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**SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
**

(HSEB)

1.

Can an object with constant acceleration reverse its direction? Explain.

Ans. Yes, the direction of a body can change, when its acceleration is constant. For example if the

body is moving on circular path with a constant speed, the direction of velocity at any point is given

by the tangent drawn at that point. Hence, the direction of velocity changes at every point. However,

the acceleration of the body is always towards the centre with its constant magnitude.

2.

If the sun somehow collapsed to form a black hole, what effect would this event have on the

orbit of the earth?

Ans. Ans. If the sun collapsed into a black hole, it would have the same mass but smaller radius.

Since, the gravitational attraction of the sun on the earth does not depend on the sun’s radius, the

earth’s orbit would not be affected. However, according to our understanding, sun cannot be collapsed

to form black hole.

3.

**A body is moving in a circular path with constant speed. Is this motion a simple harmonic?
**

Explain.

**Ans. A body is moving in a circular path with constant speed is called circular motion. And the
**

projection of this motion in fixed line is called simple harmonic motion. When a body is moving in a

circular path with constant speed, the magnitude of velocity is constant. Since, in a SHM velocity

cannot be constant, the motion of the body moving in a circular path with constant speed is not simple

harmonic motion.

4.

What is the difference between accurate and precise measurement?

**Ans. Accurate measurement: It is the agreement of the result of a measurement with the true value of
**

the measured quantity. If the measurement of a dimension of a part approximates very closely to the

true value of that dimension, it is said to be accurate. Thus the term accurate denotes the closeness of

the measured value with the true value.

Precise measurement: It is the repeatability of the measuring process. It refers to the group of

measurements for the same characteristics taken under identical conditions. It indicates to what extent

the identically performed measurements agree with each other. If the measurement is not precise the

results vary about the mean.

5.

If the sun somehow collapsed to form a black hole, what effect would this event have on the

orbit of the earth?

Ans. If the sun collapsed into a black hole, it would have the same mass but smaller radius. Since, the

gravitational attraction of the sun on the earth does not depend on the sun’s radius, the earth’s orbit

If she does not bend backward. 8. For the stable equilibrium. In this case. [ω] = [T-1] 10. Explain why soldiers are ordered to break steps while crossing a bridge? Ans. the C. Soldiers are ordered to break their steps while crossing the bridge because when they march in steps the frequency of marching coincides with the natural frequency of the bridge. women often develop back pains from leaning backward while walking. falls outside and it will be difficult to walk. during pregnancy. During pregnancy. must pass through the base. However. For this reason. (HISSAN) 9. g= GM/ R2 It shows that acceleration due to gravity is independent of mass of the body. the vertical line of C. It means that ωt as well as kx is dimensionless. In a given equation: y = asin(ωt – kx). the centre of gravity lies front part of the body.would not be affected. G. according to our understanding. all masses fall with the same rapidity provided air resistance is neglected. why does not heavy body fall faster than a light body? Ans. G. Since. Ans. it is a dimensionless quantity. [ω] = 1/[M0L0 T] Or. Why? . So. pregnant women lean backward. If the force of gravity acts on all bodies in proportion to their masses. (ωt – kx) is an angle. sun cannot be collapsed to form black hole. women have lean backward while walking. Therefore. [ω] = 1/[t] Or. To avoid such a destruction of the bridge soldiers are ordered to break their steps while crossing it. A person walking on the road holds his umbrella at some angle with the vertical when the rain is falling vertically downward. The acceleration due to gravity of a body is. resonance will occur in the bridge and begins to vibrate with maximum amplitude which may cause the destruction of the bridge. find the dimensions of ω and k. 7. Dimensional formula of ωt = [M0L0 T0] = 1 Or. 6. Why do they have to walk this way? Ans: During pregnancy.

Cosθ = A. the rain drops appear to fall in a direction inclined to the vertical. If A = -2i + 6j and B = 2i – 3j. reflecting nothing. find the angle between A and B. if it is contracted within the radius given by. then.Ans. Quantum mechanics predicts that black holes emit radiation like a black body with a finite temperature.B = (-2i + 3j). Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that marks the point of no return. not even light. √ 13 = -1 Θ = 180 13. he holds the umbrella inclined to the vertical in the direction of relative velocity of the rain with respect to him. 12. A black hole is a region of space-time from which nothing. It is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform space-time to form a black hole. RBH = 2GM/c2. Cosθ = −13 √13 . where G represents gravitational constant and c represents the velocity of light. can escape. as to protect himself from the rain. θ be the angle between two vectors.( 2i – 3j) = -4-9 = -13 Now. A black hole is formed due to the death of star of mass M. Ans. What physical phenomenon is there that a black whole has high gravity? Ans. 11. When the man moves through the rain falling vertically downwards. What is a black hole? Ans. just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics. So. This temperature is . A = -2i + 3j B = 2i – 3j Let. In this case radius is highly contracted which causes high gravity as gravity is inversely proportional to the radius.B AB A= √ (− 2 ) +32 B= −3 ¿ = 22 + ¿ √ ❑ = √ 13 √ 13 A.

e. 2. making it difficult to observe this radiation for black holes of stellar mass or greater.i. In order to maximize the moment of inertia. 2. what shape and distribution of mass should it have? Explain. If the product of two vectors is a scalar quantity. Ans. Differentiate between scalar product and vector product of two vectors.A= A2 Vector product (cross product) 1. time period increases by √3 √ l g times. Vector product of two equal vector is zero. as moment of inertia. . If the product of two vectors is a vector quantity. then such an operation is called vector product. To maximize the moment of inertia of a fly wheel while minimizing its weight. Vector product of two vectors does not follow commutative law. The time period of simple pendulum is given by. T’ = 2π √ 3l g = √3 2π = √3 T Hence. Scalar product of two equal is square of the magnitude of either vector. Due to large value of moment of inertia. T = 2π √ l g When is length is tripled. Scalar product (dot product) 1. 16. 15. most of the mass should be concentrated at the rim. angular velocity changes slightly which helps in maintaining uniform rotational motion. Time period becomes. then such an operation is called the scalar product. 3. Ans. I = mr 2. A. 14.inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole. Scalar product of two vectors follows commutative law. 3. What happens to the value of time period its length is tripled? Ans.

Hence. [M0L0 T0] = B/[M0L2 T0] Or. . the pendulum takes a longer time to complete one vibration. e. the restoring force decreases from mg θ As a result. however the acceleration is not zero. Dimension of planck’s constant is. [B] = [L2] 18. Why should the angular displacement of a simple pendulum not exceed 4 radian? Ans. Explain why.17. For large to mgsin θ . Ans. dimensional formula of µ = Dimensional formula of B/�2 Or. [h] = Dimension of momentum (p) x Dimension of wavelength (�) = [MLT-1][M0LT0] . � = p Ans. Ans. Find the dimension of planck’s constant h from the given equation. we take sin θ ~ θ i. . The speed of a body in a circle is constant for constant centripetal force. the acceleration of the body is not zero. Therefore. What A λ are the dimensions of constants A and B in the given equation µ = + B λ where µ is the refractive index of a medium and � is the wavelength of radiation. � = h p Or. [M0L0 T0] = A/[M0LT0] Or. restoring force = mg θ values of θ . The restoring force tending to bring the pendulum to its mean position is mgsin θ . The given equation is. the direction of velocity at any point is given by the tangent drawn at that point. [A] = [L] Similarly. the direction of velocity changes at every point. In arriving at the formula T = 2π √ l g . 19. h 20. h = p� Now. Dimensional formula of ‘µ’ = [M0L0 T0] Dimensional formula of ‘�’ = [M0LT0] The dimension formula of µ = Dimensional formula of A/� Or. sin θ < θ . if the body is moving on circular path with a constant speed. So.

Ans. Let. the component of a vector cannot be greater than vector itself. the value of cosθ and sinθ lies between -1 to +1 (cannot be greater than 1). No. As the centre of gravity is low. i. 22. Lower part of a boat is made heavy. R be the vector and Rcosθ and Rsinθ are its component.= [ML2 T-1] 21. although they are kept in the gravitational field? Ans. Ans. T = 2π T = 2π √ √ l g l 0 =α 25. 23.e. Ans: A ballet dancer stretches her arms to increase her moment of inertia. Can a component of vector be greater than vector itself? Explain. component of vector cannot be greater than vector itself 24. It is because the gravitational attraction of earth provides necessary centripetal force to the satellite for its orbital motion around the earth. the lower part of a boat is made heavy to prevent from destruction. 26. A ballet dancer stretches her hands when she wants to come at rest. The heavy and larger base makes the boat to remain in more stable equilibrium as it lowers the centre of gravity of the system. (i) Momentum and impulse (ii) Torque and energy. Since. The body remains at the centre of the earth because at the centre the time period of an object is infinity as acceleration due to gravity is zero. Show that the following pairs of physical quantities have identical dimensions. more will be the stability of it. Why artificial satellite does not fall towards the earth surface. Hence. (i) Momentum and Impulse Momentum = mass x velocity Dimension of momentum= Dim of mass x Dim of velocity . As moment of inertia increases. What is its advantage? Ans. but it does not fall on to the earth. why? Ans. angular velocity decreases and the dancer can reduce her motion. Though satellite is continuously attracted towards the centre of earth. Where does a body go when it is dropped into a tunnel that penetrates the earth from its centre? Ans.

hence. such as near the earth’s surface but if the gravitational field is not uniform then the centre of mass and centre of gravity of the body do not coincide. Impulse = force x time Dimension of impulse = Dim of force x Dim of time = [MLT-2][T] = [MLT-1] Hence. When a filled with water is rotated in a vertical circle. When it reaches at its highest position. dimension of momentum = dimension of impulse (ii) Torque and Energy Torque = force x distance Dimension of torque = Dim of force x Dim of distance = [MLT-2][L] = [ML2T-2] Again. The centre of mass and centre of gravity coincide with each other in uniform gravitational field.= [M][LT-1] = [MLT-1] Again. centre of mass and centre of gravity may not coincide. it experiences different centrifugal forces at different positions. A bucket. full of water can be whirled in a vertical circle without letting the water fall down. Ans. Give the dimensional formula for the potential difference and the specific heat capacity. Dimension of energy = [ML2T-2] Hence. Ans. No. How that possible? Ans. dimension of torque = dimension of energy 27. Explain. Is it always necessary that center of mass and center of gravity of a body coincide? Explain. the centrifugal force (mv 2/r) acts vertically upward which balances the weight of water with bucket (mv 2/r >mg). 28. = dim of work done/ dim of charge . (Alternative: centre of mass and centre of gravity coincide for ordinary bodies. Potential Difference: Potential difference = work done/ charge Dim of p. but the centre of mass and centre of gravity of the body do not coincide if the body has so large dimension) 29.d. the water does not fall down from the bucket.

cosθ = -1/2 Θ = 120 31.98R)2 . 32. The acceleration due to gravity is given by. would the acceleration due to gravity g increase or decrease and by what percent? Ans. Heat capacity = dimension of heat energy dimensionof mass x dimensionof temperature = [ML 2T-2]/[M] = [L2T-2] ( you can write in terms of temperature(K) and in terms of charge(Q)) 30. Let. It is because the gravitational attraction of earth provides necessary centripetal force to the moon for its orbital motion around the earth. why does not it crash into the earth? Ans. Q = x and their resultant R = x. R’ = R – 2% of R =0. its mass remaining the same. Two forces have equal magnitude and their resultant also has the same magnitude. From parallelogram law of vectors R2 = A2 + B2 + 2ABcosθ Or. Though moon is continuously attracted towards the centre of earth. 1 = 2 + 2 cosθ Or.(i) When radius is shrink by 2%.= [ML2T-2]/[M0 L0 T0] = [ML2T-2] Specific heat capacity: Dim of sp. Find the angle between forces. x2 = x2 +x2 +2x2cosθ Or. Ans. but it does not fall on to the earth.98R g’ = GM/(0. g = GM/R2 …………. Suppose the radius of the earth is to shrink by 2%. Since the moon is constantly attracted towards the earth by the gravitational attraction. A and B be two vectors such that A = x.

Due to inertia.04g increase ∈ g g Percentage increase in g = = 0. The resultant of two vectors in a plane cannot balance the third vector in the different plane. the spoon does not fall on the earth surface. L and T? Ans. Hence.04 g g x 100% x 100% = 4% 33. length (L) and time (T) to be the fundamental units. The acceleration due to gravity of a body is. the spoon continuous to follow the motion of the satellite.= GM/0. The orbit of the satellite is independent of the mass of the satellite. Therefore. acceleration due to gravity increases.9604R = 1. g= GM/ R2 It shows that acceleration due to gravity is independent of mass of the body. increase in g = 1. How would you express the universal gravitational constant (G) dimensionally in terms of F. An astronaut releases a spoon out of a satellite in the space. so. 36. The resultant of three vectors not in the same plane cannot give a zero resultant. Will the spoon fall on the earth? Ans. 35. 34. If heavier bodies are attracted more strongly by the earth. Ans. Suppose you choose force (F).04g Therefore. why do they not fall faster than lighter ones? Ans. . the speed of the spoon is equal to the speed of the satellite. Can three vectors lying in a plane give zero resultant? Explain.04g – g = 0. all masses fall with the same rapidity provided air resistance is neglected. The gravitational force is given by. Ans.04 GM/R = 1.

the moment of inertia will increase and angular velocity (ω) will decrease. . What is escape velocity? Derive its expression on the surface of the earth. If the global warming continues. 5. What do you understand by gravitational potential energy in the earth’s gravitational field? Derive its expression for any point around the earth’s surface. Since. 38. 6. Hence. Establish a relation between them. T = 2π √ Lcos θ g where symbols have their usual meanings. Obtain an expression for the resultant of two vectors P and Q inclined at θ. the length day will increase. G = Fd2/m1m2 Or. G = a2 d2/F Now. ¿ dimensional formulaof a X dimensional formula of d [G] = ¿ ¿ = [M0 L2 T-2][M0 L2 T0]/[MLT-2] = [M-1 L3 T-2] 37. 3. the time period increases. If the polar ice melts. What is conical pendulum? Show that the period of oscillation of this pendulum is given by. time period. Define moment of inertia and angular momentum. So. State triangle law of vector addition. T= 2π/ω. G = Fd2/(F2/a2) Or. The sun pulls on the moon with a force that is more than twice the magnitude of the earth attracts the moon. What is second pendulum? Show that the motion of the bob of a pendulum is simple harmonic and hence obtain an expression for its time period. Due to this reason. the water (from melted ice) will spread over the surface of the earth. dimensional formula of gravitational constant is. Why then does not the sun take the moon away from the earth? Ans. Ice near the poles will melt and be added to the oceans. LONG QUESTIONS 1. What effect will this have on the length of the day? Ans. the sun does not take the moon away from the earth though the sun pulls on the moon with a force that is more than twice the magnitude of the earth. 2. The gravitational force of attraction of earth provides necessary centripetal force to the moon for its orbital motion around the earth. The moon is continuously revolving around the earth.F = Gm1m2/d2 Or. 4.

42rad/s . E. 25133J) 6. What is SHM? Show that the motion of a bob of a simple pendulum id simple harmonic. An object is undergoing simple harmonic motion with a period of π/2 and amplitude A = 0. 8. calculate the acceleration of free fall and the original length of the pendulum. 4. Find its time period. 175 min.97 x 1024 kg. 18. 16.5m) 4. The M. 12. and its angular velocity decreases uniformly from 500 rev/min to 200 rev/min in 4 sec.2second. A constant torque of 200 Nm turns a wheel about its centre. Me = 5. What do you mean by moment of inertia obtain an expression for the moment of inertia of a thin and uniform rod about an axis passing through one end and perpendicular to its length. and (ii)the velocity of the bob at the lowest point of the swing? ( Ans. Suppose you want to place a 1000 kg weather satellite into a circular orbit 300 Km above earth’s surface. Derive the expression for the variation of acceleration due to gravity due to the rotation of the earth. 0. gained after 20 revolutions. (Ans. time period.77 x 10-3) . Also deduce its time period. A simple pendulum has a period of 4. about this axis is 100 kgm 2. I. Derive the expression of work done by couple.7 second. 3. Show that the small oscillations of a mass loaded spring suspended vertically are simple harmonic. (Ans.7.4 m at t = 0 the object is at x = 0. From these measurements. State and explain parallelogram law of vector. What is geostationary satellite? Obtain an expression for the total energy of a satellite orbiting round the earth. 0. Derive an expression for the gravitational potential at a point due to mass M. Define torque and couple in rotational motion. 13. 15. Find (i) the time of revolution (ii) the centripetal acceleration of the satellite in its orbit. 2 22. How far is the object from the equilibrium position when t = π/10. 2. and height of artificial satellite from the surface of the earth.66 sec) 2. An electric fan is turned off. An earth satellite moves in circular orbit with an orbital speed of 6200 m/s. 14. 11. radius of cylinder r and radius of gyration K. when the pendulum is shortened by 1m the period is 3. Calculate the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum of length 1. What will be the values of (i) the K. Find the angular velocity gained in 4 s and the K. 9. Derive the expression for the orbital velocity. What is centripetal force? Find its expression.47m/s) 3.3. ( Ans. 8.8m with a distance of 20 cm and released. 17. Derive the expression for the acceleration for a cylinder rolling down on inclined plane in terms of angle of inclination θ with horizontal. E. 10m/s 2. Define centripetal acceleration and obtain an expression for it in a uniform circular motion of length l. 10. 7.85rad/sec 2 .7 2 m/s ) 5. ( Ans. 7. 23. find (a) angular acceleration and the number of revolutions made by the motor in 4 sec interval (b) how many more seconds are required for the fan to come to rest if the angular acceleration remains constant? (Ans. How much work has to be done to place this satellite in orbit? How much additional work would have to be done to make this satellite escape the earth? (R e = 6380 km. NUMERICAL PROBLEMS 1.24J.

Determine its velocity and acceleration at a displacement of 0.4 x 10 22 kg.5 Kg is rotated in a horizontal circle by a string 1 m long. 3. calculate the number of revolutions it makes before coming to rest if a constant opposing couple of 5Nm is applied to the flywheel.6 I. if the distance between their centers is 3. A particle executing SHM with a frequency of 1/2π has a peak amplitude of 1. (a) What is the maximum value of force acting on it? (b) if the oscillation is produced by a spring. The mass of the earth is 6 x 10 24 and that of the moon is 7. 14. E. 15. the moment of inertia about the same axis becomes 0. of 200J. 8 sec) 12.65 N/m) 9.4 rev/s with her arms outstretched when the moment of inertia about the axis of rotation is 1. If the M. 98.I. 6.8m/sec 2.1 Kg is undergoing SHM of amplitude 1 m and period 0.53o) 11.6cm. A ballet dancer spins about a vertical axis at 1 rev per second with arms outstretched. calculate at what point on the line joining their centers there is no gravitational force.2 cm of either side of the equilibrium position. her MI about the same axis decreases to 40% of the initial MI. . At what angle should the road be banked so that a car running at 40 km/hr may be safely able to go round a circular turn of 200 m radius? Take g = 9. With her arms folded.4 rev. how long does it take to come to rest? (Ans. of the wheel about its center is 4 kgm2 . 13. A fly wheel has a K. Calculate her new rate of revolution and her final angular velocity.8 x 108 m. With her arms folded.59N. ( Ans. 1. Calculate the new rate of spin. A small body of mass 0. What is the greatest number of revolutions per second of the object? (Ans.2 sec. 98.59) 10.8. An object of mass 0. what is the constant of the spring?( Ans. The maximum tension in the string before it breaks is 50 N. A ballet dancer spins with 2.

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