1 Area Sources
Preferred control options from area sources have been evaluated with respect to two
main pollutants viz. PM and NOx. These control options are on the basis of three distinct
scenario as the characteristics of these sources are very diverse.
Scenario 1
Construction activities and combustion of fuels in domestic cooking are the major
contributors to the PM emissions. These two sources are considered for controlling PM
• Better Construction Practices
Better construction and operating practices viz. proper loading/unloading of materials
including water spraying is considered. These practices need to be upgraded with norms
which prevent activities resulting in high PM emissions. Reduction of PM emissions
this control option is expected to be 50% by 2012 and 100% by the year 2017.
• Use of Clean Fuels (LPG) in Domestic Sector
LPG is considered to be cleaner fuel as compared to coal, wood and kerosene for
domestic cooking. Substitution of LPG in the place of all solid fuels and kerosene in
cooking (including slums) is considered as the option leading to 50% and 100%
reduction by
2012 and 2017 respectively.
Scenario 2
Diesel generator sets are the major contributors to the NOx emissions. This source
category is mainly considered for reducing NOx emissions.
• Adequate power supply
Considering future power generation scenario and availability of adequate power, no
use of generator sets beyond 2012 is envisaged leading to negligible emissions from
generator sets.Scenario 3
Third scenario considers both PM and NOx emissions reduction options as preferred
combination of options. This option has been considered for industries and vehicular
7.1.2 Industrial Sources
Select control options have been evaluated with respect to two main pollutants viz. PM
and NOx. These control options are combination for PM and NOx together as in this
category the options are not different for PM and NOx.
Coal based Power plants are the major sources of PM and SO2 emissions and NG
based Power plants are the major sources of NOx emissions. Besides, medium scale
industries also contribute to PM and SO2 emissions and limited NOX. These two sources
considered for controlling PM and SO2 emissions.
NG is considered to be the cleaner fuel as compared to coal and liquid fuels used in
industries. Use of NG in all power plants and medium scale industries by 2012 is
Though many small scale industries may continue to operate on other liquid fuel, their
contributions shall not be significant mainly due to their shifting from the non-conforming
7.1.3 Vehicular Sources
From vehicular pollution point of view, various technology based control options have
been evaluated with respect to the two main pollutants viz. PM and NOx. There are

The lawyer’s case was about the health risks caused by air pollution emitted from road vehicles. but there were no fuel quality standards. All options together in vehicular sector considered are for the purpose of reducing PM and NOx. REFORMS CNG Delhi – the world’s cleanest public bus system running on CNG Interview with Anumita Roychaudhary. CNG had become available in Delhi at three filling stations for industrial and domestic users. the approach adopted and assumptions made have already been discussed chapter 6. CES State of the Art before 1998 In 1991. This report found that the problem of vehicular pollution in India was the result of a combination of outdated engine technology. By 1998.some options which are primarily addressing PM emissions (such as DPF). In 1993. CSE published its report on urban air pollution. however. the new cars or the gasoline stations or both ? Government ruled that diesel cars in Delhi were restricted to 10’000 ppm after 1995. In 1995. the overall preferred options analysis for vehicular sector will not be limited to only this options. defective transportation planning and bad maintenance of . Delhi was converted to 100% of unleaded fuel What was converted. a lawyer filed a case with the Supreme Court of India under the Public Interest Litigation rule. The Supreme Court decided that cars put into circulation after 1995 would have to run on unleaded fuel. poor fuel quality. India published the first exhaust emission standards. For evaluation of various vehicular pollution control options. Natural gas is a domestic energy produced in Western India. In 1996.

industry for 10%). three years after the lawyer had filed his case and as a direct result of it. fundamentally because global mass production is jeopardised by any local legislation. in April 2002. and CSE’s objectives for the future. the government still allowed 6’000 new diesel busses to take up service. put it was estimated that vehicles were responsible for 64% of emissions (power production for 17. the National Capital Region of Delhi set up a Commission to study. The vehicle industry was against CNG. The conclusion of this report. Finally. the government and the car industry were fighting the bad image of diesel fuel. the Supreme Court published a directive which imposed a penalty on the government for wasting the court’s time. It continued lobbying in favour of abolishing the Supreme Court order. were to press for clean fuels and a rapid introduction of EUR II standards. and asked for financial incentives for the conversion of vehicle fleets. as well as particle filters for diesel engines. write and publish a report on the air pollution problem in Delhi. In 2000. No statistics of energy input and pollution output were available. despite the 1998 order of the Supreme Court order. In fact. a daily penalty of 1’000 . And by April 2001 – the original deadline . CSE was a member of this Commission. It was first subsidised. and in addition. The 1998 Directive of the Supreme Court In 1998. three-wheelers and taxis to CNG. and the automotive industry and the Delhi government put forward scientific arguments against CNG. Also at stake was the issue of equal rights between Public Transport and private cars.little progress had been achieved to fulfil the 1998 Supreme Court Directive. Diesel had always been the fuel favoured by the government. Cleaner diesel had now become available. This re-opened the discussion on CNG. than less taxed than gasoline. What was first? The Directive or setting up the Comission? In 1999. the Directive specified that an infrastructure of 70 CNG refuelling stations had to be made available. the Supreme Court ordered the government to impose the EUR II standard for gasoline engines by the year 2000 for all new car sales. the Supreme Court published a Directive that specified the date of April 2001 as deadline to replace or convert all busses. In addition. and ordered sulphur levels below 30 ppm.vehicles on the read. The Court order attacked the diesel car promotion. In January 1998.

In addition. Approximately one thousand additional busses that link Delhi with neighbouring States still run on diesel. which are still allowed in Delhi at night. at a cost of 400’000 Rupees. the import of CNG by ship will increase in the future. new natural gas fields are developed in Gujarat and will come into production. The biggest problem are transit trucks. the last diesel bus had disappeared from Delhi’s roads. The situation today At the beginning of 2005. 10’300 CNG busses. 55’000 CNG three-wheelers taxis. A new . as part of a programme to improve public transport by offering more busses. Also. at a cost of 1’600’000 Rupees (16 lakh). The majority of business went for the option of buying expensive new CNG busses. new three-wheeler commercial goods vehicles also have to run on CNG. they are allowed to enter Delhi for a distance of 16 km maximum. By 1st December 2002. The import of CNG and increased production will overcome the supply shortage. linking the Gujarat coast with major cities in the west of India. 2’800 opted for the cheapest solution of engine conversion. Foreign experts were called in to examine the problem[2]. and only busses running on CNG. 12 busses caught fire. It is interesting to note that only 3’000 busses are operated by the Delhi Transport Corporation. replace the engines of existing busses at a cost of 700’000 Rupees. And many white Ambassador cars for tourists have been converted to dual use. the majority of the busses in Delhi are run by private operators. Nevertheless. With the introduction of CNG came problems of conversion quality and maintenance quality. or convert the diesel engine of existing busses to CNG. The future The second phase of the programme includes light and medium size commercial vehicles and cars.Rupee per day (approximately 20 US$) for each diesel bus still in circulation. 10’000 CNG taxis and 10’000 CNG cars run on Delhi’s roads. no existing busses were equipped with new CNG engines. A further conversation of the approximately 1 million automobiles is hindered by the limited supply of CNG gas. 5’000 CNG minibuses. One main problem was the absence of stress relief loops on CNG installations – a problem not limited to CNG and India. How was this achieved? Companies could either buy new CNG busses. and a new regulation on CNG safety was published. A new pipeline network is under construction. which led to the banning of LPG cars in Europe not equipped with pressure relief equipment. running on CNG in Delhi and on gasoline outside Delhi.

For the time being. . offer a retrofit of high quality for dual fuel use of their cars. Since 2004. Ambassador and Maruti-Suzuki.Supreme Court order now says the transit traffic should not enter Delhi. The fact that most car manufacturers sell dedicated CNG automobiles in Europe. Only two domestic producers. The manufacturers of private cars refuse to produce dedicated CNG cars for sale in Delhi. despite the fact that Delhi represents 20% of the Indian market. the car industry is playing a deaf ear. CNG busses are seen as the entry gate to establish a supply infrastructure and open up the car market. were CNG cars are considered the best available technology (BAT). and refuses to cooperate and inform. eight new cities along the CNG main pipeline have received a Supreme Court order to convert their bus fleets to CNG. which means that a new ring road has to be built. is ignored by the same companies active in India.