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Research and terms


Which circumstances could you make a case for using observation?.Compare the
advantages and disadvantages of the survey to those of observation. Under
The survey deals with the actual collection of data as opposed to observation. In survey, the data
collected is usually known and can be documented and tangible. It gives specific answers to
questions . In observation data is collected without basing on any formula thus it involves
randomization. Observational study is only useful in the event where the participants are kept off
from knowing that they have participated in a study. Therefore, observation study can be carried
out without letting the participants know that they are part of the study. In such a case, ethical
issues are at play because but all the same, study is carried out effectively.
2. What ethical risks are involved in observation? In the use of unobtrusive measures?
In observation, the researcher encounters many ethical issues and risks. The legitimacy of the
study is at bay. This is because the researcher only disguises himself /herself while mingling with
the crowd freely. Therefore, the researcher cannot carry out its studies of the information drawn
from a predetermined data because he/she is undercover. Unobtrusive measures do not require an
individual researcher to spy on a research context.

Based on present or past work experience, suggest problems

that could be resolved by using observation-based data

By using observational data , such problems as the client recanting his/her evidences are
eliminated especially when video observational studies are involved.
Secondly, the issue or contradiction is eliminated because observational studies draw
chronological sequences of information stages.
Thirdly, the problem of biasness, which is normally witnessed in survey studies, is
eliminated because, the researcher disguises himself or herself while conducting study. Thus, the

overall conclusion is drawn based on the general mood of the study area as opposed to
individualistic ideas
The relative value of communication and observation
Communication methods are valuable means of gathering information from the subjects which are far
apart. Thus, the relative value of communication is to assist in getting information which otherwise could
be difficult. On the other part, Observation forms a good complement of communication as it assist in
validating the researched information.
Non verbal analysis deals with observations regarding the body movements, glance views and motor
expressions in studies. Extra-linguistic analysis on the other hand deals with observations of temporal
interactions, vocal and stylistic patterns of a subject stud while linguistic observation deals with flatters
conveyed in form of information. These include mmmmmmmhhh!.......uuuhhhh! ooooops! Etc
Factual and inferential observation
Factual observation is the only information known to the omniscient author or the speaker while
inferential observation is carried by the author making suppositional conclusions about an issue. For
example, when he sees a taxi driver, the speaker says to himself, the taximan is here, I can sort him his

Build the management-research question hierarchy Ramada

Clarification of the research question

Discovey of the dilemma in management

Hospitality industry is experiencing decreasing customer satisfaction

Definition of management question

What measures can RFS put in place to ensure adequate customer satisfaction?

Research question definition

What factors contribute to customer satisfaction?

What is the adequate time period to conduct this research conclusively?

Written Assignments: CS1_Ramada Demonstrates Its Personal Best

Description: Read the Ramada Demonstrates Its Personal Best case study and answer the
three discussion questions.

1 Build the management-research question hierarchy for Ramada.

Ramadas Management-Research Question Hierarchy

Clarifying the Research Question

Discover the Management Dilemma

Trends show that customer satisfaction is decreasing in the hospitality industry.

Define the Management Question

What can RFS do to ensure its customer service rating does not decline?

Define the Research Question(s)

What are the factors contribute towards customer satisfaction?
How will or what course of action will RFS use to research in identifying changes to be made?

Refine the Research Question(s)

How does the areas of hiring, training, and motivation influence customer satisfaction?

Which companies are known for their best programs in hiring, training, and motivation?

RFS believes that employee input is critical to developing new programs

towards hiring, training, and motivation. With that said; what is the best
way or what environment will allow RFS to get direct,
face-to-face employee input?

What is sufficient amount of time to conduct

this research to gain the amount of data needed?

2 Apply the research process model to the Ramada research initiative.

Explain the role and process of exploration in Ramadas research.

RFS was able to compare the best hiring companies their training modes and how they motivate
their employees.
What role did secondary data play in the exploration phase of the research?
The role of secondary information in the exploration process was to save time and resources used
in the research . Access to data is cheaper than investigating it. Therefore, secondary data gave
ample time to Ramada in the study. Nevertheless, the information found in the secondary data
would not be provided by an individual.
What steps and phases in the process model can you match to the Ramada research?
The well organized steps and phases used ny Ramada can allow the matching of steps no.1,
3,5,and 6 respectively.
What research process decisions are made? (Remember to include research by outside

A visit to 900 sites to gather information using 24 researchers in a period of 6 months

Use of outsourced suppliers in the study of successful organizations

An example of outsourced suppliers include D. K Shifflet where he researched on the
customers satisfaction in the industry.

What sampling methodologies are used? Why was this appropriate for this study?
Sampling methodologies that were involved include judgmental sampling methodology. This
was appropriate since it was cheap, efficient and convenient to the research.
Describe the research design and discuss its strengths and weaknesses
The research design involved was quasi-experimental research design. This was
appropriate because it can easily be implemented in an organization as compared to
randomized research design.
What role did property owners/managers play in the research
They participated in the provisions of the right answers to the survey

Why did Ramada choose to conduct the research in a nontraditional,

party-like atmosphere? What are some advantages and
disadvantages of such an approach?

So as to model the research competitive and suitable to both the internal and external
environment of the company.
How are the research finding reflected in the ultimate management decisions?
Hiring process has been improved and employees are screened for predictive index
characteristics. Nevertheless, the training process has been improved.


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Abrams, B., & American Marketing Association. (2000). The observational research
handbook: Understanding how consumers live with your product. Lincolnwood, Il:
NTC Business Books.
Waxman, H. C., Tharp, R. G., & Hilberg, R. S. (2004). Observational research in U.S.
classrooms: New approaches for understanding cultural and linguistic diversity.
Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
Jorgensen, D. L. (1989). Participant observation: A methodology for human studies.
Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.