dapat digolongkan atas
dasar jenis beban yang dapat
diterimanya yaitu :
• Pegas Tekan
• Pegas Tarik
• Pegas Puntir
Sedangkan jika dipandang dari
segi bentuk, maka pegas dapat
dibedakan menjadi lima bagian,
yaitu :
o Pegas Volut
o Pegas Daun
o Pegas Piring
o Pegas Cincin
o Pegas Batang Puntir

Types of springs
1. Helical springs
2. Conical and volute springs
3. Torsion springs
4. Laminated or leaf springs
5. Disc or bellevile springs

1. Helical Spring
A helical spring is made up of a wire coiled in the
form a helix

-Compression helical springs
-Tension helical spring

Helical Springs

- Circular
- Square
- Rectangular

Closely Coiled HS
Open Coiled HS

1. Helical Spring
Compression Spring
(Pegas Tekan)

1.Fungsi :
a. Menyimpan gaya yang selanjutnya dikonversikan
menjadi energi
b. Peredam
2. Penggunaan :
a. Persenjataan
b. Sistem suspensi
c. Pembatasan Gaya (pada pengepresan)

1. Helical Spring

Pegas Tarik

1.Fungsi :
a. Penyiman gaya
b. Penyimbang
2. Penggunaan :
a. Timbangan
b. Standrt
c. Tromol

2. Pegas Kerucut (Volute Spring
& Conical spring)

1.Fungsi :
a. Memberi reaksi dan mengatur tekanan
2. Penggunaan :
a. Penutup cup mobile
b. Pembersi kaca di mobil

2. Pegas
Kerucut (Volute
Spring &
Conical spring)
Volute Spring

Conical Spring

2. Pegas
Kerucut (Volute
Spring &
Conical spring)
The characteristic of volute / conical
spring is sometimes utilised in
vibration problems where springs
are used to support a body that has
a varying mass.

3. Torsion
1. Helical Torsion
2. Spiral torsion spring
1.Fungsi :
a. Menerima beban dan memberi reaksi puntiran
b. Penyeimbang
c. Suspensi
2. Penggunaan :
a. Handle mobil
b. Penjepit

3. Torsion
Helical Torsion Spring

Spiral Torsion Spring

The Analysis of
Compression Springs
1. Solid Length  When the coils contact with each other
2. Free Length  The normal condition of compression springs
3. Spring Index  Ratio of mean diameter of the coil & the diameter of the
4. Spring Rate  The load required per unit deflection of the spring
5. Pitch  the axial distance between adjacent coils in uncompressed state.
Equilibrium under the action of
two forces (W) and the Twisting
moment (T)

The Analysis of
Compression Springs
D = Mean diameter of the spring coil
d = Diameter of the spring wire
n = Number of active coils
G = Modulus of rigidity for the spring
W = Axial load on the spring
fs = Shear stress induced in the wire due to
the twisting moment
C = Spring index = D/d
p = Pitch of the coils
δ = Deflection of the spring, as a result of an
axial load.
Ot only shear stress induced in the wire, the
following stresses also act on the wire :
1. Direct shear stress due to the load W
2. Stress due to curvature of wire.

The Analysis of
Compression Springs
The direct stress due to the load W = Load / Cross-sctional area of the wire

- Direct Shear
- Curvature of the

The maximum shear stress

The effect

Substituting D/d=C

A shear stress factor (K) /
Wahl Stress factor

Dimana K yaitu :

The Analysis of
Compression Springs
The values of K for a given index C

Wahl’s stress factor oncreases very rapidly as the spring index
decreases. In machinery the mostly used spring index above 3.

The Analysis of
Compression Springs

The standard size of
the spring wire may
be selected from the
following table

The Type of End Connections
for Helical Springs
Plain ends

Squared ends

Ground ends

Squared &
Ground ends

The Characteristic of End
Connections for Helical
1. Inactive Coils  The part of the coil which is in contact with the seat
does not contribute to spring action.
2. Active Turns  The part of the springs that action.

The Connections of Tensile for
Helical Springs

- Large stress
concentration is
produced at this
- Attaching device of
tension spring

The Connections of Tensile for
Helical Springs

A Compression Spring  Tensile Spring

Deflection of helical springs of circular wire
Axial deflection of spring

Spring Rate / Stiffness of the


Energy stored in helical springs of circular wire
Asumtion  load is applied gradually

V = Volume of the spring wire

If :
P = load
h = height

Stress and deflection in helical springs of noncircular wire

Helical Torsion Springs
- The ends are shaped to transmiit torque.
- Bending stress
- The radius of curvature of the coils
changes when the twisting moment is

Total Angle of
Twist /

Flat SpiralSprings

Long thin strip of elastic material wound like a spiral.
- Watches
- Gramaphone
Since the radius of curvature of every spiral decreases when
the spring is wound up, therefore the material of the spring is
in a state of pure bending.

Flat SpiralSprings
Bending Moment

B at max distance from the application
of P Bending Moment Max

Maximum bending
Deflection (angular)  Asumtion : both ends of the
spring are clamped

stored in
the spring

4. Pegas Daun / Leaf Spring
 (laminated or carriage spring)

Application :
For heavy vehicles, they have the advantage of spreading the load more
widely over the vehicle's chassis, whereas coil springs transfer it to a
single point.
Thereby saving cost and weight in a simple live axle rear suspension.

4. Pegas Daun / Leaf
Flat spring
 (laminated or carriage spring )
Deflection :

4. Pegas Daun / Leaf
 (laminated or carriage
spring )
Full length

Bending Stress


Equalised Stress

Stress in full length = 50% Stress in graduated
Should be equal
The Steps :
1. Making full length smaller thickness than the graduated leaves.
2. Given greater radius of curvature to the full length than graduated.

4. Pegas Daun / Leaf
The Value of initial spring )
 (laminated or carriage
Gap (Nip C)

The Load on the clip bolt Wb

Final Stress = Stress in the full
length due to applied load minus
the initial stress

1. The final stress equal to
graduated due to applied load
plus initial stress.
2. The deflection due to applied
load is same as without initial

4. Pegas Daun / Leaf
 (laminated or carriage
spring )
The lenght of the leaf spring leaves

Band is
U-Bolts is

The length of leaves

Smallest leaf
Next leaf
Length of (n-1)th leaf

4. Pegas Daun / Leaf
d = diameter of eye
 (laminated or carriage
Length of master leaf
t = thickness of master leaf
Standart sizes of automobile suspension springs
1. Standart nominal widths : 32, 40*, 45, 50*, 55, 60*, 65, 70, 80, 90*, 100 &
2. Standart nominal thickness : 3,2; 4,5; 5; 6; 6,5; 7; 7,5; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 14; &
3. The recommended eye bore diametrs : 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 30, 32, 35,
38, 50, & 55mm.
4. The diameter of centre bolts:

4. Pegas Daun / Leaf
5. Clip section and sizes of rivets & bolts
 (laminated or carriage
spring )

4. Pegas Daun / Leaf
 (laminated or carriage
spring )
Materials for leaf springs
1. Automobiles : 50Crl, 50Crl V23,55Si2 Mn90 (Hardened &
2. Rail road C 55 (water – Hardened), C 75 (oil – Hardened), 40 Si2
Mn 90 (Water – Hardened), 55Si2 Mn90 (oil – Hardened)
3. All values are for oil quenched condition and for single heat only.

B. Bahan Pegas

Depends on what they are used
1. Severe service
2. Average service
3. Light service

Severe service
Rapid continous loading
 Ratio of minimum to maximum load is one half
 Automotive valve springs
Average service
 Intermittent operation loading
 Ratio of minimum to maximum load is one half
 Engine - Governor springs
Light service
 Very infrequently varied Load
 Safety valve springs

B. Bahan Pegas

B. Bahan Pegas

B. Bahan Pegas

B. Bahan Pegas
-The material treatment
of helical springs both
Cold Formed or Hot
-The material treatment
depends on the size of
the wire.
-Wires :
< 10 mm  Cold
> 10 mm  Hot
- The Srength  size
- Small size have greath
strength & less ductility
 cold working



A semi-elliptical laminated vehicle spring to carry a
load....kg is to consist of seven leaves .....cm wide, two
of the leaves extending the full length of the spring. The
spring is to be 110 cm in length and attached to the
axle by two U-bolts .... Cm apart. These bolt hold the
central portion of the spring so rigidly that they may be
considered equivalent to a band having a width equal
to the distance between bolts. The leaves are to be
silico-manganese steel. Assuming an allowable stress
of 3500 kg/cm2, determine :
a. Thickness of the leaves
b. Deflection of the spring
c. Diameter of the eye
d. Length of the leaves
e. Radius to which leaves should be initially bent
Assume modulus of elasticity as 2,1x10^6 kg/cm2