What is Graphology?

Definition, History, Applications and few Interesting facts
On July 4th, 1956, a one month old baby Peter Weinberger goes missing from his home. His
mother found a ransom note. In the note, the kidnapper apologized for his actions but said he
needed money and asked for US$ 2000. He promised the baby would be returned "Safe and
happy", if his demand was met without informing to police. Her mother paid no attention
towards warning but informed police including local newspapers. However police failed to get
any information of the baby.
On July 10th, six days after mother received another handwritten note. The note had complete
instruction for the parents about where to find the baby "if everything goes smooth".
Unfortunately parents could not found their baby despite following all instructions.
Soon Kidnapping of Peter Weinberger became national news. FBI had no clue about kidnappers.
On July 11th, a special agent in charge of the NY office took case in his hand. First time in the
world, he set up a temporary headquarters. As FBI had nothing except two handwritten ransom
notes, FBI asked handwriting experts to help. Handwriting experts from the FBI Laboratory in
Washington gave special agents a crash course in handwriting analysis. These newly trained
investigators began the task of examining the huge volume of handwriting specimens maintained
by the New York State Motor Vehicle Bureau, federal and State probation offices, schools,
aircraft plants and various municipalities.
After examine over two million samples the search ended on August 22, 1956. An agent noted
similarity between the ransom notes and writing in the probation file of one Angelo LaMarca.
LaMarca was arrested, initially he denied but soon he accepted his crime and revealed his
criminal act of kidnapping and murdering. Later he was sentenced death penalty. This was the
first time in World history when a criminal case was solved using graphology. Eventually
graphology became a branch of forensic science.

What is Graphology ?
Graphology is a science of handwriting analysis. In Graphology, students learn to distinguish
different hand writing as well as their behaviour, intentions and emotional, mental status. For
example, you have a piece of handwriting which is written roughly without paying proper
attention on letters, you would say, it's written in hurry. That is the Graphology.

Graphology is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting purporting
to be able to identify the writer, indicating psychological state at the time of writing, or
evaluating personality characteristics. Often it is considered a pseudoscience. The term is
sometimes incorrectly used to refer to forensic document examination. Mainly Graphology has
been used by European counsellors, psychotherapists and forensic experts.
The primary basis of handwriting analysis as a science is that every person in the world has a
unique way of writing. In the world of forensic analysis, which includes crime scene
investigation, DNA testing, fibre analysis, fingerprint analysis, voice identification and narcotics
analysis, to name just a few of the disciplines, handwriting analysis fits into the area of
questioned documents.
Questioned document examiners (QDEs) analyze documents for signs of alteration, forgery and,
when sample documents are available, handwriting or typing comparisons to determine or rule
out authorship (and/or tie a document to a specific machine in the case of typing).

Our style characteristics - became only the underlying method of our handwriting. We developed
individual characteristics that are unique to us and distinguish our handwriting from someone
else's. And while two or more people may share a couple of individual characteristics, the chance
of those people sharing 20 or 30 individual characteristics is so unlikely that many handwriting
analysts would say it's impossible.

Graphology in Astrology
In western countries, graphology is associated with astrology also. Few hand writing experts can
predict your personal characteristics, past and future also, but that is completely different from
what we are discussing here.

History of Graphology
According to few unconfirmed sources, Graphology was developed in sixteenth century. Juan
Huarte de San Juan's 1575 Examen de ingenios para las ciencias was the first book on
handwriting analysis. In American graphology, Camillo Baldi's Trattato come da una lettera
missiva si conoscano la natura e qualita dello scrittore is considered to be the first book.
Around 1830 Jean-Hippolyte Michon became interested in handwriting analysis. He published
his findings shortly after founding Société Graphologique in 1871. Alfred Binet was convinced
to conduct research into graphology from 1893 to 1907. He called it "the science of the future"
despite rejection of his results by graphologists.
After World War I, interest in graphology continued to spread in Europe as well as the United
States. In 1929 Milton Bunker founded The American Grapho Analysis Society teaching
graphoanalysis. Perhaps this was the first public effort to do research in handwriting analysis.

How Graphology works
Handwriting is a complex motor skill which uses the combination of sensory, neurological, and
physiological impulses. Factors such as visual perception and acuity, comprehension of form,
central nervous system pathways, and the anatomy and physiology of the bones and muscles of
the hand and arm all combine to produce the desired output. The writing becomes a pattern of
subconscious, habitual formations that are repeated from one writing to the next.
The comparison and evaluation of these individual features or habits enable forensic document
examiners to identify or exclude. Examiners evaluate include the size and slope of the writing,
pen pressure, pen lifts, the spacing between words and letters, the position of the writing on the
baseline (the position of the character in relation to the ruled or imaginary line), height
relationships, beginning and ending strokes, and line quality.
Again not all handwritings are different. For example, when a person traces another individual’s
signature that person imitates the writing habits of the original signer, and therefore, the
imitator’s own handwriting characteristics are not manifested in the tracing.

Variation in handwriting
No one person writes exactly the same way, even within several repetitions of writings. This is
known as natural variation, or intra-writer variation, and represents the second principle of
handwriting analysis.
Human beings are not capable of machine-like precision and repetition. As a result of the
neuromuscular process, some variation in style (formation) is expected. Variation is an integral
part of an individual’s writing. It describes the changes and deviations, often minute, that are
found in repeated samples of one person’s writing. More specifically, variation refers to the
different way(s) that a writer makes each letter or character. This variation is normal and serves
as an added factor to personalize and individualize writing.

The duration, extent, and speed involved in the coordination of an activity such as handwriting
are so complex and may be combined in so many ways that it is virtually impossible to duplicate
all parameters exactly. In this way, a variation in performance can and will occur between
repetitions of an action by the same person.

In the last, how to tell what someone is like from their handwriting

Analyzing someone's handwriting can help you discover secrets about their personality and even
their mood at the time they wrote a certain document. This cool trick is helpful when you're
trying to figure out what someone's like based on their handwriting. Remembers this is just for
fun, you should not take it seriously until you get expertise in the field.
Get few sample of handwriting from your friends, colleagues and look at it. Do ensure that the
samples you have are clear, neat, and readable.
Examine the handwriting samples for the following characteristics and decide which one
fits it the best.

Clearly written handwriting means the person is reliable and has good communication skills.

But the handwriting does not have to be cursive, it should be just clearly readable.

Rounded letters denotes that the person is logical and usually gets things right the first time.


Spiky letters indicate the person is quick-thinking and perceptive.


Sloppy handwriting shows that the person is secretive or the writer is something secret in

hind mind.

Small letters indicates the person is shy, but has good command on the subject.


If the handwriting slopes to the left, the person is very good at keeping their feelings to


If the handwriting slopes to the right, they are very open and honest.


Writing that has separated letters shows that the person is very cautious, and well alarmed.