# Section 3

:

Energy & Thermal Physics

Page 1 of 16

a) Units
4.1 use the following units: kilogram (kg), joule (J), metre (m), metre/second (m/s), metre/second2 (m/s2), newton
(N), second (s), watt (W).

S.No

Quantity with Definition

unit

Symbol
represention
of unit

Kilogram

Kg

Joules

J

Joules

J

Meter

M

Meter/ second

m/s

Mass
1
Definition: quantity of matter in a body.

Energy

2

Definition:Ability to do work.

Work Done:

Exam definition
3
Work done = Force x distance

Also

Work done = Energy Transferred

Distance:
3
Definition: measurement between two points

4
Speed/velocity

S.initial speed) / time symbolically.No Quantity with Definition unit Symbol represention of unit Definition: Distance covered per second.u) / t Force 6 Exam Definition: Force = Mass x acceleration 7 Time 8 Power Page 3 of 16 (a) list the different forms of energy with examples in which each form occurs. a = (v . . It is measured in Joules and is a scalar quantity. But if definition is asked in Exam. Page 2 of 16 S. write only the 5 following acc = (final speed . Energy: It is defined as the Capability of doing work. Energy can be divided in two broad Forms You need to know all these forms of energy.No Quantity with Definition unit Symbol representio n of unit Meter/second2 m/s2 Newton N Second S Watt W Acceleration Definition: Rate of change of speed/velocity per second.

When we light candle: Chemical energy is converted into light energy.Sound: movement of energy through a substance in the form of longitudinal compression and rarefaction waves. Light: Light is a form of energy. it is possible that an object at higher temperature may have lower thermal energy than an object at lower temperature. in light bulb. When two objects of different temperatures are placed next to each other then the energy is transferred from hot object (having higher thermal energy) to cold object (having less thermal energy. However. Higher the temperature higher the amount of thermal energy it has gained. (Further detail is beyond CIE) Electrical: This is due to the movement of electrical charges.Thermal or heat: Heat energy and Thermal energy are considered as the same form of energy for your CIE course: Heat Energy = Thermal Energy. Extra information: . electrical energy is converted into light energy. Similarly. a match while burning may have higher temperature but would have less amount of thermal energy than a pale of water at a moderate temperature. If an object has gained more thermal energy then its atoms and molecules would have more Kinetic energy. Thermal energy is possessed by the body as the Kinetic energy (movement energy) of its atoms or molecules. In cell or battery chemical energy is converted into electrical in wires. For example. This is because in a pale of water there are more molecules than a match stick and when each molecule’s Kinetic energy is added together then the sum of Kinetic energy (Thermal Energy) of water would be higher than the match stick. Temperature of any object is dependent upon the Thermal Energy it has gained.) Heat energy is the amount of thermal energy that is transferred from an object of higher temperature to the object of lower temperature. It is transferred through Electromagnetic Waves.

gravitation. Page 3 of 16 (a) list the different forms of energy with examples in which each form occurs. 3 – No energy transfer is 100% efficient. This energy depends upon the how high the object is from the ground. This energy is called GPE. you supply chemical energy of your body to the rubber or spring to stretch. Nuclear: Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. Elastic Potential Energy or Strain Energy is called Stored Energy because objects will always return back to their original position and shape after using the energy. when you stretch a spring or catapult then these objects store energy in them. Chemical: Energy store between atoms or chemicals is called chemical energy. it will return that energy in the form of heat. This energy binds the atom together. strain or elastic and nuclear energy are a part of potential energy. KE can be calculated by following formula. In fact. chemical. Therefore. . Your energy is stored in the stretched object and is keeping it stretched. This energy is released when object is fallen back to ground. This energy can be calculated from the following formula. This stored energy is called Elastic Potential Energy or Strain Energy. This is called Law of Conservation of Energy 2 – Energy will always transfer from high to low. Kinetic: Also called movement energy. Similarly. Elastic Potential Energy: When you stretch a rubber band then it stores energy in it and return that energy when it will relax. sound energy travel fastest in solid than in liquids and gas. Kinetic energy = ½ mass x velocity2 When you ride a bicycle your chemical energy of the body is converted into movement energy. It travels with the help of molecules or atoms and cannot be produced when there is no matter. Therefore. When object is moving fast it has more KE. When you release the object. we need to provide energy to it. Potential Energy: It is a stored energy. If there are more molecules or atoms then sound would travel faster and vice versa. which is called Gravitational potential energy.It is produced due to vibration or Kinetic energy of atoms/molecules. When you stretch a rubber cord or spring. you need petrol to provide movement energy to the car. Gravitational PE: When you move an object above the ground level then the object will store energy in it. in vacuum we cannot hear sound. only changed. Some Facts which you need to know: 1-Energy can not be created nor destroyed. Similarly. which is actually a work done against gravitational force. GPE = ½ x mass x height Extra information: Another way of looking at the GPE is In order to raise an object above ground level. Higher above the ground means more energy is stored.

Light: . Energy can be divided in two broad Forms You need to know all these forms of energy. When two objects of different temperatures are placed next to each other then the energy is transferred from hot object (having higher thermal energy) to cold object (having less thermal energy.Energy: It is defined as the Capability of doing work. This is because in a pale of water there are more molecules than a match stick and when each molecule’s Kinetic energy is added together then the sum of Kinetic energy (Thermal Energy) of water would be higher than the match stick. Temperature of any object is dependent upon the Thermal Energy it has gained. Thermal or heat: Heat energy and Thermal energy are considered as the same form of energy for your CIE course: Heat Energy = Thermal Energy. a match while burning may have higher temperature but would have less amount of thermal energy than a pale of water at a moderate temperature. If an object has gained more thermal energy then its atoms and molecules would have more Kinetic energy. It is measured in Joules and is a scalar quantity.) Heat energy is the amount of thermal energy that is transferred from an object of higher temperature to the object of lower temperature. For example. Thermal energy is possessed by the body as the Kinetic energy (movement energy) of its atoms or molecules. However. Higher the temperature higher the amount of thermal energy it has gained. it is possible that an object at higher temperature may have lower thermal energy than an object at lower temperature.

In fact. In cell or battery chemical energy is converted into electrical in wires. This energy binds the atom together. in light bulb. Gravitational PE: When you move an object above the ground level then the object will store energy in it. you need petrol to provide movement energy to the car. This stored energy is called Elastic Potential Energy or Strain Energy. only changed. electrical energy is converted into light energy. Some Facts which you need to know: 1-Energy can not be created nor destroyed. Similarly. Similarly. This energy is called GPE. it will return that energy in the form of heat. Extra information: It is produced due to vibration or Kinetic energy of atoms/molecules.Light is a form of energy. Elastic Potential Energy or Strain Energy is called Stored Energy because objects will always return back to their original position and shape after using the energy. you supply chemical energy of your body to the rubber or spring to stretch. If there are more molecules or atoms then sound would travel faster and vice versa. Kinetic energy = ½ mass x velocity2 When you ride a bicycle your chemical energy of the body is converted into movement energy. This energy is released when object is fallen back to ground. This energy depends upon the how high the object is from the ground. This energy can be calculated from the following formula. GPE = ½ x mass x height Extra information: Another way of looking at the GPE is In order to raise an object above ground level. which is called Gravitational potential energy. Elastic Potential Energy: When you stretch a rubber band then it stores energy in it and return that energy when it will relax. When object is moving fast it has more KE. When you stretch a rubber cord or spring.Sound: movement of energy through a substance in the form of longitudinal compression and rarefaction waves. sound energy travel fastest in solid than in liquids and gas. This is called Law of Conservation of Energy . strain or elastic and nuclear energy are a part of potential energy. When you release the object. It is transferred through Electromagnetic Waves. Similarly. KE can be calculated by following formula. in vacuum we cannot hear sound. Nuclear: Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. we need to provide energy to it. It travels with the help of molecules or atoms and cannot be produced when there is no matter. when you stretch a spring or catapult then these objects store energy in them. Chemical: Energy store between atoms or chemicals is called chemical energy. Therefore. (Further detail is beyond CIE) Electrical: This is due to the movement of electrical charges. chemical. When we light candle: Chemical energy is converted into light energy. Kinetic: Also called movement energy. Your energy is stored in the stretched object and is keeping it stretched. Higher above the ground means more energy is stored. gravitation. Therefore. Potential Energy: It is a stored energy. which is actually a work done against gravitational force.

So if a heavy object moves with 5 m/s speed it would have more kinetic energy than an object with less mass. if it is moving faster it will acquire more kinetic energy. Kinetic energy also depends upon the mass of the object. Apart from speed. 3 – No energy transfer is 100% efficient.2 – Energy will always transfer from high to low. Page 5 of 16 Answer: (a) moving (b) Chemical (c) Sound & Heat (c) state that kinetic energy Ek = ½mv 2 and that gravitational potential energy EP = mgh and use these equations in calculations. Exam definition of kinetic energy = ½ x mass x speed 2 Kinetic energy is also called movement energy. . When an object moves it has this form of energy.

g = acceleration due to gravity. Q. . (3) solar energy (nuclei of atoms in the Sun). It is measure in Joules and a scalar quantity. KE = 500. GPE = 1000 x 10 x 50 . Calculate its KE? Solution: Using formula KE = 1/2 x m x v2 substitute values.000 J When an object is raised from the ground then it has potential to fall back to ground by gravitational force. including reference to (1) chemical/fuel energy (a re-grouping of atoms). h= height of an object raised. Where m = mass of object . (4) nuclear energy.622)2 Hence.Suppose the same elephant of mass 1000 kg has jumped from the height of 50 m while hitting the ground its speed is 31. It is a scalar quantity.000 J Page 7 of 16 (d) list renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Kinetic energy can be calculated by KE = ½ x m x v2 Where m = mass of an object.Kinetic energy like GPE is also measured in Joules. (e) describe the processes by which energy is converted from one form to another. GPE = m x g x h substitute the values Therefore. It can be calculated by GPE = m x g x h. as g = 10 m/s2 GPE = 500. therefore. KE = 1/2 x 1000 x (31.622 m/s. Q. The amount of energy stored in an object when it is raised above ground is called Gravitational Potential Energy. v = speed of an object. (2) hydroelectric generation (emphasising the mechanical energies involved).An elephant of 1000 kg is raised to a height of 50 meter (by some means--God knows). Calculate the gpe gained by the elephant? Solution: Since. as all energies are measured in Joules. as all energy forms are scalar quantity.

3-Visual pollution for large production. 2-Not available everywhere.No CO2 pollution.Very cheap Electricity after few years. S. 1-Expensive at installation time.N o Type of Energy / Non- Form of Energy Conversion Advantages Disadvantages Light to Electrical 1-renewable. 3. 2-Dangerous for wildlife. 2. 2.No CO2 pollution. Renewable Thermal to Electrical 1-renewable. 1-Expensive at installation time. 2-Dangerous for wildlife. 1-Expensive at installation time. Renewable Light to Thermal 1-renewable. 3. Renewable 5 Solar Cells Renewable . 2-Dangerous for birds. 3-Very cheap Electricity after few years. (6) wind energy.No CO2 pollution.If there is no Sun it won't work. 2-No CO2 pollution.No CO2 pollution. 1-Expensive at installation time. 2. 3. 3-Visual and Noise pollution for large production.Very cheap Electricity after few years.No Type of Energy Renewable/ NonRenewable Geothermal 3 Resource Solar Heating 4 Systems Disadvantages Renewable Kinetic to Electrical Renewable GPE to Electrical 1-renewable. Main Source: Sun 2 Water Advantages 1-renewable. Wind 1 Form of Energy Conversion 1-Expensive at installation time. 3-Visual pollution for large production. 2. 3. Renewable S.Very cheap Electricity after few years. 2-Dangerous for wildlife.(5) geothermal energy.

you join atoms together. Renewable 6 7 Fossil Fuels Nuclear Power Renewable Renewable Try following question Answer Page 8 of 16 (f) explain nuclear fusion and fission in terms of energy releasing processes.just like stretched catapult!.Renewable S. 2. 1-Expensive at installation time. Which upon its release return stored energy. Similiarly. when atoms are split they release a large amount of energy in the form of heat and light. Atoms store large amount of energy-. When atoms are joined they require a large amount of energy to let it happen. water and labor to join bricks . 3.Very cheap Electricity after few years. Fission: Splitting of atom is called fission.No CO2 pollution.N o Type of Energy / Non- Form of Energy Conversion Advantages Disadvantages Chemical to Electrical 1-renewable. 2-Dangerous for wildlife. Nuclear Potential Energy to Thermal + Kinetic 1-renewable. 2. Fusion: Fusion is opposite of fission i. 3.e. 3-Visual pollution for large production. As you need cement. 1-Expensive at installation time. 3-Visual pollution for large production.No CO2 pollution. 2-Dangerous for wildlife.Very cheap Electricity after few years.

So in every fusion process energy is released in the form of heat and light. When you have supplied required energy and when atoms are joined they store that energy in them—however. Page 9 of 16 (g) describe the process of electricity generation and draw a block diagram of the process from fuel input to electricity output. As discussed in the advantages and disadvantages in table given. Page 11 of 16 (i) calculate work done from the formula work = force × distance moved in the line of action of the force.together. . while storing energy they kind of vomit energy out as well. Page 10 of 16 (h) discuss the environmental issues associated with power generation.

Therefore. o For understanding. I can also say that the table has gained Kinetic energy at the cost of chemical energy of my body.a work is done. So I applied a force and the table has moved a certain distance. As the table is moved. it can be said that whenever work is done energy is trasferred from one form to another. It is a scalar quantity. See animation below. like energy. Work Done = Energy Transferred . Work done = Force x distance moved. remember. As work done = Force xdistance. Work done has a unit of Joules. therefore.work done = force × distance moved W=F×d o If exam definition of work done is asked. write the following only. Work done is energy transfer. Animation 1 Animation 2 Animation 3 When I will push (force) a table it will move.

whenever there is work done there will always be energy transfer............. (b) The motorbike travels 2.. The driving force is 700 N................................. So remember................................ ................ Now try past paper question by using the formula given on next page (a) The diagram shows an energy flow for a motorbike... Work done = ....30 000 J b) convert 2.. .............. J (3) Solution: a) i........... Using Work done = F x d 700 x 2000 = 14 00 000 J Page 12 of 16 (j) calculate the efficiency of an energy conversion using the formula efficiency = energy converted to the required form/total energy input........................0 km. And the energy transfer in this case is from Potential Energy to Kinetic energy because object gains speed........... Calculate the work done in joules by this driving force......Take another example of car.................... ............. Fill in the gaps in the diagram.......e............ engine applies force and therefore car covers a certain distance............ this work is done at the cost of energy transferred—from chemical energy to kinetic energy i............ work is done by gravitational force........... However............Chemical Energy ii...........................0 km into m as 2000 m..Heat+Sound iii........................... petrol is burned and car is moved................... When an object falls down.... this is the work done by engine....

Unfortunatley. Efficiency is defined as the ability of any device or process to transform maximum amount of input energy into useful form.” The amount of energy that is put into the system is called Input Energy. light energy (head lights etc) and Sound energy (horn)..The key to understand the efficiency concept is to understand the concept of “useful energy” and “input energy. This is called waste energy. Useful energy is different for different system e. in any process some amount of undesirabel energy is always produced.g. for light bulb the useful energy is light not heat. the amount of fuel that is poured into the car’s tank is the input chemical energy. Try question on following page . Look at the following diagram. The useful output energy that we need from chemical energy is movement energy (we need car to move). for horn it is the sound energy. for bicycle it’s the movement energy. For example. Heat is not useful energy and therefore called waste energy. However.

.......... ............... What does this mean? .....................................................................(b) The lamp is of 100 W and is only 5% efficient.................. Page 13 of 16 ......................... (2) Solution: (a) Electrical to light & heat (b) That only 5 J of Electrical energy is converted into Light..................................... Rest is wasted into heat............................................................................................

Power is defined as rate of doing work or how fast energy is being trasferred per second. Page 14 of 16 (l) discuss the usefulness of energy output from a number of energy conversions. 1 j/s = 1 watt Try question on next page . It is measured in Watts or Joules/second. If in exam definition is required write the above given word formula.(k) discuss the efficiency of energy conversions in common use. particularly those giving electrical output. Page 15 of 16 (m) calculate power from the formula power = work done/time taken.

In Physics. work done is energy transfer. Power = 50 Watts (W) The word power is used differently in Physics and daily life.Answer a.Rate of energy transfer is called Power. Therefore. use power formula as Power = Energy Transfer / Time = 6000 / (2 x 60) . Also. Power is define as "the amount of energy converted per second" or "rate of doing work" or simply "work done per unit time". time should be second Hence. Power means how fast that energy is converted into another form. . So basically they are asking you for Power. When you do work you transfer energy.Light to electrical b.

Now. Page 16 of 16 4. which could melt the wire and also would result in the loss of energy. the advantage is space can be saved.Power is measured in watts and it is a scalar quantity. Same voltage over a large area. Caution: Time is mostly in second. a main station and a substation. For tame this problem we need to use transformers.17 describe the advantages and disadvantages of methods of large-scale electricity production from various renewable and non-renewable resources. Remember electricity bills charge only the Power. But high voltage is not usable for domestic purpose. Large-scale electricity production means: Generating electricity from huge Power Plants for whole district or city or cities. We also need to have very long and thick wires to carry electricity. . Due to this high resistance lots of electrical energy is wasted as heat. here is a problem large current in wires produces heating effect. No trasformers as lower voltage can be produced. Another problem is when we have a main station which is quite large then it means it must deliver large amount of Power from that place. Therefore. otherwise different voltages can be used.another costly business. For large scale electricity generation we need to have multiple transformers. unless told otherwise. The problem with the wires is that they are expensive and their resistance is high. therefore the voltage has to be dropped down when it is near homes. amount of energy consumed per hour. Since power = voltage x current Large power means large voltage and current. However. we are left with high voltage and low current.