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To preserve food is used drying method. It was found experimentally that drying mushroom caps and legs should
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**Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
**

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.67-72

RESEARCH ARTICLE

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OPEN ACCESS

**Mathematical modelling and analysis of the mushroom drying
**

process at the optimal temperature

O. Kubaychuk*, O. Mazurenko**, T. Roman***

* (Department of Computer Science, National University of Food Technologies, Kyiv, Ukraine)

** (Department of Electrical Engineering, National University of Food Technologies, Kyiv, Ukraine)

*** (Department of Electrical Engineering, National University of Food Technologies, Kyiv, Ukraine)

ABSTRACT

To preserve food is used drying method. It was found experimentally that drying mushroom caps and legs should

be conducted at temperatures close to 52,5°C and 55,5°C, accordingly. In this case, we can get the product of the

highest quality. Statistically, we proved that the drying processes of mushroom caps are different for fixed levels

of temperature (from 40° C to 80° C, by step 10° C). At the same time, at higher temperatures, the nature of the

process changes abruptly. Based on the experimental data, the polynomial regression model was built. This

model can used for estimating and forecasting a specific evaporation heat at the optimal temperature.

Keywords – drying process, humidity, mushroom, optimal temperature, polynomial model, specific evaporation

heat

evaporates. In [2] was established there exist a

significant difference between caps and legs of

I.

INTRODUCTION

mushroom body. Drying processes of mushrooms

There are many ways to preserve a food. One of

legs are studied in [3].

the most important is the drying. It is important that

products are harvested kept its taste and usefulness.

For example, some problems of drying are studied in

[1]. Mushrooms are the very delicious product, but

II.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

contain only 10% of dry matter and the remaining

One of the modern methods for determining

90% is water. Nutritional value of mushrooms bodies

specific evaporation heat is a method of simultaneous

determined by the content of essential and

thermal analysis (STA), which combines the

conditionally essential amino acids: lysine, threonine,

calorimeter and thermo-grav analysis [4,5].

valine, leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, cysteine,

Laboratory facility DMKV-1 (Fig. 1, Fig. 2) was

methionine, phenylalanine and tyrosine. The

developed at the Institute of Technical Thermal

biological value of mushroom mycelium index is

Physics NAS Ukraine specially for this kind of

determined by essential amino acids, is ranged from

research [6] and combines the functionality of

72,9-98,6 (according to EAA index). There are some

calorimetry and thermogravimetry.

limiting amino acids: methionine, tsystin, leucine,

For experiments was used thin (about 1 mm

isoleucine. The biological value is 67,8-95,8

thick) pileus tissue slices of the mushroom fruit body

(according BV FAO). Amino acid index ranges 36,0"Champignon". Drying of the samples was carried

90,0. Index nutritional 22.2 (according to N FAO).

out at 40 ° C, 50 ° C, 60 ° C, 70 ° C, 80 ° C, air

The fruit body chemical composition includes

velocity of 0.8 cm / s and its initial moisture content

vitamins: thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (PP),

of 8.5 g / kg. Registration of heat flows and changes

pyridoxine (B6), biotin (H), ascorbic acid (C), folic

in the mass of the sample drying process was carried

acid (B9). The content of macro - and microelements

out continuously. Drying specimens finished when

that fully satisfy the needs of the human body

they reach equilibrium moisture. The mass of dry

provides the great value of fruiting bodies. Especially

matter was determined by final drying samples

important and scarce micronutrients in mushrooms

calorimeter at 105 ° C to constant weight.

bodies consider the presence of selenium (Se).

Symbols:

Dried mushrooms are part of many delicious

r- specific evaporation heat, kJ / kg * K

dishes. When the process parameters are chosen

t- time from the beginning to the end of the

properly (drying temperature and final product

experiment, s

humidity) a high quality products are achieved

w - moisture,%

(nutrients are stored, they have a pleasant flavor and

T- temperature, ° C

taste). The drying process is a heat and mass transfer

phenomenon where water migrates from the interior

of the drying product on to the surface from which it

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67|P a g e

**O. Kubaychuk et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
**

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.67-72

Fig. 1. Structural schema DMKV-1.

**Fig. 2. Fundamental thermal unit schema DMKV-1.
**

1, 2 - top and bottom thermostatted blocks;

3 - calorimeter platform with the main electroheater;

4, 5 - heat flow meters;

6 - cell with the sample of research material;

7 - cell with the standard; 8 - working chamber.

III.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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**significance level 0,05 for all pairs of variables,
**

besides the pair of variables, which corresponds to

the value of 60 ° C and 70 ° C, where type I error

slightly higher. Thus, statistically, we also have to

deal with five different processes.

We can assume that for adequate regression

model, it is possible to make the conversion

dependent variable:

w , 0

w

log w, 0

by scatter diagram visualization in STATISTICA.

Using the program Boxtidwell, we estimate

maximum likelihood parameter conversion and

accordingly, it is desirable to consider transformation

w w2 . Even better results can be achieved by

approximation using the polynomial regression as

y b0 b1 x b2 x 2 . A regression curve and its

analytical appearance, 95% confidence interval

(dotted line) is shown on each of the (Fig. 3-7).

Quality of the models can be estimated on the Table

2.

As seen from Table 2, all of the coefficients b0

and b2 are significant at the level 0,05 , but the

coefficient b1 is not at 70°C. Therefore, the equation

for 70° C is better to take without the appropriate

member: y 2527,752 0,004 x 2 , and estimation

error will decrease from 3.59 to 3.43.

Since Fig. 7, we can see that the nature of the

drying process changes dramatically. There is no

sense to use the experimental data at 80°C,

considering that Topt 52.5 (Table 3).

**It was found experimentally that drying
**

mushroom caps should be conducted at temperatures

close to 52,5°C. In this case, we can get the product

of the highest quality. Based on the data of the

experiment it is important to build and explore the

specific evaporation heat ( r ) dependence of

humidity ( w ) at the optimum temperature

Topt 52.5 for the constant pressure condition.

**Then, using the results (Table 3) a linear
**

dependence b0 f 0(T ) , b1 f 1(T ) and b2 f 2(T )

is build:

b0 2855,862 247,317 T ,

Topt 52.5 , hence b0 2608,545 .

**During the experiment, five temperature levels
**

were fixed at 40° C, 50° C, 60° C, 70° C, 80°C.

Accordingly, we have five different drying processes.

A specific evaporation heat at a given level of

humidity w , was measured for each process (Table

1). The null hypothesis is that the data for each

drying temperature have identical distributions.

Since, the amounts of samples small ( n 9 ) and

there is no reason to believe that data is normally

distributed, non-parametric tests were used

(Wilcoxon test and sign-test). Both tests yielded

similar results: the hypothesis is rejected at

**b2 0,111 0,076 T ,
**

Topt 52.5 , hence b2 0,035 . Finally, the model is:

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**b1 6,423 4,628 T ,
**

Topt 52.5 , hence b1 1,795 .

and

the

r 2608,545 1,795w 0,035w2 ,

corresponding 95% confidence intervals for

coefficients,

are:

b0 [2603,801; 2613,288] ,

b1 [1,037, 2,552] , b2 [0,052; 0,017] .

68|P a g e

**O. Kubaychuk et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
**

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.67-72

w

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

15

**Table 1: observation data
**

T=50°C

T=60°C

№ r

№ r

10 2500,27542

19 2421,51408

11 2574,30108

20 2472,96711

12 2605,46985

21 2513,30813

13 2616,01081

22 2539,48108

14 2626,14557

23 2553,54145

15 2647,04263

24 2570,54635

16 2648,88333

25 2576,40635

17 2650,12242

26 2586,75565

18 2650,77995

27 2589,05379

T=40°C

№ r

1

2462,00632

2

2594,44269

3

2613,68588

4

2652,21084

5

2664,11301

6

2677,59847

7

2689,49413

8

2698,80949

9

2714,35886

Model

40°C

50°C

60°C

70°C

80°C

2

R

0,925

0,954

0,992

0,938

0,920

Model

40°C

50°C

60°C

70°C

T=70°C

№ r

28 2486,82968

29 2504,08285

30 2509,72037

31 2514,26749

32 2516,70095

33 2517,43496

34 2522,34935

35 2524,93564

36 2528,43252

**Table 2: quality of the models
**

p-value b0

p-value b1 p-value b2

0,000

0,150

0,017

0,000

0,035

0,003

0,000

0,012

0,000

0,000

0,560

0,046

0,000

0,005

0,018

Тable 3: estimations of the coefficients

b0

b1

2668,3331

2,6648

2620,1616

2,2275

2570,8244

1,4056

2527,7520

0

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T=80°C

№ r

37 2497,86484

38 2498,1502

39 2490,06305

40 2499,64728

41 2499,80394

42 2500,39347

43 2501,35014

44 2506,25214

45 2509,20498

Residuals normality

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

b2

-0,0510

-0,0376

-0,0333

-0,0040

Fig. 3: Drying at 40°С

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69|P a g e

**O. Kubaychuk et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
**

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.67-72

www.ijera.com

Fig. 4: Drying at 50°С

Fig. 5: Drying at 60°С

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70|P a g e

**O. Kubaychuk et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
**

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.67-72

www.ijera.com

Fig. 6: Drying at 70°С

Fig. 7: Drying at 80°С

IV.

CONCLUSION

**The results obtained in this paper allow one to
**

see the drying behaviour of mushrooms caps in case

of five fixed levels. Statistically proved, that we have

a sample from a mixture of distributions. We built the

polynomial regression for each temperature level.

Furthermore, using the regression coefficients, we

build the estimator for specific evaporation heat in

case the optimal temperature. All equations holds

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**under constant pressure condition. This is another
**

important step to solving the problem of effective

drying process for mushrooms. Future research will

be devoted to the simulation drying processes with an

arbitrary pressure.

REFERENCES

[1]

**S Sharadai, Mathematical Models for drying
**

behaviour of green beans, International

71|P a g e

**O. Kubaychuk et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
**

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.67-72

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

www.ijera.com

**Journal of Engineering Research and
**

Applications, 3(3), 2013, 845-851.

T. Roman, O. Masurenko, A. Dubyvko, A.

Bybych, V. Zakharov, Physical and

biochemical changes at mushroom cells,

Harchova Promyslovist, 15, 2014, 32-35.

T. Roman, O. Mazurenko, O. Kubaychuk,

N. Vovkodav, Modeling of champignon

stipe drying process, Scientific Works of

National University of Food Technologies,

21(6), 2015, 147-153.

Simatos D., Faure М., Bonjour E., Couach

M., Differential thermal analysis and

differential scanning calorimetry in the

study of water in foods: Water relation of

foods, Proc. Int. Symp. London - N.Y.:

Acad. Press, 1975, 193-209.

Dmytrenko N., Dubovikova N., Sniezhkin

Yu., Mykhailyk V., Dekusha L., Vorobyov

L., Vyvchennya vplyvu stanu vody v

kharchovykh roslynnykh materialakh na

teplotu vyparovuvannya, Naukovi pratsi

ONAKhT, 40, 2011, 71-75.

Sniezhkin Yu. F., Dekusha L. V.,

Dubovikova N. S., Hryshchenko T. H.,

Vorobyov L. I., Boryak L. A., Patent

Ukrainy № 84075 МПК G01N 25/26,

G01N25/28. Kalorymetrychniy prystriy dlya

vyznachennya

pytomoi

teploty

vyparovuvannya vology i organichnykh

ridyn z materialiv, Kyiv, 2006.

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