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HISSAN QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


(HSEB)

1.

Can an object with constant acceleration reverse its direction? Explain.

Ans. Yes, the direction of a body can change, when its acceleration is constant. For example if the
body is moving on circular path with a constant speed, the direction of velocity at any point is given
by the tangent drawn at that point. Hence, the direction of velocity changes at every point. However,
the acceleration of the body is always towards the centre with its constant magnitude.

2.

If the sun somehow collapsed to form a black hole, what effect would this event have on the
orbit of the earth?

Ans. Ans. If the sun collapsed into a black hole, it would have the same mass but smaller radius.
Since, the gravitational attraction of the sun on the earth does not depend on the suns radius, the
earths orbit would not be affected. However, according to our understanding, sun cannot be collapsed
to form black hole.

3.

A body is moving in a circular path with constant speed. Is this motion a simple harmonic?
Explain.

Ans. A body is moving in a circular path with constant speed is called circular motion. And the
projection of this motion in fixed line is called simple harmonic motion. When a body is moving in a
circular path with constant speed, the magnitude of velocity is constant. Since, in a SHM velocity
cannot be constant, the motion of the body moving in a circular path with constant speed is not simple
harmonic motion.

4.

What is the difference between accurate and precise measurement?

Ans. Accurate measurement: It is the agreement of the result of a measurement with the true value of
the measured quantity. If the measurement of a dimension of a part approximates very closely to the
true value of that dimension, it is said to be accurate. Thus the term accurate denotes the closeness of
the measured value with the true value.
Precise measurement: It is the repeatability of the measuring process. It refers to the group of
measurements for the same characteristics taken under identical conditions. It indicates to what extent
the identically performed measurements agree with each other. If the measurement is not precise the
results vary about the mean.

5.

If the sun somehow collapsed to form a black hole, what effect would this event have on the
orbit of the earth?

Ans. If the sun collapsed into a black hole, it would have the same mass but smaller radius. Since, the
gravitational attraction of the sun on the earth does not depend on the suns radius, the earths orbit

would not be affected. However, according to our understanding, sun cannot be collapsed to form
black hole.

6.

During pregnancy, women often develop back pains from leaning backward while walking.
Why do they have to walk this way?

Ans: During pregnancy, the centre of gravity lies front part of the body. For the stable equilibrium,
the vertical line of C. G. must pass through the base. For this reason, pregnant women lean
backward. If she does not bend backward, the C. G. falls outside and it will be difficult to walk. So,
during pregnancy, women have lean backward while walking.

7.

If the force of gravity acts on all bodies in proportion to their masses, why does not heavy
body fall faster than a light body?

Ans. The acceleration due to gravity of a body is,


g= GM/ R2
It shows that acceleration due to gravity is independent of mass of the body. Therefore, all masses fall
with the same rapidity provided air resistance is neglected.

8.

Explain why soldiers are ordered to break steps while crossing a bridge?

Ans. Soldiers are ordered to break their steps while crossing the bridge because when they march in
steps the frequency of marching coincides with the natural frequency of the bridge. In this case,
resonance will occur in the bridge and begins to vibrate with maximum amplitude which may cause
the destruction of the bridge. To avoid such a destruction of the bridge soldiers are ordered to break
their steps while crossing it.

(HISSAN)

9.

In a given equation: y = asin(t kx), find the dimensions of and k.

Ans. Since, (t kx) is an angle, it is a dimensionless quantity. It means that t as well as kx is


dimensionless.
Dimensional formula of t = [M0L0 T0] = 1
Or, [] = 1/[t]
Or, [] = 1/[M0L0 T]
Or, [] = [T-1]

10. A person walking on the road holds his umbrella at some angle with the vertical when the
rain is falling vertically downward. Why?

Ans. When the man moves through the rain falling vertically downwards, the rain drops appear to fall
in a direction inclined to the vertical. So, as to protect himself from the rain, he holds the umbrella
inclined to the vertical in the direction of relative velocity of the rain with respect to him.

11. What physical phenomenon is there that a black whole has high gravity?
Ans. A black hole is formed due to the death of star of mass M, if it is contracted within the radius
given by, RBH = 2GM/c2, where G represents gravitational constant and c represents the velocity of
light.
In this case radius is highly contracted which causes high gravity as gravity is inversely proportional
to the radius.

12. If A = -2i + 6j and B = 2i 3j, find the angle between A and B.


Ans.

A = -2i + 3j
B = 2i 3j

Let, be the angle between two vectors, then,


Cos =

A.B
AB

A=

( 2 ) +32

B=

=
22 +

13
13

A.B = (-2i + 3j).( 2i 3j) = -4-9 = -13


Now, Cos =

13
13 . 13

= -1

= 180

13. What is a black hole?


Ans. A black hole is a region of space-time from which nothing, not even light, can escape. The
theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform space-time to form a
black hole. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that
marks the point of no return. It is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon,
reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics. Quantum mechanics predicts
that black holes emit radiation like a black body with a finite temperature. This temperature is

inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole, making it difficult to observe this radiation for
black holes of stellar mass or greater.

14. Differentiate between scalar product and vector product of two vectors.
Ans. Scalar product (dot product)
1. If the product of two vectors is a scalar quantity, then such an operation is called the scalar
product.
2. Scalar product of two vectors follows commutative law.
3.
Scalar product of two equal is square of the magnitude of either vector.i.e. A.A= A2
Vector product (cross product)
1. If the product of two vectors is a vector quantity, then such an operation is called vector
product.
2. Vector product of two vectors does not follow commutative law.
3. Vector product of two equal vector is zero.
15. What happens to the value of time period its length is tripled?
Ans. The time period of simple pendulum is given by,
T = 2

l
g

When is length is tripled,


Time period becomes,
T = 2

3l
g

Hence, time period increases by

l
g

times.

16. To maximize the moment of inertia of a fly wheel while minimizing its weight, what shape
and distribution of mass should it have? Explain.
Ans. In order to maximize the moment of inertia, most of the mass should be concentrated at the rim,
as moment of inertia, I = mr 2. Due to large value of moment of inertia, angular velocity changes
slightly which helps in maintaining uniform rotational motion.

17. What

are the dimensions of constants A and B in the given equation =

where is the refractive index of a medium and is the wavelength of radiation.


Ans. Dimensional formula of = [M0L0 T0]
Dimensional formula of = [M0LT0]
The dimension formula of = Dimensional formula of A/
Or, [M0L0 T0] = A/[M0LT0]
Or, [A] = [L]
Similarly, dimensional formula of = Dimensional formula of B/2
Or, [M0L0 T0] = B/[M0L2 T0]
Or, [B] = [L2]

18. The

speed of a body in a circle is constant for constant centripetal force, however the
acceleration is not zero. Explain why.

Ans. if the body is moving on circular path with a constant speed, the direction of velocity at any
point is given by the tangent drawn at that point. Hence, the direction of velocity changes at every
point. So, the acceleration of the body is not zero.

19. Why should the angular displacement of a simple pendulum not exceed 4 radian?
Ans. The restoring force tending to bring the pendulum to its mean position is mgsin . In arriving
at the formula T = 2

l
g

, we take sin

i. e. restoring force = mg

values of , sin < . Therefore, the restoring force decreases from mg


As a result, the pendulum takes a longer time to complete one vibration.

20. Find the dimension of plancks constant h from the given equation, = p
Ans. The given equation is, =

h
p

Or, h = p
Now, Dimension of plancks constant is,
[h] = Dimension of momentum (p) x Dimension of wavelength ()
= [MLT-1][M0LT0]

. For large

to mgsin .

= [ML2 T-1]

21. Why artificial satellite does not fall towards the earth surface, although they are kept in the
gravitational field?
Ans. Though satellite is continuously attracted towards the centre of earth, but it does not fall on to
the earth. It is because the gravitational attraction of earth provides necessary centripetal force to the
satellite for its orbital motion around the earth.

22. Lower part of a boat is made heavy. What is its advantage?


Ans. The heavy and larger base makes the boat to remain in more stable equilibrium as it lowers the
centre of gravity of the system. As the centre of gravity is low, more will be the stability of it. Hence,
the lower part of a boat is made heavy to prevent from destruction.

23. Can a component of vector be greater than vector itself? Explain.


Ans. No, the component of a vector cannot be greater than vector itself. Let, R be the vector and
Rcos and Rsin are its component. Since, the value of cos and sin lies between -1 to +1 (cannot be
greater than 1), component of vector cannot be greater than vector itself

24. Where does a body go when it is dropped into a tunnel that penetrates the earth from its
centre?
Ans. The body remains at the centre of the earth because at the centre the time period of an object is
infinity as acceleration due to gravity is zero.
i.e. T = 2

T = 2

l
g

l
0

25. A ballet dancer stretches her hands when she wants to come at rest, why?
Ans. Ans: A ballet dancer stretches her arms to increase her moment of inertia. As moment of inertia
increases, angular velocity decreases and the dancer can reduce her motion.

26.

Show that the following pairs of physical quantities have identical dimensions. (i)
Momentum and impulse (ii) Torque and energy.

Ans. (i) Momentum and Impulse


Momentum = mass x velocity
Dimension of momentum= Dim of mass x Dim of velocity

= [M][LT-1]
= [MLT-1]
Again, Impulse = force x time
Dimension of impulse = Dim of force x Dim of time
= [MLT-2][T]
= [MLT-1]
Hence, dimension of momentum = dimension of impulse
(ii) Torque and Energy
Torque = force x distance
Dimension of torque = Dim of force x Dim of distance
= [MLT-2][L]
= [ML2T-2]
Again, Dimension of energy = [ML2T-2]
Hence, dimension of torque = dimension of energy

27.

A bucket, full of water can be whirled in a vertical circle without letting the water fall
down. Explain. How that possible?

Ans. When a filled with water is rotated in a vertical circle, it experiences different centrifugal forces
at different positions. When it reaches at its highest position, the centrifugal force (mv 2/r) acts
vertically upward which balances the weight of water with bucket (mv 2/r >mg). hence, the water does
not fall down from the bucket.

28. Is it always necessary that center of mass and center of gravity of a body coincide? Explain.
Ans. No, centre of mass and centre of gravity may not coincide. The centre of mass and centre of
gravity coincide with each other in uniform gravitational field, such as near the earths surface but if
the gravitational field is not uniform then the centre of mass and centre of gravity of the body do not
coincide. (Alternative: centre of mass and centre of gravity coincide for ordinary bodies, but the
centre of mass and centre of gravity of the body do not coincide if the body has so large dimension)

29. Give the dimensional formula for the potential difference and the specific heat capacity.
Ans. Potential Difference:
Potential difference = work done/ charge
Dim of p.d. = dim of work done/ dim of charge

= [ML2T-2]/[M0 L0 T0]
= [ML2T-2]
Specific heat capacity:
Dim of sp. Heat capacity =

dimension of heat energy


dimensionof mass x dimensionof temperature

= [ML 2T-2]/[M]
= [L2T-2]
( you can write in terms of temperature(K) and in terms of charge(Q))

30. Two forces have equal magnitude and their resultant also has the same magnitude. Find the
angle between forces.
Ans. Let, A and B be two vectors such that A = x, Q = x and their resultant R = x.
From parallelogram law of vectors
R2 = A2 + B2 + 2ABcos
Or, x2 = x2 +x2 +2x2cos
Or, 1 = 2 + 2 cos
Or, cos = -1/2
= 120

31. Since

the moon is constantly attracted towards the earth by the gravitational attraction,
why does not it crash into the earth?

Ans. Though moon is continuously attracted towards the centre of earth, but it does not fall on to the
earth. It is because the gravitational attraction of earth provides necessary centripetal force to the
moon for its orbital motion around the earth.

32. Suppose the radius of the earth is to shrink by 2%, its mass remaining the same, would the
acceleration due to gravity g increase or decrease and by what percent?
Ans. The acceleration due to gravity is given by,
g = GM/R2 .(i)
When radius is shrink by 2%, R = R 2% of R =0.98R
g = GM/(0.98R)2

= GM/0.9604R
= 1.04 GM/R
= 1.04g
Therefore, acceleration due to gravity increases.
increase in g = 1.04g g
= 0.04g

increase g
g

Percentage increase in g =

0.04 g
g

x 100%

x 100%

= 4%

33. An astronaut releases a spoon out of a satellite in the space. Will the spoon fall on the earth?
Ans. Due to inertia, the speed of the spoon is equal to the speed of the satellite. The orbit of the
satellite is independent of the mass of the satellite, so, the spoon continuous to follow the motion of
the satellite. Hence, the spoon does not fall on the earth surface.

34. Can three vectors lying in a plane give zero resultant? Explain.
Ans. The resultant of three vectors not in the same plane cannot give a zero resultant. The resultant of
two vectors in a plane cannot balance the third vector in the different plane.

35. If heavier bodies are attracted more strongly by the earth, why do they not fall faster than
lighter ones?
Ans. Ans. The acceleration due to gravity of a body is,
g= GM/ R2
It shows that acceleration due to gravity is independent of mass of the body. Therefore, all masses fall
with the same rapidity provided air resistance is neglected.

36. Suppose

you choose force (F), length (L) and time (T) to be the fundamental units. How
would you express the universal gravitational constant (G) dimensionally in terms of F, L
and T?

Ans. The gravitational force is given by,

F = Gm1m2/d2
Or, G = Fd2/m1m2
Or, G = Fd2/(F2/a2)
Or, G = a2 d2/F
Now, dimensional formula of gravitational constant is,

dimensional
formulaof
a
X
dimensional formula of d
[G] =

= [M0 L2 T-2][M0 L2 T0]/[MLT-2]


= [M-1 L3 T-2]

37. If the global warming continues. Ice near the poles will melt and be added to the oceans.
What effect will this have on the length of the day?
Ans. If the polar ice melts, the water (from melted ice) will spread over the surface of the earth. Due
to this reason, the moment of inertia will increase and angular velocity () will decrease. Since, time
period, T= 2/, the time period increases. Hence, the length day will increase.

38. The sun pulls on the moon with a force that is more than twice the magnitude of the earth
attracts the moon. Why then does not the sun take the moon away from the earth?
Ans. The moon is continuously revolving around the earth. The gravitational force of attraction of
earth provides necessary centripetal force to the moon for its orbital motion around the earth. So, the
sun does not take the moon away from the earth though the sun pulls on the moon with a force that is
more than twice the magnitude of the earth.

LONG QUESTIONS
1. State triangle law of vector addition. Obtain an expression for the resultant of two vectors P and Q
inclined at .
2. What is conical pendulum? Show that the period of oscillation of this pendulum is given by, T = 2

Lcos
g

where symbols have their usual meanings.

3. Define moment of inertia and angular momentum. Establish a relation between them.
4. What is escape velocity? Derive its expression on the surface of the earth.
5. What do you understand by gravitational potential energy in the earths gravitational field? Derive its
expression for any point around the earths surface.
6. What is second pendulum? Show that the motion of the bob of a pendulum is simple harmonic and
hence obtain an expression for its time period.

7. Define centripetal acceleration and obtain an expression for it in a uniform circular motion of length l.
8. What do you mean by moment of inertia obtain an expression for the moment of inertia of a thin and
uniform rod about an axis passing through one end and perpendicular to its length.
9. What is centripetal force? Find its expression.
10. Derive the expression for the orbital velocity, time period, and height of artificial satellite from the
surface of the earth.
11. Define torque and couple in rotational motion. Derive the expression of work done by couple.
12. Derive the expression for the variation of acceleration due to gravity due to the rotation of the earth.
13. Derive the expression for the acceleration for a cylinder rolling down on inclined plane in terms of
angle of inclination with horizontal, radius of cylinder r and radius of gyration K.
14. Show that the small oscillations of a mass loaded spring suspended vertically are simple harmonic.
Also deduce its time period.
15. Derive an expression for the gravitational potential at a point due to mass M.
16. What is SHM? Show that the motion of a bob of a simple pendulum id simple harmonic. Find its
time period.
17. State and explain parallelogram law of vector.
18. What is geostationary satellite? Obtain an expression for the total energy of a satellite orbiting round
the earth.

NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
1. An electric fan is turned off, and its angular velocity decreases uniformly from 500 rev/min to
200 rev/min in 4 sec, find (a) angular acceleration and the number of revolutions made by the
motor in 4 sec interval (b) how many more seconds are required for the fan to come to rest if the
angular acceleration remains constant? (Ans. 7.85rad/sec 2 , 23.3, 2.66 sec)
2. Calculate the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum of length 1.8m with a distance of 20 cm
and released. What will be the values of (i) the K. E. and (ii)the velocity of the bob at the lowest
point of the swing? ( Ans. 0.24J, 0.47m/s)
3. A simple pendulum has a period of 4.2second, when the pendulum is shortened by 1m the period
is 3.7 second. From these measurements, calculate the acceleration of free fall and the original
length of the pendulum.
(Ans. 10m/s 2, 4.5m)
4. An earth satellite moves in circular orbit with an orbital speed of 6200 m/s. Find (i) the time of
revolution (ii) the centripetal acceleration of the satellite in its orbit.
(Ans. 175 min, 3.7
2
m/s )
5. A constant torque of 200 Nm turns a wheel about its centre. The M. I. about this axis is 100 kgm 2.
Find the angular velocity gained in 4 s and the K. E. gained after 20 revolutions.
( Ans.
2
22.42rad/s , 25133J)
6. Suppose you want to place a 1000 kg weather satellite into a circular orbit 300 Km above earths
surface. How much work has to be done to place this satellite in orbit? How much additional
work would have to be done to make this satellite escape the earth? (R e = 6380 km, Me = 5.97 x
1024 kg.
7. An object is undergoing simple harmonic motion with a period of /2 and amplitude A = 0.4 m at
t = 0 the object is at x = 0. How far is the object from the equilibrium position when t = /10.
( Ans. 8.77 x 10-3)

8. A small body of mass 0.1 Kg is undergoing SHM of amplitude 1 m and period 0.2 sec. (a) What
is the maximum value of force acting on it? (b) if the oscillation is produced by a spring, what is
the constant of the spring?( Ans. 98.59N, 98.65 N/m)
9. An object of mass 0.5 Kg is rotated in a horizontal circle by a string 1 m long. The maximum
tension in the string before it breaks is 50 N. What is the greatest number of revolutions per
second of the object? (Ans. 1.59)
10. At what angle should the road be banked so that a car running at 40 km/hr may be safely able to
go round a circular turn of 200 m radius? Take g = 9.8m/sec 2.
( Ans. 3.53o)
11. A fly wheel has a K. E. of 200J. calculate the number of revolutions it makes before coming to
rest if a constant opposing couple of 5Nm is applied to the flywheel. If the M.I. of the wheel
about its center is 4 kgm2 , how long does it take to come to rest? (Ans. 6.4 rev, 8 sec)
12. A ballet dancer spins about a vertical axis at 1 rev per second with arms outstretched. With her
arms folded, her MI about the same axis decreases to 40% of the initial MI. Calculate her new
rate of revolution and her final angular velocity.
13. A ballet dancer spins with 2.4 rev/s with her arms outstretched when the moment of inertia about
the axis of rotation is 1. With her arms folded, the moment of inertia about the same axis becomes
0.6 I. Calculate the new rate of spin.
14. The mass of the earth is 6 x 10 24 and that of the moon is 7.4 x 10 22 kg. if the distance between
their centers is 3.8 x 108 m, calculate at what point on the line joining their centers there is no
gravitational force.
15. A particle executing SHM with a frequency of 1/2 has a peak amplitude of 1.2 cm of either side
of the equilibrium position. Determine its velocity and acceleration at a displacement of 0.6cm.