SPRING – 2015
VI Semester BE (Chemical Engineering – Plastics)

•Plastics are superior to many conventional materials, in both their physical properties
and the variety of ways in which they can be processed.
•Molding during processing owes its simplicity to the basic characteristics of
thermoplastic resins, that they change reversibly from the solid to the molten state, that
permits the molding operation to be shifted from the raw material producer to the
•Machine manufacturers have the task of developing extrusion lines for the processors
special requirements.
•Extrusion lines consist of a logical in-line arrangement of the machines, auxiliary
equipment, and measuring and control instruments that are required for the production
of semi-finished and finished products from thermoplastics.
•All extrusion lines are based on the principle of transforming a polymer by means of
an extruder from the solid to easily moldable plastic state, then through an extrusion die
in a predetermined cross-sectional shape, solidifying it by cooling, possibly drawing it
or subjecting to further treatment and stacking it as semi-finished product or winding or
packing it as finished product.
•The rapid growth of the industry produced many suppliers of extrusion lines and led to
strong competition, involving a wealth of innovations.

•Topics to be discussed in this module:
•Downstream equipments of PIPE/TUBE & Product testing
•Downstream equipments of BLOWN FILM & Product testing
•Downstream equipments of CO-EXTRUDED FILMS & Product testing
•Downstream equipments of WIRE COATING & Product testing
•Downstream equipments of CAST FILM/SHEET & Product testing
•Downstream equipments of ORIENTED FILMS & TAPES & Product testing
•Downstream equipments of MONOFILAMENTS & Product testing

•Extrusion of thermoplastic pipes hold second place in market after films.
•This production line has broken into the following products: Pressure pipes (PVC,PE),
Cable and elctro conduit pipes (PVC, PE), drainage pipes (PVC, PE, PP), gas pipes
(PCV,PE), water spray pipes (PE), domestic drinking water pipes (PE), Brake and fuel
pipes for the automobile industry (PA) etc.,
•Pipe production line consists of an extruder which is equipped with a die depending on
the end product and also a calibration device. After the extruder, the material is run
through a cooling pool, nip rolls and a cutting saw.
•Biggest production of pipes is made out of PVC, PE and PP.
•During the manufacturing process of pipes, the molten plastic from extruder is led to a
circle die towards the calibration device, where the final shape and size are determined.
Pipe calibration can be carried out either in high or low pressure.
•Haul-off unit function is to pull the calibrated product towards the cooling pool, which
is then cut into desired length.
•Flexible tubes, such as PE-LD are often wound into a roll. Rigid pipes are cut to

•Extrusion line of thermoplastic pipes consists of:
•Extruder with die head
Calibration unit
•Winding, discharge and socketing

Cooling unit

•Extrusion line of thermoplastic pipes consists of:
•Extruder with die head
Calibration unit
•Winding, discharge and socketing

Cooling unit

Extruder with die head
•Twin screw extruders are used for PVC and single screw extruder for polyolefins and
other thermoplastic materials.
•For the processing of powdered Rigid PVC, counter-rotating intermeshing twin screw
extruders are used exclusively and superior to SSE, because:
•Friction independent and constant raw material supply
•Gentle heating and plasticating
•Reliable degassing of volatile raw material constituents
•Excellent homogenous int erms of heating and mixing
•High output at low screw speeds
Favourable ratio of capital cost to output
•Optimum pressure build-up
Depending on the output range, the counter-rotating TSE are divided into: Extruders
with conical and extruders with parallel twin screws.
Advantage of CTSE are: increased feed volume, small overall length due to short
plasticating unit and compact drive units.
PTSE are advantageous of manufacture of cylindrical screws are less costly, variable
barrel and screw lengths, variable geometry screw allowing adaption to the raw

SSE are used for producing polyolefin pipes due to:
•High torques for obtaining high output
•High and pulsation free melt throughput
•High output rates at low screw speeds
•Optimum melt temperature
•High flexibility and minimum wear.
Co-rotating intermesing TSE for producing filled polyolefin pipes. Fillers such as
calcium carbonate, talc, barium sulfate etc., are added to pure polymers to provide
materials for products with specific property profile and considering economical to
carryout compounding and extrusion in one operation.
Co-rotating TSE are advantages in direct extrusion for the reasons of:
•Easy conveyance of poor-flowing, powderised materials
•High, pulsation free throughputs
•Excellent dispersion and homogenization for a constant, good quality products
•High flexibility in the processing of various material components.
•Control of the mass temperature.

Pipe die head
•Processing of PVC, which is thermally unstable demands perfect flow channels and it
is met by dies with a spider mandrel retainer.
•PVC melt comes from the extruder through a narrow inlet channel and then it fills out
the relatively large volume of the die head and flows around the mandrel which is
supported by a ring of spokes (Spider leg).
•Spider dimensions must be that they can absorb the pressure on the mandrel.
•In addition to dividing the melt it must also fulfill the task of reducing thermal
inhomogeneities of the melt from the twin screws in a strained state can relax.
•Further, it is necessary that the diameter and cross-section of the flow channel in the
mandrel retainer area are made larger than the die diameter and also reducing the
annular area of the flow channel enables the melt that has been divided into ring
segments and create buildup in die pressure that force the melt streams to converge,
minimize weld or spider lines.
•After the melt is rejoined, itmoves into the last section of the die, called the land.
•The land that has a constant cross-sectional area and reestablishes a uniform flow and
allows the final shaping of the melt and also allows a certain amount of relaxation time.
•The land can adversely affect the surface finish of the pipe if it is too short in length.
•Typical land lengths are 15 to 20 times the annular spacing.

Pipe die head
•By changing the die insert and mandrel, pipes of varying wall thickness & diameter
can be produced.
•Another design is the perforated ring as a retarder disk developed to normalizes the
melt flow and reduces the effect of flow disturbance through the spider. The molten
polymer is forced through a perforated sleeve or plate, which contains hundreds of
small holes. Polymer is then rejoined under pressure as a round profile. The perforated
sleeve, which is also called a screen basket, eliminates spider leg lines.

Pipe die head for wire coating
•The extrusion line comprises an extruder which is equipped with crossed head.
•Coated wire is pulled in a certain angle towards a cross headed extruder.
•The cross head will cover the wire or cable with molten plastic.
•After exiting the cooling pool, the solidified plastic and cable are rolled.
•Plastic materials that are most common for cable coating are PVC and PE.

Calibration Unit
•The tube of thermoplastic melt from the die head must be cooled and calibrated by
shaping for exact dimensions and for stresses in the pipe wall.
•Inner and outer calibration methods are used. Although inner calibration leads to a
more favourable distribution of stress within the pipes, but it is complicated and
difficult to handle.
•External calibration unit are used by sizing from outside and it is classified into
Vacuum tank calibration and internal air pressure calibration.
•Due to easier and safer handling, vacuum sizing has been generally accepted and
proved for pipes with OD of upto 2000 mm.
•Upon entering the vacuum tank the still soft and deformable pipe is subjected
immediately to moderate cooling on its surface over a length of several centimetres.
•Then it enters the sizing sleeve where it is intensively cooled by water and vacuum is
created in the calibration unit.
•After the pipe exits the vacuum sizing tank, it is moved through a second vacuum tank
or a series of spray or immersion cooling tanks.
•The primary requirement is to cool the pipe periphery as uniformly as possible to avoid
ovalities or sink marks.

Calibration Unit
•Calibration with the help of internal air pressure is an old fashioned method but still
used for processing larger PVC and PO pipes.
•A sizing sleeve is placed centrally and at a small distance behind the pipe die head and
a sealing plug with flexible sealing lips is attached to the pipe die head at a fixed
distance inside the pipe.
•An excess pressure is produced in the space b/w die and plug by compressed air, which
presses the pipes outer wall against the inner side of the water cooled sizing sleeve.

Cooling Unit
•For either the vacuum or pressure sizing technique, the pipe must be cool enough so
that it maintains its circularity before it exits the cooling tank.
•Various methods of cooling are utilized to remove the residual heat out of the PE pipe.
• Depending upon the pipe size, the system may use either total immersion or spray
•Spray cooling is usually applied to large diameter pipe where total immersion would
be inconvenient.
•Smaller diameter pipe is usually immersed in a water bath.
•Cooling water temperatures are typically in the optimum range of 40° to 50°F (4° to
•The total length of the cooling baths must be adequate to cool the pipe below 160°F
(71°C) in order to withstand subsequent handling operations.
•The required length of cooling bath is calculated with the help of Fourier number.
Fo = αt/X2
Where α is temperature conductivity mm2/s
T cooling time W/mK
X pipe wall thickness m

Cooling Unit
•The cooling length ‘l’ is:
l = vab.t
where vab is haul-off speed
we obtain
α1.l1/vab1.X12 = α2.l2/vab2.X22
where subscript 1 : known case and 2 is case to be designed
The cooling behavior of a PE-HD pipe with diameter 110mm, wall thickness 10mm
with vab = 2.2 m/min and a cooling length of 22m is known. What cooling length is
required for a pipe with half the wall thickness at the same melt throughput ie twice the
haul off speed.
l2 = l1 . α1/ α2 . vab1/ vab2 . X22/ X12
α1/ α2 = 1
vab2/ vab1 = 2
X2/ X1 = 1/2
l2 = 22 . 1. 2 . ¼ = 11m

Haul-off Unit
•The puller must provide the necessary force to pull the pipe through the entire cooling
operation without jerking.
•It also maintains the proper wall thickness control by providing a constant pulling rate.
• The rate at which the pipe is pulled, in combination with the extruder screw speed,
determines the wall thickness of the finished pipe.
•Increasing the puller speed at a constant screw speed reduces the wall thickness, while
reducing the puller speed at the same screw speed increases the wall thickness.
•Belt type and caterpillar type haul-off units are used.
•Belt type units are mainly used for sensitive, thin-walled pipes and tubes in the lower
diameter range. Evenly distributed pressure on the product is applied by two flat belts
moving at synchronised speed.
•Caterpillar units with rubber gripping pads are used for medium-sized and large
diameter pipes. The contact pressure can be kept as low as possible in order to prevent
deformation of the pipe.

Cutting Unit
•Most smaller pipes can be coiled for handling and shipping convenience. This is
advantageous when long uninterrupted lengths of pipe are required - for example, when
installing gas and water pipes.
•Large diameter pipes is usually cut into specified lengths for storage and shipping.
•The selection of appropriate cutting units depends on:
•The cut form and the quality of cut required
•Pipe diameter and wall thickness
•Type of raw material
•Cut-off length
•Planetary saws are used for large diameter pipes
•Parting automatic radial saws are used for cutting small and medium diameter pipes.
These units are travelling systems, retained by clamping jaws and a slide is carried
along by the pipe and returned after the cutting operation either pneumatically or by
•The most important requirement of cutting units are: a low noise level, safe chip
extraction, cleaning of pipe ends from chips in cutting operations, easy and quick
resetting when changing pipe dimensions.

Winding, Discharge and Socketing Unit
•Winding will be done to those plastic materials which do not undergo permanent
deformation through bending should be wound. A variety of automatic winders is
available for high speed extrusion.
•Pipes in fixed lengths generally upto 6m are discharged into a tilting channel.
•Socketing is used to vary the diameters at the end of the pipe to fix with other pipes.

Corrugated Pipes
•Advantages of corrugated pipes are high pressure resistance with good flexibility, high
impact strength .

Dimensions of pipes:
Pipes are checked for outside diameter and thickness with the help of ball ended
Visual Appearance:
The pipes shall be reasonably round. The internal and external surface of pipes shall be
smooth and clean, reasonably free from grooving and other defects. The end shall be
cleanly cut and square with the axis of the pipe.
The wall of the pipe shall be not transmitting more than 0.2% of visible light falling on
them. This is easily done with the help of electric lamp, photoelectric cell and
Short term Hydraulic Test:
This method was developed to determine the ability of a plastic pressure vessel to resist
rupturing when it is pressurized for a short period of time. Surging is a common
phenomenon in a fluid transfer system. Surging is a pressure rise in a pipeline caused by
a sudden change in the rate of flow or stoppage of flow in the line. A sample of pipe
equal to 10 times the nominal size of pipe (not less then 35 cms or more then 75cms)
shall withstand a circumferential stress of 360 kg/cm2 for at last 1hr. at 27+10C without
any sing of leakage or weeping.

Long- Term Hydraulic Test:
Pipe passing the short-term hydraulic test may be continued under test to burst within 110 hours, the results may then be plotted as part of the long term test. The extrapolated
circumferential burst stress at 50 years shall bet be less then 90 kg/cm2.
Reversion Test:
A 20 cm piece of pipe on which two marks are made 100 mm apart, is immersed in
ethylene glycol at 150+20C for 15 minutes, after cooling the distance between two
marks shall not go below 95mm. In other words, pipe should not shrink by more then
Alternatively, this test could be performed in an air oven at 1500C for 1 hour.
Impact Strength at 00C:
30 cm pipe pieces are cut and conditioned at 00+10C for 1 hour. Specimens shall be
tested on falling weigh machine within 10 secs, of removal from the bath.

•The manufacture of oriented film starts with the extrusion of a primary film from a slit
die or an annular-gap die and then the film is oriented by stretching.
•To improve physical properties like strength, elongation, shrinkage, tear resistance,
rigidity & transparency are orienting the film and to utilize these improved properties in
many applications.
•In order to achieve an operationally reliable orienting process nowadays, ones uses the
principle of optimization of individual process steps and is carried out in a dedicated
line element.
•This increases the number of independently controllable factors, and the overall
process itself becomes more controllable.
•Hence, this principle demands an extremely high standard of design, and a large
number of units connected in series to form the complete line.
•The materials used for producing oriented films are PP, PET, PE, PA, PS and PVC.
•Applications are packaging, photographic film, capacitor film, audio/video film,
electric insulating film etc.,

Processes for manufacture of Oriented Films
•The dried pellets are supplied to the extruder. In the extruder, the pellets are conveyed,
melted, compressed & homogenized, mixed and discharged as melt.
•Then the melt passes through a filter to remove contaminant particles and then it
passes to a film die on to the casting roll.
•Then it is cooled & solidifies as it carried around the chill roll.
•Passes through a thickness gauge & is stretched first longitudinally b/w two roll sets
and then transversely in an oven.
•Then followed by further thickness measurement & trimming of the edges.
•The edge trim is chopped up at once & fed back to the extruder inlet pneumatically.
•The oriented film is then cut into usable widths & wound up.

Processes for manufacture of Oriented Films - Sequential

Processes for manufacture of Oriented Films - Simultaneous

Lines for Production of Oriented Films
•Most of the film drawing lines are based on the same principle, the various process
steps can be carried out in different ways. The process steps are:
•A) Extruder: Single screw extruder
•B) Filtering: Long life filter
•C) Casting/cooling: Cast film die, chill roll, water bath
•D) Temp. Conditioning: thermostated rolls, hot air furnaces, heat radiators.
•E) Stretching: bi-axial lines (two step or simultaneous)
•F) Winding: central winder, multipurpose winder
•G) Waste return: chopping mills, waste-metering units
•EXTRUSION UNIT: In this unit, the material is melted and mixed uniformly with
additives & filtered & evenly extruded as single layer film.
•Extruder used are single screw extruder. Screw diameter depends on output & may be
60 to 350 mm with screw lengths of 27 to 33D for o/p of upto 6000 kg/hr.

Lines for Production of Oriented Films
•EXTRUSION DIE and COOLING UNIT: Slit dies are used for flat film. The thickness
range is 15 to 500 µm. Coextruded films can be produced in multichannel dies.
•Before film stretching process, the material must be cooled to below its melting point.
Cooling must be fast and even in order to obtain homogeneous crystalline structure.
Chill roll principle has proved to be the best method for this purpose. For efficient
removal of heat from the melt, casting roll have a diameter of 50 to 2500mm depending
on the film thickness & take off speed.
•TEMP CONTROL of FILM: Before stretching, the film must be heated to its optimum
orienting temp. It is carried out by contact with oil-heated rolls or by air transfer in the
heating oven or be means of heat radiators.
•STRETCHING UNIT: In order to achieve film properties, the primary film is stretched
by a tension applied in the required direction, by this the film changes shape. It can
stretched first longitudinally and then transversely or it is stretched simultaneously in
both directions.
•The stretching tension is applied by draw rolls and sliding caliper clips on a tenter
frame. The film is heated to temp. below the crystalline melting point by roll contact or
hot air. Different roll arrangements are used and it goes to four to six stretching rolls
driven at different speeds

Lines for Production of FILM TAPES
•Film tapes are uniaxially oriented thermoplastic semi-finished products with a high
width to thickness ratio which can be converted into twins, ropes, knitted or woven
•The first step is to produce flat film from polymer pellets.
•Cooling method includes the use of water baths, chill rolls or air jets.
•The film is then drawn, slit lengthwise into strips and then wound into spools or film
•The field of applications are sacks, tapes, wall paper & home textiles, outdoor carpets,
decorative tapes etc.,

Lines for Production of FILM TAPES
•Tape grade thermoplastic pellets are fed to the extruder. In the extruder, the material is
melted, compressed and homogenesied and extruded as films at constant mass
•The film is solidified by cooling in contact with a chill roll, then the film is cut into a
group of tapes with the blade spacing determining the tape width.
•The tape is then stretched b/w roll sets which run at increasing surface speeds. In order
to improve orientiation the tapes are heated in an air stream.
•Then settings & edge trim takes place.

Lines for Production of FILM TAPES
•EXTRUSION: Single screw extruders are used.
•CASTING: The film is formed by casting from the flat film die into a water bath or
into a chill roll.
•SLITTING: The quenched films are cut into a group of individual tapes prior to
stretching, so slitting operation is used by large number of blades arranged next to each
other slit the pre-tensioned film.
•FEEDING OF TAPES: The film tapes must be stretched to many times their original
length to achieve the required properties. It is generally takes place by the speed
differences between the first and second godet units.
•HEATING: The tapes are heated externally in the stretching process. Hot air oven, hot
water baths, hot plates or internally heated godet rolls are used for heating.
•STRETCHING: Stretching unit is similar in its arrangement to the feed units. Speed
range & drive power for the stretching rolls are set to give the required stretch ratio &
stretching force.
•FIBRILLATING: Similar to embossing on the film. If the stretched tapes are fibrillate
by means of needle, pin or knife rollers which slice into the oriented. For eg., net like
split tape.
•WIND UP: the film tapes are wound onto wind up tubes.

Lines for Production of FILM TAPES

Lines for Production of FLAT FILM
•EXTRUSION: Single screw extruders are used.
•CASTING: The film is formed by casting from the slot die. The die outlet width must
be larger than the width of film to be produced for edge trimming purpose.
•CHILL ROLL TAKE OFF UNITS: The extruded film is cooled on the casting roll
which ensures even cooling of the film.
•FILM GUIDANCE & DOWNSTREAM EQUIPMENT: After leaving the chill roll
unit, the film passes through several guide elements such as idler rolls, thickness
scanner, surface treatment unit before it reaches the windup station.

Lines for Production of FLAT FILM

Lines for Production of MONOFILAMENT
•Monofilament are wire like polymer strands whose tensile properties are achieved by
stretching. They usually have a circular cross-section.
•A range of applications are ropes, nets, tennis racket strings etc.
•Polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon and polyesters are commonly used raw materials
for making monofilaments.
The process essentially consists of the following steps
· Extrusion: Single screw extruders are used. Monofilament dies usually have 180 to
200 holes which are even distributed on 2 or 3 pitch circles. These holes are precisely
machined to get a smooth and uniform monofilament surface.
· Forming
The monofilaments emerging from the die are taken into a quench bath. The quench
medium is water which is maintained at around 25-35°C. The purpose of quenching is
to have a finer crystallite size which will facilitate stretching to produce high tenacity
filament. The filaments are taken over a deflecting roll in the quench bath and are
drawn continuously by Godet I.

Lines for Production of MONOFILAMENT
The drawing zone of a monofilament line consists of the first godet, a hot air oven and a
fast godet (2nd godet). Stretching is effected by the speed differential between the 1st
and IInd godet. The filaments are heated to just below their softening point in the hot air
oven (145-160°C) and drawn.
In most of the extrusion lines, the filaments are wound individually on separate spools
or bobbins.

Basic Concept
•Extrusion through an spiral die & the tubular film will be formed which is stretched
and inflated by an air stream flowing inside the die which create a bubble consists of
molten plastic.
•The bubble is cooled by an air jet flowing from an air ring towards its outward surface
gives cooling at a certain distance from the die exit.
•Beyond the crystallization line, there is the freeze line where the bubble boundaries
become parallel to the centreline.
•Beyond the freeze line, the deformation of the bubble is practically zero.
•Eventually, the cooled film passes through the collapsing frame & nip rolls ( where the
bubble is flattened by a set of guide rolls) before being taken off to storage drums.
•Nip rolls may be either constant speed or constant torque.
•Finally, the film is wound onto cylinders and sold as lay flat.
•Major advantage is the ease with which biaxial orientation can be introduced into the
•The pressure of the bubble determines the blow-up and this controls the
circumferential orientation (Transverse direction).

Basic Concept
•Axial orientation (Machine direction) may be introduced by increasing the nip roll
speed relative to the linear velocity of the bubble. It is referred as draw down ratio.
•Mechanical properties of blown film are nearly uniform in both directions as a result of
biaxial orientation. That’s why flat films is produced by the film blowing process as
well as economy & speed of production.

Lines for Production of BLOWN FILM
The main line elements of blown film are:
•Die unit
•Cooling & calibration unit
•Haul-off unit
•Raw materials used are LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE, HIPS, PP, PA6.
•Applications are General Packaging films, lamination films, surface protection films,
green house films, barrier films for food packaging, etc.,

Lines for Production of BLOWN FILM
The main line elements of blown film are:
•Extruder: Single screw extruder are mainly used for blown film production. Screw
diameter is 40-200 mm & screw length will be 20-30D.
•Die: Spider type dies & Spiral type dies are used.

Lines for Production of BLOWN FILM
The main line elements of blown film are:
•Cooling Unit: External cooling and Internal cooling of blown films are used.
•External Cooling: It is carried out by air emerging from a cooling ring mounted on die
outlet. Air volume, air speed & direction of air stream determine the effectiveness of
cooling. Cooling rings are operated with blowers.
•Internal Cooling: It is done by internal air exchange. Cooling system is equipped with
pressure blower for bringing fresh air & suction blower for pulling air into the bubble
through a tube mounted axially inside it as well as removes volatiles from inside the

Lines for Production of BLOWN FILM
The main line elements of blown film are:
•Calibration Unit: Basket like construction with free-running rollers with support arms.
Dimensional constancy is achieved by calibration. Calibration basket is set at a height
that the frost line always lies below the first set of rolls.

Lines for Production of BLOWN FILM
The main line elements of blown film are:
•Haul-off Unit: It includes collapsing frame and haul-off or squeeze rolls.
•The collapsing frame is constructed from two or more wedge shaped, angularly
adjustable surfaces made of either wood or free running rollers.
•Two haul-off rolls are either rubberized steel or a combination of rubber & steel rolls.
The pressure of the unit is adjustable so as to avoid inversion breaks in the side fold

Lines for Production of BLOWN FILM
The main line elements of blown film are:
•Winders: Contact winders and central/contact winders.
•Contact winders also called circumferential surface or drive roll winder. Rubber or
chromed roll is used. The axis of the winding shaft lies parallel to that of the contact
roll. Manufacture of heavy duty films, thin films contact winders are used.
Disadvantage is low tension wound rolls cannot be produced.
•Central/contact winders also called axial or direct winders. It is used to produce soft
rolls of wound film at very low tension. Winders are expensive. The axis of the
winding shaft does not lie parallel to the contact roll.

Lines for Production of BLOWN FILM
•It is the process for making multilayer blown films in one operation.
•It operates with separate melt channels, so different viscosities are easier to combine.
•No of extruders depends on the film combination.
•Two layer dies, three layer, five layer and seven layer dies are used.

Diagram of the coextrusion
head for extrudates of a
simple cross-section area: 1 –
component, 2 – connecting
component, 3 – extruding
component (co-extrusion head), 4 –
inlet channel, 5 – distributing
channel, 6 – co-extrusion head
Diagram of the co-extrusion head for
two-layer film: 1 – inlet channel of the
first polymer, 1a – inlet channel of the
second polymer, 2 – distributing
channel, 3 – coextrusion head die, 4 –
adjusting bolt, 5 – co-extrusion head
body, 6 – choker bar, 7 – flexible lip

The important outcome of a film blowing process is the size or diameter of tubular film
defined by the dimensionless blow-up ratio, BR and draw down ration, DR.
•BR = final tube radius, Rf / Initial tube radius, Ro = Db / Dd
•DR = Take up speed / die extrusion speed = V / νo
•Orientation in machine direction, OMD
OMD = Length of bubble, Lb / Length of die, Ld
•Orientation in Transverse direction, OTD
OTD = Dia. Of Bubble, Db / Dia. Of die, Dd

Since the volume flow rate is the same for the plastic in the die and in the bubble, then
for unit time.
πDdHdLd = πDbHbLb
DdLd / DbLb = Hb / Hd
1 / BRDR = Hb (thickness of bubble) / Hd (thickness of die)
DR = Hd / Hb*BR = OMD
Ratio of OMD/ OTD = Hd / Hb *(BR)2
Dimensionless freeze point, X = freeze line above the die, Z / radius of die, Ro
Dimensionless thickness, Ho / Hf = Thickness of die / thickness of film
Dimensionless pressure, P = π*Ro3*ΔP / µQ
Dimensionless take up force, F = Ro*fz / µQ
Where µ=Newtonian viscosity, Ro=Initial Radius of extruded tube, Q=volumetric
throughput, ΔP=pressure difference across the film, fz=film take up force

An LLDPE film is blown to a thickness of 50 µm from a 25 mm diameter annular
die with 1mm thick slit. Determine the required bubble pressure and take up
force for an extruder mass throughput of 100 kg / hr and draw – down ratio of 4.
The freezing point is 200 mm above the die exit. The polymer is assumed to be
Newtonian with a viscosity of 1000 pa – s and the density is 920 kg / m3.
Given Data: Z=200mm, Ro=25mm = 12.5mm
Ho=0.001m, Hf=50x10-6m, DR = 4
From graph of X=10 & X=20
X=10=P=0.08 and F=1.95 & X=20=P=0.055 and F=1.50
Interpolate, X=16 = P=0.065 and F=1.68
Bubble pressure, ΔP=319Pa
= 0.065*1000*(100/60*60)*(1/920) / π*(0.00125)3
Take up force, fz=4.06N
= 1.68*1000* *(100/60*60)*(1/920) / 0.0125

Analysis of Flow in Extruder
•The output from the extruder as consisting of three components - drag flow, pressure
flow and leakage.
•The derivation of the equation for output assumes that in the metering zone the melt
has a constant viscosity and its flow is isothermal in a wide shallow channel. These
conditions are most likely to be approached in the metering zone.
•(a) Drag Flow: Consider the flow of the melt between parallel plates.
For the small element of fluid ABCD the volume flow rate dQ is given by
dQ= V * d y * dx
Assuming the velocity gradient is linear, then

Analysis of Flow in Extruder

Fig. 4.8 shows the position of the element of fluid and (4.2) may be modified to
include terms relevant to the extruder dimensions.
For example Vd = πDNCOSϕ
where N is the screw speed (in revolutions per unit time).

Analysis of Flow in Extruder

Analysis of Flow in Extruder

Analysis of Flow in Extruder

Analysis of Flow in Extruder

Analysis of Flow in Extruder

Analysis of Flow in Extruder
•The output, Q, of a Newtonian fluid from a die is given by a relation of the form

Analysis of Flow in Extruder

Analysis of Flow in Extruder

Analysis of Flow in Extruder

Analysis of Flow in Extruder