [3] 0.060 7.545 13.80 20.454 7.93 27.562 14.486 10.695 12.820 9.952 6.01 Present Reddy [3] 4.00 67.313 7.941 10.84 33.803 7.689 9.72 72.T.05 0.96 30.763 Table 4 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Non-dimensional frequencies (k ¼ xb2 =p2 qh=D0 ) of triangular ðE11 =E22 ¼ 40. m12 ¼ 0:25.628 14.931 9.01 SCC 0. G23 ¼ 0:5E22 .73 21. j ¼ 5=6Þ BC h=a FFF 0.163 14.962 6.21 37.449 7.474 9.01 laminated plates plates (0/90/0) with various boundary conditions Mode sequences 1 4 5 6 15.24 14.367 8.88 20.36 21.36 24.169 18. It can be found that the convergence of the data is fast and monotonic. Plates subjected to in-plane stresses To study the vibration characteristic of laminated plates subjected to in-plane stresses.752 4.241 14.315 7. in which k ¼ r0x h=p2 D ¼ r0y h=p2 D with D is the flexural .76 69.802 7.76 43.142 9.027 10.490 7.37 24.3 and the shear correction factor is set to 5/6. 3.80 14.768 12.800 9.236 10.82 49.84 33.370 6.908 4.16 47.990 12.49 7.92 31.25 29.545 21.27 18.802 6.83 49. [17] in Table 6.992 11.628 12.36 28.01 Present Reddy [3] 7.1 0.70 25.70 25.841 10.05 0.76 28.18 28.915 14.5.30 19.04 17.18 23.900 9.12 42.69 40.20 17.103 10.69 40.801 8.1 Present Reddy [3] 0.231 6.14 8.961 8.37 30.819 10.75 54.01 CCC 0. The Poisson’s ratio v is taken to be 0.49 30.1 0.965 4.41 62.92 31.25 31. The mesh of the plate is the same as that of the second studied case.16 13.34 48.05 Present Reddy [3] 0. a fully clamped 3 8.840 11.47 28.00 36.15 74.81 44.269 10.52 7.319 6.15 18.751 4.43 49.05 0.847 6.34 28.36 27.05 0.15 78.491 2.47 45.060 7.18 23.93 18.53 42.926 8.91 20.535 10.04 21.43 60.25 78.259 6.75 54.34 45.01 S*S*S* 0.970 number of hierarchical terms are presented in Table 5.673 6.07 20.01 11.174 10.586 9.028 10.

643 54. 6.9012 3. The first five non-dimensional frequencies are plotted in Fig.6435 6.068 72.242 Table 6 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Non-dimensional frequencies (k ¼ xb 2ð1 þ mÞq=EÞ for full clamped square isotropic plate subjected to in-plane stresses ðm ¼ 0:3.A.4407 0.5286 0.01 )5 Present Liew et al. a simple supported three-ply laminated rectangular plate (0/90/0) subjected to in-plane stresses k ¼ rN hb2 =p2 D is considered.246 41.2417 0.0752 3. s0xy ¼ 0. 5. G12 ¼ 0:2E22 . The in-plane stresses are r0x ¼ rN ð1 þ 2z=hÞ.639 54.502 37.040 72.372 54.7338 0.496 72. L1 0.713L 0.2345 2.287L Fig.373 54.374 54.1632 7.237 41. G13 ¼ G23 ¼ 0:5E22 .502 26.7347 3.502 26.7008 5.6494 4. where rN is taken to be a constant so that the initial stress field is uniform. The ratios are a=b ¼ 2 and h=b ¼ 0:2.T.4142 0.244 65.386 37.6899 0.2563 3.5L 60˚ x y L2 x R 0. Leung et al.5341 0.0421 0. / Composite Structures 68 (2005) 167–175 173 0.639 54. [17] 0.040 Octagon p¼3 p¼4 p¼5 p¼6 p¼7 26.4407 0. Table 5 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Non-dimensional frequencies k ¼ xR2 qh=D0 (D0 ¼ E22 h3 =12ð1  m12 m21 Þ) for fully clamped three-ply polygonal laminates (0/90/0) ðE11 =E22 ¼ 25.7358 0.394 65. 7 as a function of rN .503 26.318 28.6436 3. j ¼ 5=6Þ h=b k Method Mode sequences 1 2 3 4 5 6 0. j ¼ 5=6Þ Method Mode sequences 1 2 3 4 5 Hexagon p¼3 p¼4 p¼5 p¼6 p¼7 28.2448 0.506 26.321 28. [17] Present Liew et al. Geometry sizes and meshes for clamped polygonal plates.8992 0.047 72.8970 6. The trapezoidal mesh is the same as that of the first studied case. Good agreement between them can be observed.482 58.Y.4141 0.6177 0.0423 3. Then. The first five non-dimensional frequencies of the plate are listed in Table 7.2448 0.252 65.318 28.339 28.272 58.388 37. These frequencies increase with the increasing of rN .385 54.6899 Present Liew et al.6177 0. The results of the present element without in-plane stresses (k ¼ 0) are in excellent agreement with those of Liew [4].1631 4. Mesh for equilateral triangular plate.8993 0.265 57.438 37.0424 6.7008 1.0421 0.2563 2.8971 2.2346 5. r0y ¼ r0x .239 41.237 57.668 54.7337 0.2417 0.366L 60˚ y ˚ y x 60 L3 R R R Fig.5286 0.243 65.6492 5 0.249 57.486 58.481 72.7246 7. [17] Present Liew et al.402 54.1 )5 5 .247 57.318 41.482 54.336 57.0752 6.638 65.591 58.385 37. [17] 2.9012 1. m12 ¼ 0:25.247 59. rigidity and s0xy is assumed to be zero.5340 0.290 41.7357 0.

6284 6.7752 3. [1] Liew KM.6285 5. triangular and polygonal plates with or without in-plane stresses.5618 5.9728 Acknowledgements 7 6 λ5 5 λ4 4 λ3 λ 3 λ2 The research is supported by grant number CityU 1278/03E of the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong SAR.9663 4. [5] Bardell NS. [2] Liew KM.9764 5. / Composite Structures 68 (2005) 167–175 Table 7 Non-dimensional frequencies for fully clamped three-ply laminated plates (0/90/0) subjected to in-plane stresses ðk ¼ trN b2 =p2 D.4855 5. Zheng J. and comparison between the solutions of the present element and those of available published methods proves that the element is very efficient for the free vibration analysis of laminated plates. Leung et al.4555 3.1788 4. [6] Zienkiewicz OC. Comput Struct 2004. Lim CW. J Sound Vibrat 1997. China. [11] Jones RM.0905 2. Dunsdon JM.3400 5. Transverse vibration of thick polygonal plates using analytical integrated trapezoidal Fourier p-element. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.183(4):615–42. Dawe DJ.7272 5. New York: McGraw-Hill. Yang H. I: symmetric trapezoids. [12] Roufaeil OL. Solving the vibration of thick symmetric laminates by Reissner/Mindlin plate theory and the p-Ritz method.9398 1.3387 5.201(4):465–72.7753 1. The element is applied to the vibration of laminated rectangular. The Legendre orthogonal polynomials are employed as the enriching shape functions.8408 5.0905 3. Langley RS. Free vibration of skew Mindlin plates by p-version of FEM.0793 5.9393 1.85(2):263–75.7293 3.9393 3. J Sound Vibrat 2003. Compos Struct 1997. 7. 1996.9393 1. Hierarchical finite element analysis of the vibration of membranes.6768 4. Frequencies versus initial stress. J Sound Vibrat 1995.7272 3. Thin-walled Struct 2003.7752 1.174 A.0532 5.7758 1. G12 ¼ G31 ¼ 0:6E22 . Raleigh–Ritz vibration analysis of rectangular Mindlin plates subjected to membrane stresses.4554 3.9954 5.271(1–2):67–81.4554 4.9393 1. D ¼ E22 h3 =12ð1  m12 m21 ÞÞ ðE11 =E22 ¼ 40. G23 ¼ 0:5E22 .8789 4.5939 3. Computed results show that the convergence rate of the element is very fast with respect to the number of hierarchical terms. Zheng J. Seo CG. CRC Press. Zhu B. [8] Leung AYT. Analytical trapezoidal Fourier p-element for vibration plane problems. [13] Woo KS.3828 5. 4th ed. m12 ¼ 0:25. .5 p p p p ¼3 ¼4 ¼5 ¼6 1.5583 0 p¼3 p¼4 p¼5 p¼6 Liew [4] 1.5 p p p p ¼3 ¼4 ¼5 ¼6 2. Zhu B. and lines of the fourth and fifth non-dimensional frequencies are crossed with each other.6661 4. The free flexural vibration of symmetric angle-ply triangular composite plates.8892 4. The in-plane stresses of plates can be involved in the vibration analysis.T. Chaim TC.7691 0. Taylor RL. [3] Reddy JN.4856 5.169(5):633–54. Free vibration analysis of coplanar sandwich panels. Conclusion A trapezoidal p-element with analytical integration for the free vibration of laminated composite plates is presented.3388 5. References 2 λ1 1 0 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Fig. 4.7729 5. A trapezoidal Fourier p-element for membrane vibrations.7693 5.0906 2. 1975. J Sound Vibrat 2004. J Sound Vibrat 1982. Mechanics of laminated composite plates: theory and analysis. [7] Leung AYT.38(1–4):463–75. J Sound Vibrat 1994.Y.82(2–3):109–19.0926 5. Zhu B.4574 3.41:479–91.198(3):343–60.4855 6. [4] Liew KM.3693 5.0910 2.6540 5.8755 5.0826 5. [9] Leung AYT. [10] Houmat A. Mechanics of composite materials.5939 5.5109 5. 1989. Hong CH.7273 3.8756 4.268(4):637–56. J Sound Vibrat 1996.5959 3. Yang H.6297 5. Vibratory characteristic of general laminates.7920 5. Basu PK. The finite element method.4868 5. j ¼ p2 =12Þ Method k Mode sequences 1 2 3 4 5 )0.6628 5.2583 5.5939 3.5811 5.5940 3.

[15] Houmat A. J Sound Vibrat 2000. Influence of isotropic in-plane stresses. Reddy JN. Xiang Y.49(1):69–78. [17] Liew KM. Zhu B.230(1):31– 43. Oxford: Elsevier. Shear deformable beams and theories. Comput Struct 1993. .Y. Transverse vibration of thick rectangular plates––IV.T. Lee KH. Comments on Free vibration of skew Mindlin plates by p-version of FEM. 175 [16] Wang CM. A triangular fourier p-element for the analysis of membrane vibrations. 2000. Kitipornchai S. Leung et al.A. J Sound Vibrat. / Composite Structures 68 (2005) 167–175 [14] Leung AYT. in press.