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1.1 Scalar and Vectors
Examiner's Expectation: Students should be able to
(a) define the terms scalar and vector.
(b) determine the resultant of two vectors by a graphical method.
(c) list the vectors and scalars from distance, displacement, length, speed,
velocity, time, acceleration, mass and force.

The terms Scalar & Vector are used to differentiate Physical Quantities. What are Physical
Physical Quantity: Any thing that can be measured is called a Physical Quantity For example
Speed, Momentum, Moment, Velocity, Acceleration, mass, volume, area, distance, speed,
density, pressure, Energy, work done, temperature, heat, Weight, Displacement,light and all
forms of energies, current, voltage Force and all types of forces ie Friction, Upthrust, Drag etc.
Defination of Scalar Quantity: Such a Physical Quantity that can be specified by magnitude or
value (number) only. For example, when you ask someone for time, mass, volume or distance
they would only tell a number(magnitude) say its 120 clock, I am 65 kg, 2 liters of petrol and you
understand exactly what is means. So you can understand some Physical quantities by their
numbers only.
Note: The term magnitude means number or value of something for example 5 kg is the value of
mass of something or 100 km/h is the magnitude of speed.
Definition of Vector Quantity: Such a Physical Quantity that need magnitude and direction for
their specification. For example, when you are applying force you must mention: how much
force you are applying and in which direction. Similarly, acceleration, velocity etc requires
magnitude and direction for their complete specifiation.
Pilots while flying air-craft requires speed and the direction in which they are moving. If direction
is not specified to them they would disappear somewhere else.

the . Therefore. their addition and subtraction can not yeild same results. -.Representation of Vector: So vectors require number & direction for their specification. subtraction.don't be afraid we will deal with abnormally easy vectors addition. subtraction. multiplication and division. Vector Algebra is different-. That is why vectors are represented by arrow or graphically. In Vector's addition 2 + 2 does not necessarily means 4 or 4-2 does not necessarily means 2. For example. x & /) on vector quantities are different than normal operations on numbers. The size of arrow is the magnitude of the vector. therefore. Operations on Vector Quantities: The mathemataical operations (+. Why vector's addition. If one vector is acting in different direction than another. vector quantities are treated bit different. multiplication and division is bit different than normal numbers? This is because they have directions.

The only difference between +ve and -ve vectors is that of only direction. . vector addition & subtraction is not as same as Year-6 or graduation level addition & subtraction of numbers. when vectors are acting in same direction (angle). results would be different than if they were moving in same direction. Is there any condition in which vector addition & subtraction can be normal? Yes.velocity of one plane is north side and other is south side so directions are opposite. Also. In such condition 2 + 2 = 4 and 10 . Vector Addition & Subtraction: As mentioned earlier. The chart given below can further clearify your idea. It's a totally different ball game. -ve vector would have opposite direction to that of +ve vector. therefore. If forces are acting in opposite direction they would subtract. Vector Addition & Subtraction in same direction: o o If forces are acting in same direction they would add. vectors can be positive (+) and negative (-) while scalars can only be of positive values.8 = 2.

Multiplication of vectors with numbers: . In last example. In first example. Vector Addition & Subraction in different direction: Vector Multiplication: Multiplication of two vectors is not a part of the course. 10 N is acting upwards and -5 N acting in opposite direction the resultant force would be 5 N upwards.The force which is the result of two or more forces is called resultant force. you just need to see in which direction forces are acting and associated signs--all you then need to do is to some do grade 2 maths. multiplication of vectors by numbers is in syllabus. 0 N is the resultant force of two forces acting in opposite direction 5 N and -5 N. 10 N is the resultant force of 5 N and 5 N acting in same direction. Note: Addition of force is a simple mathematical operation. Similarly. However.

Vectors' Division: .

light and all forms of energies. moment. density. voltage. force is represented by arrows. volume. appreciate the vector nature of a force Since force is a vector quantity and all vectors are represented by arrows. Scalar Quantities: mass. drag etc. Therefore. speed. distance. work done.Vector Quantities: momentum. Energy. acceleration. velocity. area. current. . etc. temperature. upthrust. displacement. force and all types of forces ie friction. heat. pressure. weight.

force is positive than in other direction it would be negative. you will learn here on 1.2 Measurement techniques Examiner's Expectation: Students should be able to . the person is pushing an object with a force Fawhile the weight of the object is Fg and FN Which is the normal reaction from the ground.If in one direction. As shown below for 1 N For example. In first diagram. In above two examples. weight is always shown with direction downwards(to the center of Earth). Friction with direction opposite to the direction of motion.2 Measurement techniques Enjoy learning our Physics Courses 1. Push direction inwards to an object and pull direction is outwards. forces are shown with arrows and that is the only way to represent these forces. Physics Courses: Here you can find Physics Course for CIE O-Level Section 1: General Physics.

rules. micrometers. and calipers using a vernier as necessary. furnitures and cloth piece Usually in our labs we use meter rule which can measure objects of 100 cm len 0. Width.(d) describe how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy using tapes.001 cm Use to measure objects up to the size 2. Measuring Tape: It is a flexible form of ruler. They are also used to obtain a v result. They have different level of accuracy (minimum measurement they can measure accurately. Tapes. Micrometer Screw gauages and Vernier Calipers are used to measure lengths (length.) Instrument 1 Tape Ruler 2 3 Vernier Caliper 4 Micrometer Screwgauge Accuracy Uses 1 cm To measure big objects like size of rooms.01 cm bring more accuracy in results 0. Use to measure objects up to the size of 15 cm. Breath and Depth). They are used instead of mete 0. Rules.5 cm. Ruler: Vernier Caliper: .1 cm we use meter rule as the more common instrument. buildings.

za/courses/c1lab/vernier1. . It could be a part of any This is called Parallax error--solution is look reading at eye level.feature=related Micrometer Screw Gauge: for micrometer use following website and youtube video http://www.for vernier caliper use following website and youtube video http://www. When you are not reading scale with the exact eye level then the object would appear at different There is a very common error with all of the above measuring scales--Parallax following website will guide you how to use Vernier Caliper and Micrometer Screw gauge.

always check carefully for a zero error before using the any instrument! .Parallax error effects the accuracy of the measurement. Also.

However.(e) describe how to measure a variety of time intervals using clocks and stopwatches. Light gates are used for correct time interval measurement between two points. Light gates automatically takes time by computer. starting and stopping of stopwatch manually for time interval measurement results in error due to reaction time. . Now days digital stopwatches are being used rather than analogue because analogue stopwatches are prone to parallax error.