Belleville Springs

Belleville disc springs are meant to function similarly to other springs, but differ in the most basic sense
by physical appearance. They are they are relatively flat and washer-like compared to traditional springs
(and lack coils), but are classified as conical springs, as their centres are raised, creating a cone. This
shape is what gives them their strength, as they are designed for heavy duty uses.
Belleville springs reach their maximum capacity when they flatten completely. While taking on the
burden of a heavy load, these components evenly distribute weight around the circumference of each
spring, providing greater stability. Belleville’s combat the inherent problems of traditional compression
springs because they can withstand great force and are designed to retain long-term stability under
pressure, lasting years without malfunctioning or deforming. For longer life, Belleville’s are often coated
to reduce the risk of corrosion. As they are designed to support heavy loads, Belleville’s are often used
to aid in the complex functions of such things as construction equipment or electrical transformers.
The largest difference between Bellville springs and coil springs are their load versus deflection
characteristics. Belleville disc springs reach very high loads in a relatively small amount of deflection.
Coil springs, in comparison, have lower forces over much larger deflections.

this must be taken into account when calculating the total force from parallel stacking. E. However. the resultant force for such a column is the force element of a single disc spring multiplied by the number of 'nested' disc springs in the column. their structures make traditional and Belleville springs better for different functions. thus generating considerable interface friction. 2 above illustration) It must be realised that the individual disc springs in a column assembled in parallel perform as separate entities. will require a force of 5000N to deflect 10mm. The cumulative effect of bearing point friction of large numbers of disc springs stacked in series. last longer and are tougher. as traditional springs may be used for something as small as the clicking action of a pen and Bellevilles often give heavy duty support to major metal machinery.3 in above illustration) is a means of multiplying the deflection of a single disc spring.G. this interface friction will result in 3% increased force per interface. While either could potentially be used in the same item or operation. A 'rule of thumb' is that the length of the stacked disc springs should not exceed a length approximately equal to 3 times the outside diameter of the disc spring. With such arrangements. It is advised that the number of disc springs in parallel should not normally exceed 3. disc springs stacked in 'series' formation are of identical dimensions. can result in the disc springs at each end of the stack deflecting more than those in the centre. (See no. i. the force element remains as that for a single spring. or in extreme cases 5 springs. on the whole. A disc spring that requires a force of 5000N to deflect 1mm. the same way up. For a given deflection. requiring a damping feature. Bellevilles. however. to minimise heat generated by friction or. will require a force of 15900N to deflect 1mm. whilst the deflection remains the same as for that applicable to a single disc spring. The hysteresis resulting from parallel stacking can be employed to advantage in those applications of a 'shock absorbing' nature. resistance and energy. it is feasible to stack numbers of disc springs of increasing thickness in order to achieve 'stepped' and progressive characteristics. each does usually differ in application. In extreme cases this may result in over-compression and premature failure of the end springs. . This 'in series' formation (no. when assembled of 3 disc springs in parallel. it is necessary to provide some form of compression limiting device for the 'lighter' disc springs. Stacking Disc Springs in Parallel Disc springs are assembled 'nested' inside each other. when assembled to form a column of 10 disc springs in series. to ensure a workable relationship between the loading and unloading characteristics. Example: A disc spring that requires a force of 5000N to deflect 1mm.Both traditional compression springs and conical Belleville springs perform in similar ways and are used to create support. Normally. to avoid over-compression whilst the 'heavier' springs are still in process of deflection.Stacking Disc Springs in Series Single disc springs are assembled 'opposed to each other' to form a spring column.e. in the case of static applications.

A disc spring that requires a force of 5000N to deflect 1mm. and 10 units of 3 parallel discs in series . Stacking Disc Springs in Series and Parallel The combination of both series and parallel stacking (See no.(incorporating an allowance of +6% for friction).G. . will result in a force requirement of 15900N to deflect the stack 10mm . E. at the disc spring selection stage. to minimise the number of springs in the stack by way of examining the various alternatives. The guidelines applicable to this type of arrangement are basically those already outlined. but it cannot be over-emphasised that it is important.The life of disc springs in parallel arrangements is very dependent on adequate lubrication of the spring interfaces.(total 30 discs). 4 above illustration) is a means of multiplying both force and deflection. when assembled to form a column consisting of 3 disc springs in parallel.