Trends in chemical properties

(chemical periodicity)
Eg : elements in period 3
( Na to Ar )

Reaction with water

1. 2Na + 2H2O  2NaOH + H2
2. a. Mg +2H2O

slow

cold

fast

Mg(OH)2 +H2 (g)

b. Mg + H2O  MgO + H2(g)
steam

Reaction with oxygen
( Na to S )

1. 4Na + O2  2Na2O
Observation : burns with yellow flame
to form white solid
2. 2Mg (s) + O2(g)  2MgO (s)
white
Observation : burns with intense white
flame to form white solid
3. 4Al + 3O2  2Al2O3




4. Si + O2  SiO2
5. P4 + 5O2  P4O10
white solid at rtp

(or 4P + 5O2  P4O10 )
Observation: burns with white/yellow
flame.
Another possible compound : P4O6

   6. S + O2  SO2 Observation: burns with a blue flame/ choking or pungent gas produced Further oxidation: 2SO2 + O2  2SO3 .

Reaction with chlorine ( Na to P )      1. 2Na + Cl2  2NaCl white solid Observation : burns with yellow flame / forms white solid /colour of Cl2 disappears 2. Mg + Cl2  MgCl2 Observation : burns with intense white flame / forms white solid .

 1800 C 3. 2Al + 3Cl2  2AlCl3  Al2Cl6 covalent simple molecular ions formed in aq soln Al3+(aq) or [Al(H2O)6]3+ and Cl-(aq) Note : Al2O3 is ionic as difference in electronegativity between Al and O is larger .

  Method : Pass dry chlorine gas over heated aluminium foil in a tube. .

      Si + 2Cl2  SiCl4 (l) P4 + 10Cl2  4PCl5 (s) white solid ( or 4P + 10Cl2  4PCl5 ) Observation : burns with white flame / forms white solid Another possible compound : PCl3 . colourless liquid 4. . 5.

Oxides of elements in Period 3 I) Trend in acidity of oxides : Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O10 SO3  Ionic oxide Mainly ionic Basic oxide Oxide Covalent oxide Acidic oxide Amphoteric oxide Oxides becomes more acidic across the period .

    1. Na2O : basic oxide a. dissolves in water  strongly alkaline solution Na2O + H2O  2NaOH (pH=13) NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O (alkali) .

able to neutralize acids Na2O + 2HCl  2NaCl + H2O 2. MgO : basic oxide a.    b. dissolves slightly in water  weakly alkaline solution .

  MgO + H2O  Mg(OH)2 Mg2+ + 2OHpH = 9 Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl  MgCl2 + 2H2O (alkali) .

     b. Al2O3 : a. stronger ionic bonds not broken by water therefore insoluble in water . able to neutralize acids : MgO + 2HCl  MgCl2 + H2O 3.

    b. nature of oxide : amphoteric i) Al2O3 + 6H+  2Al3+ + 3H2O acid ii) Al2O3 + 2OH.+ 3H2O  2Al(OH)4alkali aluminate ion .

therefore insoluble in water .     c. giant molecular structure with strong Si – O bonds not broken by water . nature of hydroxide : amphoteric i) Al(OH)3 + 3H+  Al3+ + 3H2O ii) Al(OH)3 + OH. SiO2 : a. Al(OH)44.

 SiO32acidic basic silicates .+ H2O hot . b. conc silicates Notes : (1) no reaction with aqueous alkali (2) SiO2 + O2. nature of oxide : acidic oxide SiO2 + 2OH SiO32.

      5. Oxides of P and S: P4O6 / P4O10*. hydrolyses in water  acidic solutions i) P4O10 + 6H2O  4H3PO4 (phosphoric acid)* ii) P4O6 + 6H2O  4H3PO3 (phosphonic acid) Observation : white solid dissolves . nature of oxide : acidic oxide b. SO2 /SO3 a.

  iii) SO2 + H2O  H2SO3 (sulfurous acid) iv) SO3 + H2O  H2SO4 .

 SO42.    c. SO32.+ 6H2O phosphate ii) SO2 + 2OH.+ H2O . able to neutralize alkali : i) P4O10 + 12OH.+ H2O sulfite iii) SO3 + 2OH. 4PO43.

II) Trends in physical properties of the oxides Related to structure and bonding Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O10 SO3  Ionic oxides Covalent oxide Covalent oxide Giant ionic structure Giant molecular structure Simple molecular structure .

ionic with giant ionic structure b. therefore high m. strong ionic bonds .p MgO  Al2O3  Na2O ) c. presence of mobile ions.    1. Na2O . good electrical conductor in aqueous solution or molten state .p ( m. Al2O3 : a. MgO .

SiO2 : a. covalent with giant molecular structure b. but higher than Na2O ) .p ( lower than m.   2.p of MgO and Al2O3 . numerous strong covalent bonds between atoms . therefore relatively high m.

P4O10 . SO3 : a. covalent with simple molecular structure . all electrons paired in covalent bonds no free electrons or ions  non conductor 3.   c. molecular .

   b. molecular .p of P4O10 (more electrons)  SO3 c.p m. all electrons paired in covalent bonds . exists as discrete molecules held by weak VDW forces  low m. therefore non conductor . no free electrons or ions .

p of oxides Na Mg Al Si P S Atomic no .m.

Chlorides of elements in Period 3     I)Reaction with water 1.(aq) 2. ionic with a little covalent character . NaCl : dissolve in water without chemical reaction  neutral solution NaCl (s)  Na+ (aq) + Cl. MgCl2 : a.

relatively high charge density on Mg2+ causes polarisation of water Undergoes slight hydrolysis in water to form slightly acidic solution (pH=6.    b.5) MgCl2 + H2O  Mg(OH)Cl(s) + HCl(aq) However only very slight reaction – observation : dissolves without reaction .

AlCl3 : a.high charge density on Al3+ polarises water Undergoes substantial hydrolysis in water to form acidic solution ( pH=3 ) .covalent with a little ionic character b.    3.

polarisation continues ) Overall equation : AlCl3 + 3H2O  Al(OH)3 + 3HCl (*) H=exothermic  .AlCl3 + 6H2O  [Al(H2O)6]3+ + 3Clcovalent ionic 3+ + H O  [Al(H O) OH]2+  [Al(H2O)6] 2 2 5 + H3O+ ( first of 3 equations .

PCl3/PCl5 a. covalent chlorides b. hydrolysed in water  strongly acidic solution ( pH = 0 – 3 ) SiCl4 + 2H2O  SiO2 + 4HCl(g) HCl(g): Observation PCl3 + 3H2O  H3PO3 + 3HCl(g) white fumes PCl5 + 4H2O  H3PO4 + 5HCl(g) SiO2 white solid . SiCl4 .      4.

II)Trends in physical properties of the chlorides  Related to structure and bonding  NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3 SiCl4 PCl5 Ionic Covalent Covalent Giant ionic structure Layered structure Simple molecular structure .

p/b.p NaCl  MgCl2 ) c.    1. NaCl .p ( m. presence of free ions : good conductor when molten or in aqueous solution . MgCl2 : a. strong ionic bonds therefore high m. ionic with giant ionic structure b.

all AlCl3 molecules are joined by dative bonds and forms a giant structure Layers are held together by weak VDW forces . predominantly covalent with layered structure in the solid state b.    2. in each layer . AlCl3 : a.

p / b. all electrons paired in covalent bonds no free electrons or ions therefore non conductor .  c.p but lower than that of ionic chlorides d. the VDW forces and dative bonds have to be broken relatively high m. when it melts . molecular .

.

p . PCl5 / PCl3 : a.   3.p / b. i) exist as discrete molecules held by weak VDW forces therefore low m. SiCl4 . covalent with simple molecular structure b.

p of PCl5 > m.p of SiCl4 Reason : no of electrons in PCl5 > SiCl4 stronger VDW forces .      ii) m. higher b.p/m. SiCl4 ( colourless liquid ) .p PCl5 ( white solid ) .

molecular . c. all electrons paired in covalent bonds no free electrons or ions therefore non conductor .

b.p of chlorides Na Mg Al Si P Atomic no .

Oxidation no of the element = no of electrons used for bonding Eg Compound Oxidation no SO2 +4 Na2O +1 PCl3 +3 .Patterns in the formula of compounds (oxides & chlorides)   1.

     2. Eg Na . Many of the oxidation no corresponds to loss or gain of enough electrons to obtain a stable octet in its outermost shell.1e  Na+ 1s22s22p63s1 1s22s22p6 P [Ne]3s23p3 + 3e  P3- [Ne]3s23p6 .

The maximum oxidation no = group no = no of valence electrons Egs: oxides a.       3. S (Group 16) : forms SO2 and SO3 max oxidation no (in SO3 )= +6 b. P (Group 15) : forms P4O6 and P4O10 max oxidation no in P4O10 = + 5 .

    Trend in maximum oxidation: Increases across the period Na Si Cl +1 +4 +7 .