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ALTERNATIVES

Engr. Charity Hope Gayatin

Learning Unit Objective

**to evaluate correctly capital investment alternatives when the
**

time value of money is a key influence.

Making decisions means comparing alternatives. . In this chapter we examine feasible design alternatives. The decisions considered are those selecting from among a set of mutually exclusive alternatives—when selecting one excludes the choice of any of the others.

The alternatives must provide comparable “usefulness”: performance. quality. The basic methods for determining project profitability provide the basis for economic comparison of the alternatives. The alternative that requires the minimum investment of capital and produces satisfactory functional results will be chosen unless the incremental capital associated with an alternative having a larger investment can be justified with respect to its incremental benefits. . The alternatives may have different initial investments and their annual revenues and costs may vary.Mutually exclusive alternatives (MEAs) We examine these on the basis of economic considerations alone. etc. This alternative is the base alternative.

For alternatives that have a larger investment than the base… If the extra benefits obtained by investing additional capital are better than those that could be obtained from investment of the same capital elsewhere in the company at the Minimum Attractive Rate of Return (MARR). which will be examined later. (Please note that there are some cautions when considering more than two alternatives. the investment should be made.) .

savings through reduced costs.There are two basic types of alternatives. or both. Cost Alternatives Those with all negative cash flows. except for a possible positive cash flow from disposal of assets at the end of the project’s useful life. . Investment Alternatives Those with initial (or front-end) capital investment that produces positive cash flows from increased revenue.

to be attractive. Select the alternative with the largest (smallest in absolute value) PW.Select the alternative that gives you the most money! For investment alternatives the PW of all cash flows must be positive. Select the alternative with the largest PW. . at the MARR. For cost alternatives the PW of all cash flows will be negative.

000 $34.000 Both alternatives are attractive.000 -$125.Investment alternative example Use a MARR of 10% and useful life of 5 years to select between the investment alternatives below. so is better economically.000 $41. . but alternative B provides a greater present worth. Alternative Capital investment Annual revenues less expenses A B -$100.

000 Alternative D costs less than alternative C. . Alternative C D Capital investment -$80.000 -$30.000 Annual expenses -$25. it has a greater PW. so is better economically.Cost alternative example Use a MARR of 12% and useful life of 4 years to select between the cost alternatives below.000 -$60.

033 Investment .000 $125. There are several different styles and types of furnaces. Using a MARR of 15%.000 $138. Initial capital investment and annual expenses for each alternative are given in the table below.Pause and solve Your local foundry is adding a new furnace.625 $45. which furnace should be chosen? Furnace F1 F2 F3 $110. so the foundry must select from among a set of mutually exclusive alternatives. None have any market value at the end of its useful life.800 $51.000 Useful life 10 years 10 years 10 years Total annual expenses $53.

and it must be appropriate for the decision situation. .Determining the study period. A study period (or planning horizon) is the time period over which MEAs are compared. MEAs can have equal lives (in which case the study period used is these equal lives). and was used in the previous two examples. and at least one does not match the study period. The equal life case is straightforward. or they can have unequal lives.

Repeatability assumption The study period is either indefinitely long or equal to a common multiple of the lives of the MEAs. The economic consequences expected during the MEAs’ life spans will also happen in succeeding life spans (replacements).Unequal lives are handled in one of two ways. Co-terminated assumption: uses a finite and identical study period for all MEAs. . Cash flow adjustments may be made to satisfy alternative performance needs over the study period.

000 $10. The decision will be the same regardless of the equivalent worth method you use.000 $15.000 -$85.000 $11.000 10 10 10 10 Capital investment Life (years) .000 -$550 -$500 -$700 Market Value (EOL) $20.000 -$75.000 $16.000 Annual expenses -$1. or AW) calculated using the MARR. For a MARR of 12%. FW.Comparing MEAs with equal lives.000 -$120. The MEAs can be compared by directly comparing their equivalent worth (PW.000 $6.000 $22.000 Annual revenues $28. Alternatives A B C D -$150. select from among the MEAs below. When lives are equal adjustments to cash flows are not required.

Annual worth analysis—the decision is the same. .Selecting the best alternative. Present worth analysis select Alternative A (but C is close).

the base alternative must be attractive (rate of return greater than the MARR). Remember.Using rates of return is another way to compare alternatives. and the additional investment in other alternatives must itself make a satisfactory rate of return on that increment. Selecting the alternative with the largest rate of return can lead to incorrect decisions—do not compare the IRR of one alternative to the IRR of another alternative. The return on investment (rate of return) is a popular measure of investment performance. The only legitimate comparison is the IRR to the MARR. .

Iteratively evaluate differences (incremental cash flows) between alternatives until all have been considered. Investment alternatives—the first acceptable alternative (IRR>MARR) is the base. Establish a base alternative. Arrange (rank order) the feasible alternatives based on increasing capital investment.Use the incremental investment analysis procedure. Cost alternatives—the first alternative is the base. .

FW. Subtract cash flows of the lower ranked alternative from the higher ranked.. the lower ranked alternative is the “winner. Continue until all alternatives have been considered. . PW.Evaluating incremental cash flows Work up the order of ranked alternatives smallest to largest. it is the “winner. AW all >0).g. Determine if the incremental initial investment in the higher ranked alternative is attractive (e.” The “loser” from this comparison is removed from consideration. This works for both cost and investment alternatives. If it is attractive.” If not. IRR>MARR.

500 $10. A Alt.200 15% 14% 11% Which is preferred using a 5 year study period and MARR=10%? Both alternatives A and B are acceptable—each one has a rate of return that exceeds the MARR. B Alt. A -$25.000 -$35.000 $7.Incremental analysis Initial cost Net annual income IRR on total cash flow Alt.200 $3. Choosing Alternative A because of its larger IRR would be an incorrect decision. B-Alt. Also note… . By examining the incremental cash flows we see that the extra amount invested in Alternative B earns a return that exceeds the IRR—so B is preferred to A.000 -$10.

net annual income.050 $3. and Acme’s MARR is 12%.000 Net annual income $2.99% 14.400 12. Each has an expected life of 8 years with no salvage value.500 $14.Pause and solve Acme Molding is examining 5 alternatives for a piece of material handling equipment.620 $4.000 $12.61% IRR . Using an incremental analysis.500 $2. and IRR for each alternative.520 $3.48% 14.99% 12.04% 13. which material handling alternative should be chosen? The table below includes initial investment.400 $16. Alternative A B C D E Capital investment $12.250 $20.

simplified comparison of alternatives. when applicable. The repeatability assumption. This is most often used in engineering practice because product life cycles are becoming shorter. . an appropriate study period must be selected (the co-terminated assumption). If repeatability cannot be used.Comparing MEAs with unequal lives.

after the study period . with possibly different cash flows.The useful life of an alternative is less than the study period. Cost alternatives Contracting or leasing for remaining years may be appropriate Repeat part of the useful life and use an estimated market value to truncate Investment alternatives Cash flows reinvested at the MARR at the end of the study period Replace with another asset.

. The underlying principle in all such analysis is to compare the MEAs in a decision situation over the same study (analysis) period.The useful life of an alternative is greater than the study period. using an estimated market value. Truncate the alternative at the end of the study period.

For co-termination. If repeatability can be assumed. and recommending the one having the most economical value. use any equivalent worth method using the cash flows available for the study period. the MEAs are most easily compared by finding the annual worth (AW) of each alternative over its own useful life.Equivalent worth methods can be used for MEAs with unequal lives. .

A B Capital Investment $3.480 Useful Live (years) 4 6 Solving.We can use incremental rate of return analysis on MEAs with unequal lives. so Alt B is preferred. we find i*=26%. Equate the MEAs annual worths (AW) over their respective lives.000 Annual Cash Flow $1. .255 $1.500 $5.

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