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**SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
**

(HSEB)

1.

Can an object with constant acceleration reverse its direction? Explain.

Ans. Yes, the direction of a body can change, when its acceleration is constant. For example if the

body is moving on circular path with a constant speed, the direction of velocity at any point is given

by the tangent drawn at that point. Hence, the direction of velocity changes at every point. However,

the acceleration of the body is always towards the centre with its constant magnitude.

2.

If the sun somehow collapsed to form a black hole, what effect would this event have on the

orbit of the earth?

Ans. Ans. If the sun collapsed into a black hole, it would have the same mass but smaller radius.

Since, the gravitational attraction of the sun on the earth does not depend on the sun’s radius, the

earth’s orbit would not be affected. However, according to our understanding, sun cannot be collapsed

to form black hole.

3.

**A body is moving in a circular path with constant speed. Is this motion a simple harmonic?
**

Explain.

**Ans. A body is moving in a circular path with constant speed is called circular motion. And the
**

projection of this motion in fixed line is called simple harmonic motion. When a body is moving in a

circular path with constant speed, the magnitude of velocity is constant. Since, in a SHM velocity

cannot be constant, the motion of the body moving in a circular path with constant speed is not simple

harmonic motion.

4.

What is the difference between accurate and precise measurement?

**Ans. Accurate measurement: It is the agreement of the result of a measurement with the true value of
**

the measured quantity. If the measurement of a dimension of a part approximates very closely to the

true value of that dimension, it is said to be accurate. Thus the term accurate denotes the closeness of

the measured value with the true value.

Precise measurement: It is the repeatability of the measuring process. It refers to the group of

measurements for the same characteristics taken under identical conditions. It indicates to what extent

the identically performed measurements agree with each other. If the measurement is not precise the

results vary about the mean.

5.

If the sun somehow collapsed to form a black hole, what effect would this event have on the

orbit of the earth?

Ans. If the sun collapsed into a black hole, it would have the same mass but smaller radius. Since, the

gravitational attraction of the sun on the earth does not depend on the sun’s radius, the earth’s orbit

all masses fall with the same rapidity provided air resistance is neglected. Why do they have to walk this way? Ans: During pregnancy. For this reason. If the force of gravity acts on all bodies in proportion to their masses. [ω] = [T-1] 10. Ans. Dimensional formula of ωt = [M0L0 T0] = 1 Or. pregnant women lean backward. it is a dimensionless quantity. the centre of gravity lies front part of the body. To avoid such a destruction of the bridge soldiers are ordered to break their steps while crossing it. In a given equation: y = asin(ωt – kx). The acceleration due to gravity of a body is. the vertical line of C. women often develop back pains from leaning backward while walking. find the dimensions of ω and k. During pregnancy. So. However. Since. 8.would not be affected. must pass through the base. sun cannot be collapsed to form black hole. during pregnancy. why does not heavy body fall faster than a light body? Ans. falls outside and it will be difficult to walk. resonance will occur in the bridge and begins to vibrate with maximum amplitude which may cause the destruction of the bridge. For the stable equilibrium. Explain why soldiers are ordered to break steps while crossing a bridge? Ans. It means that ωt as well as kx is dimensionless. 6. Therefore. Why? . Soldiers are ordered to break their steps while crossing the bridge because when they march in steps the frequency of marching coincides with the natural frequency of the bridge. [ω] = 1/[M0L0 T] Or. 7. A person walking on the road holds his umbrella at some angle with the vertical when the rain is falling vertically downward. (ωt – kx) is an angle. g= GM/ R2 It shows that acceleration due to gravity is independent of mass of the body. according to our understanding. G. G. [ω] = 1/[t] Or. In this case. If she does not bend backward. the C. (HISSAN) 9. women have lean backward while walking.

When the man moves through the rain falling vertically downwards. then. where G represents gravitational constant and c represents the velocity of light. What is a black hole? Ans. If A = -2i + 6j and B = 2i – 3j. RBH = 2GM/c2. It is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon.B = (-2i + 3j). A black hole is formed due to the death of star of mass M. 11. In this case radius is highly contracted which causes high gravity as gravity is inversely proportional to the radius. the rain drops appear to fall in a direction inclined to the vertical. What physical phenomenon is there that a black whole has high gravity? Ans. as to protect himself from the rain. can escape. A = -2i + 3j B = 2i – 3j Let. reflecting nothing. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that marks the point of no return. Cosθ = A. he holds the umbrella inclined to the vertical in the direction of relative velocity of the rain with respect to him. 12.( 2i – 3j) = -4-9 = -13 Now. This temperature is . if it is contracted within the radius given by. Ans. Cosθ = −13 √13 . find the angle between A and B. Quantum mechanics predicts that black holes emit radiation like a black body with a finite temperature. √ 13 = -1 Θ = 180 13. just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics. A black hole is a region of space-time from which nothing. not even light. So.Ans.B AB A= √ (− 2 ) +32 B= −3 ¿ = 22 + ¿ √ ❑ = √ 13 √ 13 A. θ be the angle between two vectors. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform space-time to form a black hole.

angular velocity changes slightly which helps in maintaining uniform rotational motion. as moment of inertia. what shape and distribution of mass should it have? Explain. 3. Due to large value of moment of inertia.e. The time period of simple pendulum is given by. 2. In order to maximize the moment of inertia. Vector product of two equal vector is zero.i. 2. . most of the mass should be concentrated at the rim. If the product of two vectors is a vector quantity. A. making it difficult to observe this radiation for black holes of stellar mass or greater. T’ = 2π √ 3l g = √3 2π = √3 T Hence. If the product of two vectors is a scalar quantity. then such an operation is called vector product. Time period becomes. To maximize the moment of inertia of a fly wheel while minimizing its weight. Differentiate between scalar product and vector product of two vectors. 15.inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole.A= A2 Vector product (cross product) 1. Scalar product of two equal is square of the magnitude of either vector. time period increases by √3 √ l g times. Ans. I = mr 2. 3. Vector product of two vectors does not follow commutative law. 16. Scalar product of two vectors follows commutative law. Scalar product (dot product) 1. 14. Ans. T = 2π √ l g When is length is tripled. then such an operation is called the scalar product. What happens to the value of time period its length is tripled? Ans.

[M0L0 T0] = B/[M0L2 T0] Or. Dimensional formula of ‘µ’ = [M0L0 T0] Dimensional formula of ‘�’ = [M0LT0] The dimension formula of µ = Dimensional formula of A/� Or. . Therefore. [M0L0 T0] = A/[M0LT0] Or. In arriving at the formula T = 2π √ l g . dimensional formula of µ = Dimensional formula of B/�2 Or. What A λ are the dimensions of constants A and B in the given equation µ = + B λ where µ is the refractive index of a medium and � is the wavelength of radiation. . we take sin θ ~ θ i. [h] = Dimension of momentum (p) x Dimension of wavelength (�) = [MLT-1][M0LT0] . the direction of velocity changes at every point. sin θ < θ . Explain why. e. 19. Ans. � = p Ans. Find the dimension of planck’s constant h from the given equation. � = h p Or. restoring force = mg θ values of θ . the acceleration of the body is not zero. however the acceleration is not zero. Hence.17. if the body is moving on circular path with a constant speed. For large to mgsin θ . the restoring force decreases from mg θ As a result. So. The restoring force tending to bring the pendulum to its mean position is mgsin θ . h = p� Now. [A] = [L] Similarly. The speed of a body in a circle is constant for constant centripetal force. the direction of velocity at any point is given by the tangent drawn at that point. [B] = [L2] 18. the pendulum takes a longer time to complete one vibration. Why should the angular displacement of a simple pendulum not exceed 4 radian? Ans. Ans. Dimension of planck’s constant is. The given equation is. h 20.

R be the vector and Rcosθ and Rsinθ are its component. T = 2π T = 2π √ √ l g l 0 =α 25. Lower part of a boat is made heavy. (i) Momentum and impulse (ii) Torque and energy. Show that the following pairs of physical quantities have identical dimensions. Where does a body go when it is dropped into a tunnel that penetrates the earth from its centre? Ans. The heavy and larger base makes the boat to remain in more stable equilibrium as it lowers the centre of gravity of the system. Though satellite is continuously attracted towards the centre of earth. Ans: A ballet dancer stretches her arms to increase her moment of inertia. (i) Momentum and Impulse Momentum = mass x velocity Dimension of momentum= Dim of mass x Dim of velocity . why? Ans. 22. As the centre of gravity is low. although they are kept in the gravitational field? Ans. The body remains at the centre of the earth because at the centre the time period of an object is infinity as acceleration due to gravity is zero. i. A ballet dancer stretches her hands when she wants to come at rest. It is because the gravitational attraction of earth provides necessary centripetal force to the satellite for its orbital motion around the earth. but it does not fall on to the earth. As moment of inertia increases.= [ML2 T-1] 21. What is its advantage? Ans. the value of cosθ and sinθ lies between -1 to +1 (cannot be greater than 1). the component of a vector cannot be greater than vector itself. Ans. angular velocity decreases and the dancer can reduce her motion. the lower part of a boat is made heavy to prevent from destruction. Since. Ans. Why artificial satellite does not fall towards the earth surface. Let. component of vector cannot be greater than vector itself 24. No. Hence. 23. Can a component of vector be greater than vector itself? Explain. 26.e. more will be the stability of it.

hence. Is it always necessary that center of mass and center of gravity of a body coincide? Explain. Dimension of energy = [ML2T-2] Hence. No. Explain. Potential Difference: Potential difference = work done/ charge Dim of p. 28. centre of mass and centre of gravity may not coincide. dimension of torque = dimension of energy 27. full of water can be whirled in a vertical circle without letting the water fall down. Impulse = force x time Dimension of impulse = Dim of force x Dim of time = [MLT-2][T] = [MLT-1] Hence. the water does not fall down from the bucket. When it reaches at its highest position. the centrifugal force (mv 2/r) acts vertically upward which balances the weight of water with bucket (mv 2/r >mg). Ans. The centre of mass and centre of gravity coincide with each other in uniform gravitational field.= [M][LT-1] = [MLT-1] Again. but the centre of mass and centre of gravity of the body do not coincide if the body has so large dimension) 29. A bucket. dimension of momentum = dimension of impulse (ii) Torque and Energy Torque = force x distance Dimension of torque = Dim of force x Dim of distance = [MLT-2][L] = [ML2T-2] Again. When a filled with water is rotated in a vertical circle. Give the dimensional formula for the potential difference and the specific heat capacity. it experiences different centrifugal forces at different positions. such as near the earth’s surface but if the gravitational field is not uniform then the centre of mass and centre of gravity of the body do not coincide. How that possible? Ans. (Alternative: centre of mass and centre of gravity coincide for ordinary bodies. = dim of work done/ dim of charge .d. Ans.

The acceleration due to gravity is given by. A and B be two vectors such that A = x. Ans. Let.(i) When radius is shrink by 2%. would the acceleration due to gravity g increase or decrease and by what percent? Ans. Two forces have equal magnitude and their resultant also has the same magnitude. its mass remaining the same. 1 = 2 + 2 cosθ Or. x2 = x2 +x2 +2x2cosθ Or.98R)2 . Find the angle between forces. From parallelogram law of vectors R2 = A2 + B2 + 2ABcosθ Or. 32. R’ = R – 2% of R =0. It is because the gravitational attraction of earth provides necessary centripetal force to the moon for its orbital motion around the earth.98R g’ = GM/(0. Though moon is continuously attracted towards the centre of earth. Heat capacity = dimension of heat energy dimensionof mass x dimensionof temperature = [ML 2T-2]/[M] = [L2T-2] ( you can write in terms of temperature(K) and in terms of charge(Q)) 30. Q = x and their resultant R = x.= [ML2T-2]/[M0 L0 T0] = [ML2T-2] Specific heat capacity: Dim of sp. g = GM/R2 …………. Since the moon is constantly attracted towards the earth by the gravitational attraction. cosθ = -1/2 Θ = 120 31. Suppose the radius of the earth is to shrink by 2%. but it does not fall on to the earth. why does not it crash into the earth? Ans.

so. 36. The orbit of the satellite is independent of the mass of the satellite. 35. . An astronaut releases a spoon out of a satellite in the space. If heavier bodies are attracted more strongly by the earth. The resultant of three vectors not in the same plane cannot give a zero resultant. Suppose you choose force (F). the speed of the spoon is equal to the speed of the satellite. the spoon continuous to follow the motion of the satellite. Can three vectors lying in a plane give zero resultant? Explain. How would you express the universal gravitational constant (G) dimensionally in terms of F. acceleration due to gravity increases. L and T? Ans. 34.= GM/0. why do they not fall faster than lighter ones? Ans. Hence.04g increase ∈ g g Percentage increase in g = = 0. Will the spoon fall on the earth? Ans. all masses fall with the same rapidity provided air resistance is neglected.04 g g x 100% x 100% = 4% 33. Ans. Therefore.04g Therefore. The gravitational force is given by. g= GM/ R2 It shows that acceleration due to gravity is independent of mass of the body. The acceleration due to gravity of a body is. length (L) and time (T) to be the fundamental units. Due to inertia.04g – g = 0. the spoon does not fall on the earth surface. increase in g = 1. Ans. The resultant of two vectors in a plane cannot balance the third vector in the different plane.04 GM/R = 1.9604R = 1.

If the polar ice melts. Define moment of inertia and angular momentum. What is second pendulum? Show that the motion of the bob of a pendulum is simple harmonic and hence obtain an expression for its time period. . the sun does not take the moon away from the earth though the sun pulls on the moon with a force that is more than twice the magnitude of the earth. 6. time period. 5. the length day will increase. LONG QUESTIONS 1. 4. dimensional formula of gravitational constant is. The gravitational force of attraction of earth provides necessary centripetal force to the moon for its orbital motion around the earth. Ice near the poles will melt and be added to the oceans. If the global warming continues. G = Fd2/(F2/a2) Or. the water (from melted ice) will spread over the surface of the earth. 3. ¿ dimensional formulaof a X dimensional formula of d [G] = ¿ ¿ = [M0 L2 T-2][M0 L2 T0]/[MLT-2] = [M-1 L3 T-2] 37. T = 2π √ Lcos θ g where symbols have their usual meanings. So. Since. 2. G = Fd2/m1m2 Or.F = Gm1m2/d2 Or. Why then does not the sun take the moon away from the earth? Ans. G = a2 d2/F Now. Establish a relation between them. the time period increases. Obtain an expression for the resultant of two vectors P and Q inclined at θ. T= 2π/ω. the moment of inertia will increase and angular velocity (ω) will decrease. State triangle law of vector addition. What effect will this have on the length of the day? Ans. Due to this reason. What do you understand by gravitational potential energy in the earth’s gravitational field? Derive its expression for any point around the earth’s surface. What is escape velocity? Derive its expression on the surface of the earth. The moon is continuously revolving around the earth. 38. The sun pulls on the moon with a force that is more than twice the magnitude of the earth attracts the moon. Hence. What is conical pendulum? Show that the period of oscillation of this pendulum is given by.

(Ans. Calculate the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum of length 1. 18. How much work has to be done to place this satellite in orbit? How much additional work would have to be done to make this satellite escape the earth? (R e = 6380 km. E. ( Ans. Show that the small oscillations of a mass loaded spring suspended vertically are simple harmonic. 23.24J. 10. 8. 2 22. From these measurements. 0. Derive the expression for the acceleration for a cylinder rolling down on inclined plane in terms of angle of inclination θ with horizontal.7. gained after 20 revolutions. when the pendulum is shortened by 1m the period is 3.8m with a distance of 20 cm and released. What do you mean by moment of inertia obtain an expression for the moment of inertia of a thin and uniform rod about an axis passing through one end and perpendicular to its length. ( Ans. Derive an expression for the gravitational potential at a point due to mass M. 16. time period. 15. What will be the values of (i) the K. Derive the expression for the variation of acceleration due to gravity due to the rotation of the earth. What is centripetal force? Find its expression.66 sec) 2.42rad/s . I. A constant torque of 200 Nm turns a wheel about its centre. 14.3. Also deduce its time period. (Ans. Derive the expression of work done by couple. Find (i) the time of revolution (ii) the centripetal acceleration of the satellite in its orbit. Find the angular velocity gained in 4 s and the K.2second. NUMERICAL PROBLEMS 1. How far is the object from the equilibrium position when t = π/10. Define centripetal acceleration and obtain an expression for it in a uniform circular motion of length l. and height of artificial satellite from the surface of the earth.4 m at t = 0 the object is at x = 0. An electric fan is turned off.7 2 m/s ) 5. 10m/s 2. Me = 5. 0. The M. and (ii)the velocity of the bob at the lowest point of the swing? ( Ans. 11. about this axis is 100 kgm 2. 13. A simple pendulum has a period of 4.47m/s) 3.7 second.85rad/sec 2 . 8. E.77 x 10-3) . 2. Suppose you want to place a 1000 kg weather satellite into a circular orbit 300 Km above earth’s surface. What is SHM? Show that the motion of a bob of a simple pendulum id simple harmonic. 17. 7. What is geostationary satellite? Obtain an expression for the total energy of a satellite orbiting round the earth. 7. and its angular velocity decreases uniformly from 500 rev/min to 200 rev/min in 4 sec. find (a) angular acceleration and the number of revolutions made by the motor in 4 sec interval (b) how many more seconds are required for the fan to come to rest if the angular acceleration remains constant? (Ans. An earth satellite moves in circular orbit with an orbital speed of 6200 m/s. radius of cylinder r and radius of gyration K. 175 min.97 x 1024 kg. 3. 25133J) 6. Derive the expression for the orbital velocity. 9. Define torque and couple in rotational motion. State and explain parallelogram law of vector. calculate the acceleration of free fall and the original length of the pendulum. 4. 12. An object is undergoing simple harmonic motion with a period of π/2 and amplitude A = 0.5m) 4. Find its time period.

2 sec. how long does it take to come to rest? (Ans. her MI about the same axis decreases to 40% of the initial MI. .59) 10. A ballet dancer spins with 2.8. of 200J. With her arms folded.2 cm of either side of the equilibrium position.65 N/m) 9.I. the moment of inertia about the same axis becomes 0. Determine its velocity and acceleration at a displacement of 0. An object of mass 0. A particle executing SHM with a frequency of 1/2π has a peak amplitude of 1.8 x 108 m. 98. 1.8m/sec 2. of the wheel about its center is 4 kgm2 . What is the greatest number of revolutions per second of the object? (Ans. 14.6cm. 8 sec) 12. If the M. 13.5 Kg is rotated in a horizontal circle by a string 1 m long. calculate the number of revolutions it makes before coming to rest if a constant opposing couple of 5Nm is applied to the flywheel. 15. 3. 98. The mass of the earth is 6 x 10 24 and that of the moon is 7. if the distance between their centers is 3.6 I. The maximum tension in the string before it breaks is 50 N. At what angle should the road be banked so that a car running at 40 km/hr may be safely able to go round a circular turn of 200 m radius? Take g = 9.4 x 10 22 kg.4 rev. A fly wheel has a K.4 rev/s with her arms outstretched when the moment of inertia about the axis of rotation is 1. A small body of mass 0. (a) What is the maximum value of force acting on it? (b) if the oscillation is produced by a spring.1 Kg is undergoing SHM of amplitude 1 m and period 0. ( Ans.59N. With her arms folded. calculate at what point on the line joining their centers there is no gravitational force. Calculate the new rate of spin.53o) 11. E. Calculate her new rate of revolution and her final angular velocity. A ballet dancer spins about a vertical axis at 1 rev per second with arms outstretched. what is the constant of the spring?( Ans. 6.

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