environments .Definition • To make suitable to requirements or conditions • Adjust or modify fittingly • To adjust oneself to different conditions.

• More complex & difficult to analyze than nonadaptive systems but offer the possibility of substantial increased system performance when input signal characteristics are unknown or time varying. . • Repair themselves • Nonlinear systems with time varying parameters.Characteristics • • • • Self optimize to nonstationary environment Programmed by a training process Self-designing They can extrapolate the model behavior to deal with new situations after training.

Application • • • • • • • Communications Radar Sonar Seismology Mechanical design Navigation systems Biomedical electronics .

– Called performance feedback process.Classification • Open-loop adaptation – Make measurements of input or environmental characteristics – Apply these information to some formula / computational algorithm – Use results to set adjustments of the adaptive system • Closed-loop adaptation – Automatic experimentation with the adjustments and knowledge of their outcome in order to optimize a measured system performance. .

Open-loop adaptation Processor Input data Output signal Other data Input data Signal processor Output signal Signal processor Other data Adaptive algorithm Display Equivalent System Concept .

Closed-loop adaptation Input data Processor Input data Processor Output signal Other Performance data Calculation Performance Display Adaptive algorithm Performance Calculation Equivalent Concept Output signal Other data .

Applications of Closed-loop adaptation s d + Adaptive Processor Delay y ∑ x ε Prediction .

.Cont…. s d Plant + x Adaptive Processor y ∑ ε System Identification .

Cont…. s Delay d + Channel ∑ + + x Adaptive Processor y ∑ ε Noise Equalization / Deconvolution / inverse filtering / inverse modeling ..

d s+n + n’ x Adaptive Processor y ∑ Interference canceling ε .Cont…..

xk= sin(2πk/N) z-1 dk=2 cos(2πk/N) w0 w1 ∑ ∑ yk=w0xk+ w1xk-1 Linear Filter / Linear combiner εk ..Cont….

Cont….. To 60 Hz wall outlet Adaptive noise canceller 900 Delay + W1 + Reference input ∑ - ∑ + To ECG recorder W2 LMS Algorithm 60 Hz interference Primary input ECG preamplifier Canceling 60-Hz interference in electrocardiography .

Cont…. Abdominal lead (Primary input) ∑ + Reference inputs 1 Output _ 2 3 ∑ 4 CANCELING THE MATERNAL ECG IN FETAL ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY ..

Cont….. Relay Delay Echo Suppressor Hybrid Echo Suppressor Hybrid Delay Relay Long-distance system with echo suppressors + ∑ Delay Hybrid Adaptive filter Adaptive filter Hybrid Delay ∑ + Long-distance system with adaptive-echo suppressors .

Primary input Broadband interference + ∑ Periodic signal Reference input z  ∑ - Adaptive Filter Delay Periodic signal Active noise canceller Adaptive noise canceller as self-tuning filter .Cont…..

+ Input ∑ - z  Delay Adaptive Filter Weight values Fast Fourier Transform Adaptive line enhancer Filter transfer function ..Cont….