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Electric Machinery
Sixth Edition

A.E. Fitzgerald
Charles Kingsley, Jr.
Stephen D. Umans

Chapter 1
Magnetic Circuits and
Magnetic Materials
1-0

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1.1 Introduction to Magnetic Circuits

1-1

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Simple magnetic circuit.
Figure 1.1

1-2

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Magnetic circuit with air gap.
Figure 1.2

1-3

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Analogy between electric and magnetic circuits.
(a) Electric circuit, (b) magnetic circuit.
Figure 1.3

1-4

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Air-gap fringing fields.
Figure 1.4

1-5

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Simple
synchronous
machine.
Figure 1.5

1-6

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1.2 Flux linkage, Inductance, and Energy

1-7

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Faraday’s Law
This image cannot currently be display ed.

When magnetic field varies in time an electric field is produced in space as
determined by Faraday’s Law:

d
 E .ds   dt  B .da
C
S

Line integral of the electric field intensity E around a closed contour C is equal to the
time rate of the magnetic flux linking that contour.

Since the winding (and hence the contour C) links the core flux N times then above
equation reduces

d
d
e(t ) 
N
dt
dt

1-8

The induced voltage is usually refered as electromotive force to represent the
voltage due to a time-varying flux linkage.

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The direction of emf: If the winding terminals
were short-circuited a current would flow in
such a direction as to oppose the change of flux
linkage.

 (t )  max sin t  Ac Bmax sin t

e(t )   Nmax cos t  Emax cos t
Emax   Nmax  2 f NAc Bmax

Erms  2 f NAc Bmax

1-9

+
e(t)
-

N

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(a) Magnetic circuit and (b) equivalent circuit for Example 1.3.
Figure 1.6

1-10

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MATLAB plot of inductance vs. relative permeability for
Example 1.5.
Figure 1.7

1-11

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Magnetic circuit with two windings.
Figure 1.8

1-12

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1.3 Properties of Magnetic Materials

1-13

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B-H loops for M-5 grain-oriented electrical steel 0.012 in thick.
Only the top halves of the loops are shown here. (Armco Inc.)
Figure 1.9

1-14

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Dc magnetization curve for M-5 grain-oriented electrical steel
0.012 in thick. (Armco Inc.)
Figure 1.10

1-15

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1.4 AC Excitation

1-16

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Excitation phenomena. (a) Voltage, flux, and exciting current;
(b) corresponding hysteresis loop.
Figure 1.11

1-17

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Exciting rms voltamperes per kilogram at 60 Hz for M-5
grain-oriented electrical steel 0.012 in thick. (Armco Inc.)
Figure 1.12

1-18

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CORE LOSSES
Hysteresis Losses: hysteresis
loss is proportional to the loop area
(shaded).
Figure 1.13

W   i d  

H clc
Ac NdBc  Aclc  H c dBc
N

Eddy Current Losses:
Time-varying magnetic fields give rise to electric fields in the material
resulting in induced currents. These induced currents cause Eddy Current
Losses. These losses can be reduced by using thin sheets of laminations of
the magnetic material.

1-19

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1-20

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Core loss at 60 Hz in watts per kilogram for M-5
grain-oriented electrical steel 0.012 in thick. (Armco Inc.)
Figure 1.14

1-21

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Example 1.8.
The magnetic core is made from laminations of M-5 grain-oriented electrical steel. The
winding is excited with a 60 Hz voltage to produce a flux density in the steel of
B=1.5sin wt T, where w=377 rad/sec. The steel occupies 0.94 of the core crosssectional area. The mass-density of the steel is 7.65 g/cm3. Find
a)

The applied voltage,

b)

The peak current,

c)

The rms exciting current, and

d)

The core loss.

Solution:

1-22

(Note that 1 meter is 39.4 inch)

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1.5 Permanent Magnets

1-23

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1-24

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(a)

Second quadrant of hysteresis loop for Alnico 5;

(b)

Second quadrant of hysteresis loop for M-5 electrical steel;

(c)

hysteresis loop for M-5 electrical steel expanded for small B. (Armco Inc.)

Figure 1.16

1-25

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1.6 Application of Permanent Magnet
Materials

1-26

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Magnetization curves for common permanent-magnet
materials.
Figure 1.19

1-27

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Portion of a B-H characteristic showing a minor loop
and a recoil line.
Figure 1.21

1-28

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Example (Final Exam Question).
Consider the magnetic circuit shown on the right. The permanent magnet material
has cross-sectional area Am=4 cm2 and length lm=3.45 mm. The air-gap has
the same cross-sectional area as the magnet and its length is g=2 mm. The
iron core has infinite permeability. Assume no leakage flux, no fringing.
Answer the following.
a)

Express the area and the length in meters correctly (if you get the units
incorrectly, it will be carried out to the remaining of the problem) and then
obtain the load line equation.

b)

Draw the load line in the graph and give the magnetic field intensity value
and magnetic flux density value of the operating point for Samarium-Cobalt .

1-29

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Load Line

1-30

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Example (MidTerm 1 Exam Question).
It is desired to achieve a time-varying magnetic flux density in the air gap of the magnetic circuit in
the figure of the form Bg=Bo+B1sin wt where B0=0.5 Wb/m2 and B1=0.25 T. The dc field B0 is
to be created by a Neodymium-Iron-Boron (characteristic is shown below) magnet, whereas
the time-varying field is to be created by a time-varying current. Please, answer the following
for Ag=6 cm2, g=0.4 cm, and N=200 turns.
a)

Write down the flux density of NdFeB as a function of the magnetic field intensity using the
characteristic given

b)

The magnet length and the magnet area Am that will achieve the desired dc air gap flux
density and minimize the magnet volume.

1.4
1.2
1
0.8
3

3

294 k

J/m

200

m
kJ/

0.6
3

0k
10

J/m

0.4
0.2

-1000

1-31

-800

-600
-400
H, (kA/m)

-200

B

Wb/m2

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Example:
Consider the figure below and answer the following.
a)

Draw magnetic equivalent circuit,

b)

Find the reluctances as a function of x,

c)

Calculate the flux,

d)

Calculate the flux linkage of the coil,

e)

Calculate the inductance of the coil.

1-32

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• Examples and Problems

1-33

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Magnetic circuit for Example 1.10.
Figure 1.18

1-34

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Magnetic circuit
including both a
permanent magnet
and an excitation
winding.
Figure 1.20

1-35

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Magnetic circuit for Example 1.11.
Figure 1.22

1-36

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(a) Magnetization curve for Alnico 5 for Example 1.11;
(b) series of load lines for Ag = 2 cm2 and varying of values
of i showing the magnetization procedure for Example 1.11.
Figure 1.23
(a)

1-37

(b)

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Magnetic circuit for Problem 1.1.
Figure 1.24

1-38

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Magnetic circuit for
Problem 1.9.
Figure 1.26

1-39

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Inductor for Problem 1.12.
Figure 1.27

1-40

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Pot-core inductor for Problem 1.15.
Figure 1.28

1-41

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Inductor for Problem 1.17.
Figure 1.29

1-42

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Toroidal winding for Problem 1.19.
Figure 1.30

1-43

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Iron-core inductor for Problem 1.20.
Figure 1.31

1-44

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Magnetic circuit for Problem 1.22.
Figure 1.32

1-45

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Symmetric magnetic circuit for Problem 1.23.
Figure 1.33

1-46

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Reciprocating generator for Problem 1.24.
Figure 1.34

1-47

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Configuration for measurement of magnetic properties
of electrical steel.
Figure 1.35

1-48

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Magnetic circuit for Problem 1.28.
Figure 1.36

1-49

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Magnetic circuit for the loudspeaker of Problem 1.34
(voice coil not shown).
Figure 1.37

1-50

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Magnetic circuit
for Problem 1.35.
Figure 1.38

1-51

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Electric Machinery
Sixth Edition
A.E. Fitzgerald
Charles Kingsley, Jr.
Stephen D. Umans

Chapter 2
Transformers

1-52

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Transformer with open secondary.

Figure 2.4

1-53
2-53

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No-load phasor diagram.

Figure 2.5

1-54

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Ideal transformer and load.

Figure 2.6

1-55

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Three circuits which are identical at terminals ab when the
transformer
is ideal.

Figure 2.7

1-56

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Equivalent circuits for Example 2.2 (a) Impedance
in series with the secondary. (b) Impedance referred
to the primary.

Figure 2.8

1-57

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Schematic view of mutual
and leakage fluxes in a transformer.

Figure 2.9

1-58

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Steps in the
development of the
transformer
equivalent circuit.

Figure 2.10

1-59

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Equivalent circuits for transformer of Example 2.3 referred to (a) the high-voltage side
and (b) the
low-voltage side.

Figure 2.11

1-60

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Approximate transformer equivalent circuits.

Figure 2.12

1-61

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Cantilever equivalent circuit for Example 2.4.

Figure 2.13

1-62

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(a) Equivalent circuit and (b) phasor diagram
for Example 2.5.

Figure 2.14

1-63

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Equivalent circuit with short-circuited secondary.
(a) Complete equivalent circuit. (b) Cantilever equivalent circuit with the exciting branch
at the transformer secondary.

Figure 2.15

1-64

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Equivalent circuit with open-circuited secondary.
(a) Complete equivalent circuit. (b) Cantilever equivalent circuit with the exciting branch
at the transformer primary.

Figure 2.16

1-65

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(a) Two-winding transformer. (b) Connection
as an autotransformer.

Figure 2.17

1-66

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(a) Autotransformer connection for Example 2.7.
(b) Currents under rated load.

Figure 2.18

1-67

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Common three-phase transformer connections; the transformer windings are indicated by
the heavy lines.

Figure 2.19

1-68

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2.8

VOLTAGE AND CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
Used in instrumentation applications

765 000 Volt, 10 000 Ampers can not be measured directly
Most instruments range: Voltage (Potantial) Transformers (PT)
0-120 V rms; Current Transformers (CT) 0-5 A rms

Equivalent circuit for an instrumentation transformer. Figure 2.21

Rc (core loss resistance) neglected in equivalent circuit.
Zb is referred to as the BURDEN on that transformer.

1-69

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FOR PT:
ˆ
Z eq Z b


V2
N2



ˆ
V1  N1  ( R1  j X 1 )( Z eq  Z b  R2  j X 2 )

Z eq 

j X m ( R1  j X 1 )
R1  j ( X m  X 1 )

Z b  ( N1 / N 2 ) 2 Z b

FOR CT:

j Xm
Iˆ2  N1 

 
Iˆ1  N 2  Z b  R2  j ( X 2  X m )

1-70

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Example 2.10: A 2400:120 V, 60 Hz potential transformer has the
following parameter values (referred to the 2400 V winding
side):

X 1  143 

X 2  164 

R1  128 

X m  163 k

R2  141 

a) Assuming a 2400 V input, which ideally should produce a
voltage of 120 V at the low voltage winding, calculate the
magnitude and relative phase-angle errors of the secondary
voltage if the secondary winding is open-circuited.
b) Assuming the burden impedance to be purely resistive
(Zb=Rb), calculate the minimum resistance (maximum burden)
that can be applied to the secondary such that the magnitude
error is less than 0.5 percent.
c) Repeat part (b) but find the minimum resistance such that the
phase-angle error is less than 1 degree.

1-71

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2.9

THE PER-UNIT SYSTEM

Computations relating to machines, transformers, and systems
of machines are often carried out in per-unit form.
Quantities are expressed as ratios to chosen BASE values.
V, I, P, Q, S, R, X, Z, G (conductance), B (susceptance), Y
can be translated.
Quantity in per  unit 

Single Phase:

Sbase  Vbase I base

Base Change:

Z pu 2
1-72

Actual quantity
Base value of quantity

Z base  Vbase / I base

2
Vbase
1 S base 2
 Z pu1 2
Vbase 2 Sbase1

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Example 2.12: The equivalent circuit for a 100 MVA, 7.97 kV:79.7
kV transformer is shown in Fig. 2.22a. Convert the equivalent
circuit parameters to per-unit using the transformer rating as
base.
7.97 kV:79.7 kV

X L  0.04 

X H  3.75 
X m  114 

RL  0.76 m
RH  0.085 

1-73

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Example 2.8: Three single-phase, 50 kV 2400:240 V transformers,
each identical with an impedance of 1.42+j1.82 Ohm referred to
high voltage side is connected Wye-Delta in a three-phase 150
kVA bank to step down the voltage at the load end of a feeder
whose impedance is 0.15+j1 Ohm/phase. The voltage at the
sending end of the feeder is 4160 V line-to-line. On their
secondary sides, the transformer supply a balanced threephase load through a feeder whos impedance is 0.0005+j
0.0020 Ohm/phase. Find the line-to-line voltage at the load
when the load draws rated current from the transformer at a
power factor of 0.8 lagging.

1-74

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A.E. Fitzgerald
Charles Kingsley, Jr.
Stephen D. Umans

Chapter 3
Electromechanical-EnergyConversion Principles
1-75

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3.1 FORCES AND TORQUES IN MAGNETIC FIELD SYSTEMS
Lorentz Force Law:

F  q (E  v  B )

For many charged particle

Fv   (E  v  B)

1-76
3-76

N/m3

(

coulombs/m3)

Current density

Jv

A/m2

Fv  J  B

Current

IJA

A

F  IB

N/m

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Example 3.1: A nonmagnetic motor containing a single-turn coil is
placed in a uniform magnetic field of magnitude B0, as shown
in Fig. 3.2. The coil sides are at radius R and the wire carries
current I as indicated. Find the θ-directed torque as a function
of rotor position α when I=10 A, B0=0.02 T and R=0.05 m.
Assume that the rotor is of length l=0.3 m.

1-77

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Very few problems can be solved using Lorentz force, where
current-carrying elements and simple structures exist.
Most electromechanical-energy-conversion devices contain
magnetic material and forces can not be calculated from Lorentz
force.
Thus, We will use ENERGY METHOD based on conservation of
energy.

1-78

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Electrical terminals: e and i
Mechanical terminals: ffld and x
Losses separated from energy storage mechanism
Interaction through magnetic stored energy

1-79

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Time rate of change of Wfld (field energy) equals to the difference
of input electrical power and output mechanical power for
lossless systems.

d W fld
dt

 e i  f fld

dx
dt

or

d W fld  i d  f fld dx
Force can be solved as a function of flux linkage λ and position x.

1-80

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3.2 ENERGY BALANCE
Energy neither created nor destroyed, it only changes the form.
Energy balance equation is written for motor action below
Energy input  Mechanical  Increase in   Energy 
 from electric    energy    energy stored   converted

 
 
 

 sources   output  in magnetic field  to heat 

For lossless magnetic-energy-storage system

d Welec  d Wmech  d W fld
d Welec : Differential electrical energy input
d Wmech : Differential mechanical energy output
d W fld : Differential change in magnetic stored energy
1-81

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3.3 ENERGY IN SINGLY-EXCITED MAGNETIC FIELD SYSTEMS
Schematic of an electromagnetic relay. Figure 3.4

1-82

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The magnetic circuit can be described by an inductance which is a
function of the geometry and permeability of the magnetic material.
When air-gap exist in most cases Rgap>>Rcore and energy storage
occurs in the gap.
Magnetic nonlinearity and core losses neglected in practical
devices.
Flux linkage and current linearly related.
Energy equation

  L( x) i
d W fld  i d  f fld dx

Wfld uniquely specified by the value of λ and x. Thus, λ and x are
called STATE VARIABLES.

1-83

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Magnetic stored energy Wfld uniquely determined by λ and x
regardless of how they are brought to their final values.

W fld 

 dW fld   dW fld

path 2 a

path 2b

0

W fld (0 , x0 )   i ( , x0 ) d
0
OR magnetic stored energy:

W fld


B
    H dB  dV
V0

Integration paths for Wfld. Figure 3.5

1-84

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Example 3.2:The relay shown on the figure is made of infinitelypermeable magnetic material with a movable plunger, also of
infinitely-permeable material. The height of the plunger is much
greater than the air-gap length (h>>g). Calculate the magnetic
stored energy Wfld as a function of plunger position (0<x<d) for
N=1000 turns, g=2 mm, d=0.15 m, l=0.1 m, and i=10 A.

1-85

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3.4 DETERMINATION OF MAGNETIC FORCE AND TORQUE
FROM ENERGY
Consider any state function F(x1, x2), the total differential of F
with respect to the two variables x1 and x2

F
d F ( x1 , x2 ) 
 x1

x2

F
d x1 
 x2

d x2
x1

Similarly, for energy function Wfld(λ, x)

d W fld ( , x) 

W fld


d 
x

 W fld
x

d W fld ( , x)  i d  f fld dx
1-86

dx

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i

W fld


f fld  

W fld
x

x

Once we know the energy, current and more importantly force
can be calculated.
For a system with rotating mechanical terminal

x 

f fld  T fld

d W fld ( ,  )  i d  T fld d
T fld  
1-87

W fld ( ,  )


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Example 3.4:The magnetic circuit below consists of a single-coil
stator and an oval rotor. Because the air-gap is nonuniform, the
coil inductance varies with rotor angular position, measured
between the magnetic axis of the stator coil and the major axis
of the rotor, as

L( )  L0  L2 cos (2 )
where where L0=10.6 mH and L2=2.7 mH. Note the secondharmonic variation of inductance with rotor angle θ.

1-88

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3.5 DETERMINATION OF MAGNETIC FORCE AND TORQUE FROM
COENERGY

d W fld ( , x)  i d  f fld dx
Mathematically manipulated to define a new state function
known as the COENERGY, from which force can be obtained
directly as a function of current.

 (i, x)  i   W fld ( , x)
W fld
 (i, x)   di  f fld dx
d W fld
Note that energy and coenergy
equal for linear systems.

1-89

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 (i, x) 
d W fld


W fld
i

di 
x


 W fld
x

dx
i

 (i, x)   di  f fld dx
d W fld



 (i, x)
W fld
i

f fld 

 (i, x)
W fld

x

i

 (i, x)    (i, x) di
W fld
0

1-90

x

i

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

In field-theory terms, for soft magnetic materals
(B=0 when H=0)

 H0

     B dH  dV
W fld


V 0

For permanent magnet materials (B=0 when H=Hc)

 H0

     B dH  dV
W fld


V  Hc

1-91

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Effect of x on the energy and coenergy of a singly-excited device: (a)
change of energy with  held constant; (b) change of coenergy with i held
constant. Figure 3.11

1-92

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Example 3.5: For the relay below, find the force on the plunger as a
function of x when the coil is driven by a controller which
produces a current as a function of x of the form

x
i ( x)  I 0   A
d 

1-93

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Example 3.6: The magnetic circuit in the figure is made of high-permeability
electrical steel. The rotor is free to turn about a vertical axis. The dimensions
are shown in the figure.
a)

Derive an expression for the torque acting on the rotor in terms of the
dimensions and the magnetic field in the two air gaps. Assume the reluctance
of the steel to be negligible and neglect the effects of fringing.

b)

The maximum flux density in the overlapping portions of the air gaps is to be
limited to approximately 1.65 T to avoid excessive saturation of the steel.
Compute the maximum torque for r1=2.5 cm, h=1.8 cm, and g=3 mm.

1-94

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

3.6 MULTIPLY-EXCITED MAGNETIC FIELD SYSTEMS
Many electromechanical devices have multiple electrical terminals.

1-95

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USING ENERGY FUNCTON:

d W fld (1 , 2 ,  )  i1 d1  i2 d2  T fld d
W fld (10 , 20 , 0 ) 

2 0

10

0

0

 i2 (1  0, 2 ,   0 ) d2   i1 (1 , 2  20 ,   0 ) d1

For magnetically linear systems

1  L11 i1  L12 i2
2  L21 i1  L22 i2
L22 1  L12 2
i1 
D

 L21 1  L11 2
i2 
D

D  L11L22  L12 L21
1-96

Integration path to obtain Wfld(10, 20, 0).

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

W fld (10 , 20 ,  0 ) 

2 0


0

W fld (10 , 20 ,  0 ) 

L11 ( 0 ) 2
d2 
D( 0 )

L22 ( 0 ) 1  L12 ( 0 ) 20
D( 0 )

0

d1

L11 ( 0 ) 2 L22 ( 0 ) 2 L12 ( 0 )
20 
10 
10 20
2 D( 0 )
2 D( 0 )
D( 0 )

T fld  

1-97

10

W fld


1 , 2

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USING COENERGY FUNCTON:

 (i1 , i2 ,  )  1 di1  2 di2  T fld d
d W fld
i2 0

i10

0

0

 (i10 , i20 ,  0 )   2 (i1  0, i2 ,    0 ) di2   1 (i1 , i2  i20 ,    0 ) di1
W fld

1  L11 i1  L12 i2
2  L21 i1  L22 i2
 (i10 , i20 ,  0 ) 
W fld

L11 ( 0 ) 2 L22 ( 0 ) 2
i10 
i20  L12 ( 0 ) i10 i20
2
2

T fld 
1-98


W fld


i1 ,i2

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

T fld

i12 d L11 ( ) i22 d L22 ( )
d L12 ( )


 i1 i2
2 d
2
d
d

For a general n electrical terminal

 1   L11
   L
 2    21
  
  
n   Ln1

L12
L22

Ln 2

 L1n   i1 
 L2 n  i2 
  
 
 Lnn  in 

1 T
  I L( ) I
W fld
2

1-99

λ  L( ) I

T fld

1 T d L( )
 I
I
2

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Example 3.7: In the figure, the inductances in henrys are given as
L11=(3+cos 2θ)x10-3; L12=0.3 cos θ; L22=30+10 cos 2θ. Find and
plot the torque Tfld(θ) for current i1=0.8 A and i2=0.01 A.

1-100

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

T fld  (1.64 sin 2  2.4 sin  ) 10

1-101

3

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3.7 FORCES AND TORQUES IN SYSTEMS WITH PERMANENT MAGNETS
Special case must be taken when dealing with hard magnetic material
because magnetic flux density is zero when H=Hc not when H=0.
•Consider fictitious winding
•In normal operation, the fictitious winding carries NO current
•Current in the winding can be adjusted to zero out the field produced by
permanent magnet in order to achieve the “zero force” starting point.

1-102

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

 (i f , x)   f di f  f fld dx
d W fld

 (i f  0, x) 
W fld

   dW fld

 dW fld

path 1a

x

path 1b
0

0

I f0

 (i f  0, x)   f fld (i f  I f0 , x) dx    f (i f , x) di f
W fld
If0 is the current to zero-out the field.

 (i f  0, x) 
W fld

0

  f (i f , x) di f

I f0

1-103

Integration path for calculating Wfld (if = 0, x ) in the permanent
magnet system of Fig. 3.17. Figure 3.18

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Example 3.8: The magnetic circuit
is excited by a samariumcobalt permanent magnet and
includes a movable plunger.
Also shown is the fictitous
winding of Nf turns carrying a
current if which is included
here for the sake of the
analysis. The dimensions are:
Wm=2 cm, Wg=3 cm, W0=2 cm,
d=2 cm, g0=0.2 cm, and D=3
cm.
a) Find an expression for the
coenergy of the system as a
function of plunger position x,
b) Find an expression for the
force on the plunger as a
function of x,
c) Calculate the force at x=0 and
x=0.5 cm.

1-104

Figure 3.19

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

A different solution for permanent magnet circuits:

e 

   R A   H c 

d 

 ( Ni ) eq e 

   R A 

d 
 d

( Ni ) eq   H c d
1-105

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Example 3.9: Figure shows an actuator consisting of an infinitely-permeable yoke
and plunger, excited by a section of NdFeB magnet and an excitation winding
of N1=1500 turns. The dimensions are: W=4 cm, W1=4.5 cm, D=3.5 cm, d=8 mm,
and g0=1 mm.
a)

Find x-directed force on the plunger when the current in the excitation winding
is zero and x=3 mm.

b)

Calculate the current in the excitation winding required to reduce the plunger
force to zero.

1-106

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3.8 DYNAMIC EQUATIONS
We are interested in the operation of complete electromechanical system and not just of the
electromechanical energy conversion system around which it is built.

For Electrical Terminal:

di
d L( x) d x
i
v0  R i  L( x)
dt
d x dt
For multiple-excited system, we will have similar equation for each terminal

1-107

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For Mechanical Terminal:
Spring:

f K   K ( x  x0 )

K : Spring constant

(N/m)

x
K

Damper:

dx
fD  B
dt

B

: Damping constant (N.s/m)

Mass:

f M  M

f fld
1-108

2

d x
d t2

B
f fld

M : Mass

(kg)

d 2x
dx
M 2 B
 K ( x  x0 )  f 0
dt
dt

M

f0

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Dynamic Equations (Electrical and Mechanical Equations Together):

d i (t ) d L( x) d x(t )
i
v0 (t )  R i (t )  L( x)
dt
dx
dt

d 2 x(t )
d x(t )
f 0 (t )   M
B

 K ( x(t )  x0 )  f fld (i (t ), x(t ))
2
dt
dt

f fld

i 2 d L( x)

2 dx

These equations completely specify the behavior of electromechanical device. Solution
of these equations will describe the position x and the current i at any time t in the
system.

1-109

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For Rotational Mechanical Terminal:
Torsional Spring:

TK   K (   0 )

K : Torsional Spring constant

(N.m/rad)

Friction:

d
TF   B
dt

B

: Friction constant (N.m.s/rad)

Inertia:

d 2
TJ   J 2
dt

T fld
1-110

J

: Inertia constant (kg.m2/rad)

d 2
d
J 2 B
 K (   0 )  T0
dt
dt

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Example 3.10: Figure shows in cross
section a cylindrical solenoid magnet
in which the cylindrical plunger of
mass M moves vertically in brass
quide rings of thickness g and mean
diameter d. The permeability of brass
is µ0. The plunger is supported by a
spring with K constant. Its
unstretched length is l0. A mechanical
load force ft is applied to the plunger
from the mechanical system
connected to it. Assume that
frictional force is linearly proportional
to the velocity with coefficient B. The
coil has N turns and resistance R. Its
terminal voltage is vt and its current i.
Derive the dynamic equations of
motion of the electromechanical
system.

1-111

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EXTRA Example: A two poles VR machine is shown in figure. Stator and rotor has
infinite permeability.
a)

Find gap cross-sectional area as a function of θ.

b)

Find the inductance for the machine.

c)

Write down the dynamic equations.

d)

Solve the dynamic equations to find the position of rotor as a function of time
initially starting from θ0=25 degrees.
Numerical Values:
N=100 turns, g=0.0005 m, d=0.1
m, r=0.04 m, J=0.05, B=0.02,
θ0=30, R=0.5 ohm, E=10 Volt.

r

0

1-112

es
r Ax
Roto


Stator Axes

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PowerPoint Slides
to accompany

Electric Machinery
Sixth Edition

A.E. Fitzgerald
Charles Kingsley, Jr.
Stephen D. Umans

Chapter 4
Introduction to Rotating
Machines
1-113

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4.1 ELEMENTARY CONCEPT
Electromechanical energy conversion occurs when changes in the flux
linkages λ resulting from mechanical motion.

e(t ) 

Magnetic
Field

d
dt

Producing voltage in the coil
Horizontal
axis

•Rotating the winding in magnetic
field
•Rotating magnetic field through the
winding

e(t)

1-114

•Stationary winding and time
changing magnetic field (Transformer
action)

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Armature winding: AC current carrying winding
Synchronous machine
Induction machine
DC machine

Armature winding is
stator winding (stationary)
Armature winding is on
the rotor

Field winding: DC current carrying winding
DC machine

Field winding is on the stator

Synchronous machine

Field winding is on the rotor

Note: Permanent magnets produce DC magnetic flux and are used
in the place of field windings in some machines.
VRM (Variable Reluctance Machines)
Stepper Motors

1-115

No windings on the rotor
(non-uniform air-gaps)

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4.2 INTRODUCTION TO AC AND DC MACHINES
AC Machines: Synchronous Machines and Induction Machines

Synchronous Machines:
•Two-pole, single phase machine
•Rotor rotates with a constant speed
•Constraction is made such that airgap flux density is sinusoidal
•Sinusoidal flux distribution results
with sinusoidal induced voltage

(a) Space distribution of flux density and
(b) corresponding waveform of the generated voltage for the singlephase generator.

1-116
4-116

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•Four-pole, single phase machine
•a1,-a1 and a2,-a2 windings connected
in series
•The generator voltage goes through
two complete cycles per revolution of
the rotor. The frequency in hertz will
be twice the speed in revolutions per
second.

 ae
1-117

p
 a
2

p n
fe 
2 60

n: rpm
fe: Hz

power plant (D.
Yıldırım, İTÜ
Lecture Notes)

1-118

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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Hydroelectric power plant

generato
r

turbine

generator sets
1-119

hydropower-plant-generator.swf

giant shaft
connecting turbine
to generator

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

715 MW generator

Diameter of rotor:
16 meters

Rotating mass:
1-120

2650 ton

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Field winding is a two-pole
distributed winding
Winding distributed in multiple
slots and arranged to produce
sinusoidal distributed air-gap
flux.
Why some synchronous
generators have salient-pole
rotor while others have
cylindirical rotors?
Answer: In salient-pole
machines the number of poles
can be large therefore they will
be able to operate in slow speed
to produce 50 Hz voltage.

Elementary two-pole
cylindrical-rotor field winding.

1-121

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Schematic views of three-phase generators: (a) two-pole, (b) four-pole, and (c) Y
connection of the windings.

Figure 4.12

1-122

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Induction Machines:
•The stator winding excited
by ac current. The current
produces a rotating magnetic
field which in turn produces
currents in rotor conductors
due to induction.
•These machines mostly used
as motors.
•Rotor windings are short
circuited (electrically) and
frequently have no external
connections.
•Stator and rotor fluxes rotate
in synchronism with each
other and that torque is
related to the relative
displacement between them.
•Rotor does not rotate
synchronously

1-123

Typical induction-motor speed-torque
characteristic.
Figure 4.15

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Typical Induction Motor

1-124

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Windings placed in stator slots

1-125

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Inside View of An Induction Motor

1-126

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

DC Machines:
Armature winding on the rotor
with current conducted from it
by means of carbon brushes

Elementary dc machine
with commutator.
Figure 4.17

1-127

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4.3 MMF OF DISTRIBUTED WINDINGS
(a) Schematic view of flux
produced by a concentrated,
full-pitch winding in a machine
with a uniform air gap. (b) The
air-gap mmf produced
by current in
this winding.
Figure 4.19

Fourier Analysis

Fag1 

4Ni
 cos  a

 2 

( Fag1 ) peak 

1-128

4Ni


 2 

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

AC Machines:
The mmf of one phase of a distributed two-pole,
three-phase winding with full-pitch coils.
Figure 4.20

p 
4  k N ph ia 

 cos  a 
Fag1  

p
2 

k
N ph

1-129

Winding factor (usually
between 0.85 and 0.95)
Series turns per phase

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Example 4.1: The phase-a two-pole armature winding of figure below can be
considered to consists of 8 Nc-turn full-pitch coils connected in series, with
each slot contaning two coils. There are a total of 24 armature slots, and thus
each slot is separated by 3600 /24=150. Assume angle θa is measures from the
magnetic axis of phase a such that the four slots containing the coil sides
labeled a are at 67.50, 82.50, 97.50, and 112.50. The opposite sides of each coil
are thus found in the slots found at -112.50, -97.50, -82.50, and 67.50,
respectively. Assume this winding to be carrying current ia.
a) Write an expression for the space-fundamental mmf produced by the two coils
whose sides are in the slots at θa=112.50 and -67.50.
b) Write an expression for the space-fundamental mmf produced by the two coils
whose sides are in the slots at θa=67.50 and -112.50.
c) Write an expression for the space-fundamental mmf of the complete armature
winding.
d) Determine the winding factor kw for this distributed winding.

1-130

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The air-gap mmf of a distributed winding on the rotor
of a round-rotor generator.

Fag1 

1-131

4  kr N r I r 
p 

 cos  r 

p 
2 

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

DC Machines:
Cross section of a two-pole dc
machine.

1-132

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(a) Developed sketch of
the dc machine
(b) mmf wave;
(c) equivalent sawtooth
mmf wave, its
fundamental
component,
and equivalent
rectangular current
sheet.
Sawtooth waveform
because of restrictions
imposed by the
commutator.
Peak value of
fundamental component

8


1-133

2

 0.81

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

(a) Cross section of a four-pole dc machine;
(b) development of current sheet and mmf wave.

( Fag ) peak
1-134

 Na 
 ia
 
 p 

( Fag1 ) peak

8  Na 
 ia
 2 
  p 

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Four Pole Stator of a DC Motor:

1-135

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Rotor of a DC Motor:

1-136

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1-137

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Parts of a small DC motor

1-138

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4.4 MAGNETIC FIELDS IN ROTATING
MACHINERY
The air-gap mmf and
radial component
of Hag for a
concentrated
full-pitch winding.

4  Ni 
 cos  a
H ag1  
  2g 
Distributed winding:

4  k w N ph ia   p 
 cos  a 
H ag1  
 gp  2 
1-139

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Example 4.2: A four-pole synchronous ac generator
with a smooth air gap has a distributed rotor
winding with 263 series turns, a winding factor of
0.935, and an air gap of length 0.7 mm. Assuming
the mmf drop in the electrical steel to be negligible,
find the rotor-winding current required to produce a
peak, space-fundamental magnetic flux density of
1.6 T in the machine air gap.

1-140

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Machines with non-uniform air gaps.
Structure of typical salient-pole machines: (a) dc machine and (b)
salient-pole synchronous machine.

1-141

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Finite-element solution of the magnetic field distribution in a salientpole dc generator. Field coils excited; no current in armature coils.
(General Electric Company.)

1-142

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Flux distribution in a 4-pole salient-pole generator

Colors represent
the strength of B.
Blue to Red : The
flux density
increases

1-143

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4.5 ROTATING MMF WAVES IN AC MACHINES
Single-phase-winding
space-fundamental
air-gap mmf:
(a) mmf distribution of
a single-phase winding at
various times;
(b) total mmf Fag1
decomposed into two
traveling wavesF – and F +;
(c) phasor decomposition
of Fag1.

4  k w N ph ia   p 
 cos  a 
Fag1  
p

 2 

ia  I a cos et
1-144

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MMF Wave of a Polyphase Winding
Simplified twopole three-phase
stator winding.

ia  I m cos et
ib  I m cos(et  1200 )
ic  I m cos(et  1200 )

1-145

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Instantaneous phase currents under balanced
three-phase conditions.

Figure 4.30

1-146

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The production of a rotating magnetic field by means
of three-phase currents.

Figure 4.31

1-147

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Cross-sectional view of
an elementary threephase
ac machine.

Figure 4.32

1-148

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Voltage between the brushes in the
elementary dc machine of Fig. 4.17.

Figure 4.33

1-149

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Elementary two-pole machine with smooth air gap:
(a) winding distribution and (b) schematic representation.

Figure 4.34

1-150

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Simplified two-pole machine: (a) elementary model and
(b) vector diagram of mmf waves. Torque is produced
by the tendency of the rotor and stator magnetic fields
to align. Note that these figures are drawn with sr positive, i.e., with the rotor mmf wave
Fr leading that of the stator Fs.

Figure 4.35

1-151

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The mmf and
H field of a
concentrated full-pitch
linear winding.

Figure 4.36

1-152

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Typical
open-circuit
characteristic and
air-gap line.

Figure 4.37

1-153

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Finite-element solution
for the flux distribution
around a salient pole.
(General Electric
Company.)

Figure 4.38

1-154

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Flux-density wave
corresponding to Fig.
4.38 with its
fundamental and
third-harmonic
components.

Figure 4.39

1-155

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Three-coil system showing components of mutual
and leakage flux produced by current in coil 1.

Figure 4.40

1-156

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Flux created by a
single coil side in
a slot.

Figure 4.41

1-157

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Problem 4.8: (a) full-pitch coil and (b) fractional-pitch coil.

Figure 4.43

1-158

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Elementary generator for
Problem 4.13.

Figure 4.44

1-159

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Elementary cylindrical-rotor,
two-phase synchronous
machine for Problem 4.22.

Figure 4.45

1-160

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Schematic two-phase,
salient-pole synchronous
machine for Problem 4.24.

Figure 4.46

1-161

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Chapter 5
Synchronous Machines

1-162

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5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Two types:
1-Cylindirical rotor: High speed, fuel or gas fired power plants

p n
p
n
fe 

2 60 120
To produce 50 Hz electricity
p=2, n=3000 rpm
p=4, n=1500 rpm

2-Salient-pole rotor: Low speed, hydroelectric power plants
To produce 50 Hz electricity
p=12, n=500 rpm
p=24, n=250 rpm

1-163

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5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
How does a synchronous generator work?
1- Apply DC current to rotor winding
(field winding)
2- Rotate the shaft (rotor) with constant
speed.
3- Rotor magnetic field will create flux
linkages in stator coils and as a result
voltage will be produced because of
Faraday’s Law.
Why is impossible to rotate a synchronous motor when it is
connected to 50 Hz electric power?
Because before connecting to supply, the shaft speed of rotor is
zero. If the motor is two-pole, when it is connected to 50 Hz
supply it suddenly needs to rotate 3000 rpm. This is impossible
for large synchronous motors.

1-164

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5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
How is DC current applied to the rotor?
1- Slip Rings

Note: Magnetic field of rotor
can also be produced by
permanent magnets for
small machine applications

2- Brushless Excitation System:
Excitation supplied from ac exciter and solid rectifiers. The
alternator of the ac exciter and the rectification system are on the
rotor. The current is supplied directly to the field-winding without
the need to slip rings.

1-165

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5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

T

  p

2

   R FF sin  RF
22

Steady-state torque equation

 R : Resultant air - gap flux per pole
FF : mmf of the dc field winding

 RF : electrical phase angle between  RF and FF

Torque-angle characteristic.
1-166
5-166

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5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
• Synchronous generators
work in parallel with the
interconnected system.
• Frequency and voltage are
constant.
•The behivor is examined
based on a generator
connected to an INFINITE BUS.

Generator

Infinite bus

f : constant
V : constant

1-167

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5.2 SYNCHRONOUS-MACHINE INDUCTANCES; EQUIVALENT CIRCUTS

a  L aa ia  L abib  L ac ic  L af i f
b  Lba ia  Lbbib  Lbc ic  Lbf i f

c  L ca ia  L cbib  L ccic  L cf i f
 f  L fa ia  L fbib  L fc ic  L ff i f
Self inductances:
Fundamental component

L aa  Lbb  L cc  Laa 0  Lal
1-168

L ff  L ff 0  L fl

Leakage flux
component

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5.2 SYNCHRONOUS-MACHINE INDUCTANCES; EQUIVALENT CIRCUTS

Mutual inductances:

L ab  Lba  L ac  L ca  Lbc  L cb

L af  L fa  Laf cos  me

2
1
 Laa 0 cos
  Laa 0
3
2

 me

L af  L fa  Laf cos(et   e 0 )

p
  m  e t   e 0
2

2
Lbf  L fb  Laf cos(et   e 0  )
3
2
L cf  L fc  Laf cos(et   e 0 
)
3
1-169

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5.2 SYNCHRONOUS-MACHINE INDUCTANCES; EQUIVALENT CIRCUTS


 a  
  
 b
 c  
  
 f  
 Laf



i
1
2   a 
Laa 0  Lal
Laf cos(et   e 0  )  i
 Laa 0
2
3  b 
2   ic 
1
1
Laa 0  Lal
Laf cos(et   e 0 
)
 Laa 0
 Laa 0
3  i f 
2
2
 
2
2
L ff 0  L fl
cos(et   e 0 ) Laf cos(et   e 0  ) Laf cos(et   e 0 
)

3
3

Laa 0  Lal

For balanced system

1
 Laa 0
2

1
 Laa 0
2
1
 Laa 0
2

Laf cos(et   e0 )

ia  ib  ic  0

1
a  ( Laa 0  Lal )ia  Laa 0ia  L af i f
2
3
a  ( Laa 0  Lal ) ia  L af i f
2

a  Ls ia  L af i f
1-170

Ls : Defined as synchronous inductance.
It is the effective inductance seen by phase a
under steady state balanced conditions.

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5.2.4 EQUIVALENT CIRCUTS
Terminal voltage for phase a

d ia d (L af i f )
d ia
da
va  Ra ia 
 Ra ia  Ls

 Ra ia  Ls
 eaf
dt
dt
dt
dt

L af  Laf cos(et   e 0 )
eaf  e Laf I f sin(et   e 0 )

In complex form:

1-171

Eˆ af  j

Eaf 

e L af I f
2

e

e L af I f
2

j e 0

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5.2.4 EQUIVALENT CIRCUTS
Motor:

Generator:

Vˆa  Ra Iˆa  j X s Iˆa  Eˆ af

Vˆa  Eˆ af  Ra Iˆa  j X s Iˆa

Synchronous Reactance

1-172

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Synchronous-machine equivalent circuit showing air-gap and leakage components
of synchronous reactance and air-gap voltage.

Figure 5.4

1-173

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Open-circuit characteristic of a synchronous machine.

Figure 5.5

1-174

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Typical form of an open-circuit core-loss curve.

Figure 5.6

1-175

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Open- and short-circuit characteristics of a synchronous machine.

Figure 5.7

1-176

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Phasor diagram for
short-circuit
conditions.

Figure 5.8

1-177

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Open- and
short-circuit
characteristics showing
equivalent magnetization
line for saturated
operating conditions.

Figure 5.9

1-178

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Typical form of short-circuit load loss
and stray load-loss curves.

Figure 5.10

1-179

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(a) Impedance interconnecting two voltages;
(b) phasor diagram.

Figure 5.11

1-180

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Equivalent-circuit representation of a synchronous machine connected to an
external system.

Figure 5.12

1-181

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Example 5.6. (a) MATLAB plot of terminal voltage vs. 
for part (b). (b) MATLAB plot of Eaf vs. power for part (c).

Figure 5.13

1-182

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Equivalent circuits and phasor diagrams for Example 5.7.

Figure 5.14

1-183

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Characteristic form of synchronous-generator compounding curves.

Figure 5.15

1-184

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Capability curves of an 0.85
power factor, 0.80
short-circuit ratio,
hydrogen-cooled turbine
generator. Base MVA is
rated MVA at 0.5 psig
hydrogen.

Figure 5.16

1-185

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Construction used for
the derivation of a
synchronous generator
capability curve.

Figure 5.17

1-186

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Typical form of synchronous-generator V curves.

Figure 5.18

1-187

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Losses in a three-phase,
45-kVA,
Y-connected,
220-V, 60-Hz,
six-pole synchronous
machine (Example 5.8).

Figure 5.19

1-188

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Direct-axis air-gap fluxes in a salient-pole
synchronous machine.

Figure 5.20

1-189

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Quadrature-axis air-gap fluxes in a salient-pole synchronous machine.

Figure 5.21

1-190

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Phasor diagram of a salient-pole synchronous generator.

Figure 5.22

1-191

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Phasor diagram for a synchronous generator showing the relationship between the
voltages and the currents.

Figure 5.23

1-192

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Relationships between component
voltages in a phasor diagram.

Figure 5.24

1-193

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Generator phasor diagram for Example 5.9.

Figure 5.25

1-194

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Salient-pole synchronous machine and series impedance: (a) single-line diagram and
(b) phasor diagram.

Figure 5.26

1-195

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Power-angle characteristic of a salient-pole synchronous machine showing the
fundamental component due to field excitation and the second-harmonic component
due to reluctance torque.

Figure 5.27

1-196

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(a) Single-line diagram and (b) phasor diagram for motor of Example 5.11.

Figure 5.28

1-197

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Schematic diagram of a
three-phase permanentmagnet ac machine. The
arrow indicates the
direction
of rotor magnetization.

Figure 5.29

1-198

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A.E. Fitzgerald
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Chapter 6
Polyphase Induction
Machines
1-199

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6.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE INDUCTION MACHINES

Two types of motor:

Squirrel-Cage

1-200

Wound Rotor

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6.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE INDUCTION MACHINES
How does an induction motor work?
1. Apply AC three-phase current to stator winding to produce rotating
magnetic field.
2.

Rotating magnetic field induces voltages in rotor windings resulting
with rotor currents.
3.

4.

Then, rotor currents will create rotor magnetic field.

Constant speed stator magnetic field will drag rotor magnetic field.
ns: Synchronous speed (the speed
of stator rotating field in rpm).

ns

120
ns 
fs
p
n

n : Rotor speed (rpm).

SLIP: It is defined as the difference
between synchronous speed and the
rotor speed divided by synchronous
speed.

ns  n
s
ns

1-201

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6.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE INDUCTION MACHINES
The speed of rotor magnetic field with respect to rotor is

nr  ns  n  s ns

The relative motion of stator flux and the rotor conductors induces
voltages of frequency (fr is called slip frequency)

fr  s fe
The rotor speed

n  (1  s ) ns

Mechanical angular velocity

1-202

m  (1  s )  s

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6.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE INDUCTION MACHINES
Breakdown torque

1-203
6-203

Typical induction-motor torque-speed curve for constant-voltage,
constant-frequency operation.

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6.2 CURRENTS AND FLUXES IN POLYPHASE INDUCTION
MACHINE

Developed rotor winding of an induction motor with its flux-density and mmf
waves in their relative positions for (a) zero and (b) nonzero rotor leakage
reactance.

1-204

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6.2 CURRENTS AND FLUXES IN POLYPHASE INDUCTION
MACHINE
Reactions of a
squirrel-cage rotor
in a two-pole field.
Figure 6.6

1-205

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6.3 INDUCTION MOTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
Stator equivalent circuit for a polyphase induction motor.

Counter emf generated by the resultant air-gap flux

1-206

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6.3 INDUCTION MOTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
Rotor equivalent circuit for a polyphase induction motor at slip
frequency.

Iˆ2 s  Iˆ2

Eˆ 2 s  s Eˆ 2

Eˆ 2 R2
Z2 

 j X2
s
Iˆ2
1-207

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6.3 INDUCTION MOTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
Single-phase equivalent circuit for a polyphase induction motor.

Models the combined
effect of rotor resistance
and shaft load

1-208

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6.3 INDUCTION MOTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
Alternative form of equivalent circuit.

Electromechanical power is
equal to the power delivered
to this resistance

1-209

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6.4 ANALYSIS OF THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

Pgap 

2
n ph I 2 

R2 

 s 

Pmech  Pgap  Protor 

Protor  s Pgap

Protor  n ph I 22 R2
1 s 
2
n ph I 2 R2 

 s 

Pmech  (1  s ) Pgap

Pmech  mTmech

Pmech is not the net power but it includes the losses such as friction, windage.
Output power and torque from the shaft is

Pshaft  Pmech  Prot
1-210

Tshaft 

Pshaft

m

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6.5 TORQUE AND POWER BY USE OF THEVENIN’S THEOREM
(a) General linear network and (b) its equivalent at terminals ab by
Thevenin’s theorem.

1-211

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6.5 TORQUE AND POWER BY USE OF THEVENIN’S THEOREM
Equivalent circuits with the core-loss resistance Rc neglected.



j Xm
ˆ
ˆ

V1,eq  V1 
 R1  j ( X 1  X m ) 

1-212

Z1,eq

j X m ( R1  j X 1 )

R1  j ( X 1  X m )

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6.5 TORQUE AND POWER BY USE OF THEVENIN’S THEOREM
Induction-motor equivalent circuits simplified by Thevenin’s theorem.

Iˆ2 

Tmech
1-213

Vˆ1,eq
Z1,eq  j X 2  R2 s

2


n
V
1
ph 1,eq ( R2 s )


2
2
 s  ( R1,eq  ( R2 s))  ( X 1,eq  X 2 ) 

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Induction-machine torque-slip curve showing braking, motor, and generator
regions.

Figure 6.14

1-214

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The End of This Chapter

1-215

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Computed torque, power, and current curves
for the 7.5-kW motor in Examples 6.2 and 6.3.

Figure 6.15

1-216

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Induction-motor
torque-slip curves
showing effect
of changing rotorcircuit resistance.

Figure 6.16

1-217

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Electromechanical torque vs. speed for the wound-rotor induction motor of Example
6.4 for various values of the rotor resistance R2.

Figure 6.17

1-218

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Deep rotor bar and slotleakage flux.

Figure 6.18

1-219

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Skin effect in a copper rotor bar 2.5 cm deep.

Figure 6.19

1-220

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Double-squirrel-cage
rotor bars and slotleakage flux.

Figure 6.20

1-221

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Typical torque-speed curves
for 1800-r/min generalpurpose induction motors.

Figure 6.21

1-222

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Connections of a one-step starting autotransformer.

Figure 6.22

1-223

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Interconnected induction
and synchronous machines
(Problems 6.7
and 6.8).

Figure 6.23

1-224

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Induction-motor equivalent circuits
simplified by Thevenin’s theorem.

Figure 6.13

1-225

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Chapter 7
DC Machines

1-226

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7.1 INTRODUCTION

1-227

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7.1 INTRODUCTION

1-228

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7.1 INTRODUCTION

1-229

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7.1 INTRODUCTION

Tmech  K a  d ia

1-230
7-230

Constant determined by
the design of windings

Current in external
armature circuit

Direct axis air-gap flux per
pole

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7.1 INTRODUCTION
Rectified coil voltages and resultant voltage between brushes in a dc
machine.

ea  K a  d m
Speed voltage

1-231

Angular speed

ea ia  Tmech m
Power

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7.1 INTRODUCTION
Typical form of magnetization curves of a dc machine.

ea

m
1-232

 Ka d 

ea 0

m 0

 m 
ea 0
ea  
 m 0 

 n
ea   ea 0
 n0 

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7.1 INTRODUCTION

Equivalent Circuit (Not in the textbook):
ia

Lf

if

Rf

Ra
La

 ea

For steady-state, current is dc,
therefore Lf and La can be
neglected.

1-233

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7.1 INTRODUCTION

Field-circuit connections of dc machines: (a) separate excitation, (b) series,
(c) shunt, (d) compound.

1-234

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7.1 INTRODUCTION

Volt-ampere characteristics of dc generators.

1-235

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7.1 INTRODUCTION

Speed-torque characteristics of dc motors.

1-236

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EXAMPLE (Final Exam 2006) :
Assume that a 240 V self-excited shunt
motor is supplied by a line current of 102.4
A when it is loaded with a full load at a
speed of 1000 rpm. The armature-circuit
resistance and the shunt-field circuit
resistance of the motor are 0.1 ohm and 100
ohm, respectively. Assume that a breaking
resistor of 1.05 ohm is used for dynamic
braking (breaking means that voltage
source is removed and immediately a
resistor is connected to the terminals of the
DC machine) and determine the following.
a)The value of counter emf Ea.
b)The full-load torque of the motor
c)The value of the armature winding current
at the time of initial breaking.
d)The value of initial dynamic breaking
(initial torque during breaking)

1-237

Ra
Rf

Ea

Vt

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The End of This Chapter

1-238

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Dc machine armature
winding with commutator
and brushes.
(a), (b) Current directions
for two positions of the
armature.

Figure 7.7

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Waveform of current in an armature coil
with linear commutation.

Figure 7.8

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Armature-mmf and flux-density distribution with brushes on neutral and only the
armature excited.

Figure 7.9

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Flux with only the armature excited and brushes
on neutral.

Figure 7.10

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Armature,
main-field,
and resultant
flux-density distributions
with brushes
on neutral.

Figure 7.11

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Motor or generator connection diagram
with current directions.

Figure 7.12

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Short-shunt compound-generator connections.

Figure 7.13

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Magnetization curves for a
250-V 1200-r/min dc
machine. Also shown are
field-resistance lines for the
discussion of selfexcitation in Section 7.6.1.

Figure 7.14

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Equivalent circuit for analysis of voltage buildup
in a self-excited dc generator.

Figure 7.15

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Cross section of a typical permanent-magnet motor. Arrows indicate the direction of
magnetization in the permanent magnets.

Figure 7.17

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(a) Dimension definitions for the motor of Fig. 7.17.
(b) approximate magnetic equivalent circuit.

Figure 7.18

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Equivalent circuit of a permanent-magnet dc motor.

Figure 7.20

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Section of dc machine showing compensating winding.

Figure 7.22

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Schematic connection diagram of a dc machine.

Figure 7.24

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Series-connected universal machine.

Figure 7.25

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Typical torque-speed characteristics of a series universal motor.

Figure 7.26

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1200 r/min magnetization
curve for the
dc generator
of Problem 7.4.

Figure 7.27

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Series crane
motor (Problem 7.22): (a)
hoisting connection and
(b) lowering connection.

Figure 7.28

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