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1) Electrical Department, Sepuluh Nopember of Institute Technology

Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia

Introduction

Synchronous machine model for

stability study

Developing Swing equation

Steady-state stability – small

disturbance

Stability analysis on Swing equation

Transient stability

Equal Area Criterion

INTRODUCTION TO STABILITY

What is stability

**the tendency of power system to restore the state of
**

equilibrium after the disturbance

**mostly concerned with the behavior of synchronous
**

machine after a disturbance

**in short, if synchronous machines can remain
**

synchronism after disturbances, we say that system is

stable

Stability issue

**steady-state stability – the ability of power system to
**

regain synchronism after small and slow disturbances

such as gradual power change

transient stability – the ability of power system to

regain synchronism after large and sudden

disturbances such as a fault

POWER ANGLE

Power angle

**relative angle r between
**

rotor mmf and air-gap

mmf (angle between Fr

and Fsr), both rotating in

synchronous speed

also the angle r between

no-load generated emf E

and stator voltage Esr

also the angle between

emf E and terminal

voltage V, if neglecting

armature resistance and

leakage flux

use X’d for steady-state analysis. X’d. or Xd for very short time of transient analysis. X’’d. use Xd . use X’’d for short time of transient analysis.SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS FOR STABILITY STUDY Simplified synchronous machine model the simplified machine model is decided by the proper reactances.

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS FOR STABILITY STUDY Simplified synchronous machine model Vg V jX’d E’ ZL Zs substation bus voltage and frequency remain constant is referred as infinite bus generator is represented by a constant voltage E’ behind direct axis transient reactance X’d .

11.23 V E’ I1 I2 y10 2 y12 1 y20 use equivalent line model for currents I1 y10 y12 y12 E ' V I y y y 20 12 2 12 real power at node 1 Pe E ' Y11 cos 11 E ' V Y12 cos 12 2 .SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS FOR STABILITY STUDY Converting the network into equivalent circuit for the conversion. please see Eq.

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS FOR STABILITY STUDY Real power flow equation let –y12 = 1 / X12 E' V sin simplified real power equation: Pe X 12 Power angle curve Pe Pmax Pmax E' V X 12 Pe Pm 0 0 π/2 π gradual increase of generator power output is possible until Pmax (max power transferred) is reached max power is referred as steady-state stability limit at =90o .

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS FOR STABILITY STUDY Transient stability analysis condition: generator is suddenly short-circuited current during the transient is limited by X’d voltage behind reactance E’=Vg+jX’dIa Vg is the generator terminal voltage. probably with smaller X’d . Ia is prefault steady state generator current phenomena: field flux linkage will tend to remain constant during the initial disturbance. thus E’ is assumed constant transient power angle curve has the same form as steady-state curve but with higher peak value.

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS FOR STABILITY STUDY Phasor diagram of salient-pole machine condition: under steady state with armature resistance neglected jI d X d X q Iq E Iq X q Id jIX q Ia V jI d X q jI d X d .

V is generator terminal voltage in pu .SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS FOR STABILITY STUDY Phasor diagram of salient-pole machine power angle equation in per unit EV 2 Xd Xq P sin V sin 2 Xd 2Xd Xq voltage equation in per unit E V cos X d I d V cos X d I a sin E is no-load generated emf in pu.

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS FOR STABILITY STUDY Calculation of voltage E starting with a given (known) terminal voltage V and armature current Ia. we need to calculate first by using phasor diagram and then result in voltage E X q I a cos tan V X I sin q a 1 E V cos X d I a sin once E is obtained. P could be calculated .

then calculate |E’q|: Eq' V cos X d' I a sin see example 11.SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS FOR STABILITY STUDY Transient power equation for salient machine Pe Eq' V X ' d sin V 2 X d' X q ' d 2X Xq sin 2 this equation represents the behavior of SM in early part of transient period calculate first.1 .

during the normal operation.DEVELOPING SWING EQUATION Synchronous machine operation consider a synchronous generator with electromagnetic torque Te running at synchronous speed ωsm. Ta<0 if decelerating) . the mechanical torque Tm = Te a disturbance occur will result in accelerating/decelerating torque Ta=Tm-Te (Ta>0 if accelerating.

t.r. stationery reference frame on the stator .DEVELOPING SWING EQUATION Synchronous machine operation introduce the combined moment of inertia of prime mover and generator J by the law of rotation -- d 2m J Ta Tm Te 2 dt m is the angular displacement of rotor w.

DEVELOPING SWING EQUATION Derivation of swing equation m = ωsmt+m. we obtain – d 2m d 2 m 2 dt dt 2 . ωsm is the constant angular velocity take the derivative of m. we obtain – dm d m sm dt dt take the second derivative of m.

DEVELOPING SWING EQUATION Derivation of swing equation substitute into the law of rotation d 2 m J Ta Tm Te 2 dt multiplying ωm to obtain power equation d 2 m d 2 m Jm M mTm mTe Pm Pe 2 2 dt dt .

DEVELOPING SWING EQUATION Derivation of swing equation swing equation in terms of inertial constant M d 2 m M Pm Pe 2 dt relations between electrical power angle and mechanical power angle m and electrical speed and mechanical speed p m . 2 p m where p is pole number 2 .

where M m ( pu) e ( pu) s dt 2 s .DEVELOPING SWING EQUATION Derivation of swing equation swing equation in terms of electrical power angle 2 d 2 M 2 Pm Pe p dt converting the swing equation into per unit system 2 H d 2 2H P P .

DEVELOPING SWING EQUATION Derivation of swing equation swing equation in terms of inertial constant M d 2 m M Pm Pe 2 dt relations between electrical power angle and mechanical power angle m and electrical speed and mechanical speed p m . 2 p m where p is pole number 2 .

where M 2 s dt s .DEVELOPING SWING EQUATION Derivation of swing equation swing equation in terms of electrical power angle 2 d 2 M 2 Pm Pe p dt converting the swing equation into per unit system 2 H d 2 2H Pm ( pu) Pe ( pu) .

5 t. sec 2 2.5 3 . electrical power angle as a function of time 30 25 20 15 10 0 0.5 1 1.DEVELOPING SWING EQUATION Derivation of swing equation swing equation plot.

STEADY-STATE STABILITY – SMALL DISTURBANCE Steady-state stability the ability of power system to remain its synchronism and returns to its original state when subjected to small disturbances such stability is not affected by any control efforts such as voltage regulators or governor .

472) simplify the nonlinear function of power angle .37 (see pg.11.STEADY-STATE STABILITY – SMALL DISTURBANCE Analysis of steady-state stability by swing equation starting from swing equation H d 2 Pm ( pu) Pe ( pu) Pm Pmax sin 2 f 0 dt introduce a small disturbance Δ derivation is from Eq.

STEADY-STATE STABILITY – SMALL DISTURBANCE Analysis of steady-state stability by swing equation swing equation in terms of Δ H d 2 Pm cos 0 0 2 f 0 dt PS dP d 0 Pmax cos 0 PS=Pmax cos0: the slope of the power-angle curve at 0. PS is positive when 0 < < 90o (See figure 11.3) the second order differential equation H d 2 PS 0 2 f 0 dt .

one root is in RHP and system is unstable rule 2: if PS is positive. system is marginally stable rule 2 : the oscillatory frequency of the undamped system f n 0 H PS .STEADY-STATE STABILITY – SMALL DISTURBANCE Characteristic equation: s 2 f 0 H PS rule 1: if PS is negative. two roots in the jω axis and motion is oscillatory and undamped.

an induction torque will be set up on rotor tending to minimize the difference of velocities introduce a damping power by damping torque Pd D d dt introduce the damping power into swing equation H d 2 d D PS 0 2 f 0 dt dt .STEADY-STATE STABILITY – SMALL DISTURBANCE Damping torque phenomena: when there is a difference angular velocity between rotor and air gap field.

5o the linearized equation is valid only for very small power impact and deviation from the operating state a large sudden impact may result in unstable state even if the impact is less than the steady state power limit .79o.3 using the state space matrix to solve and ω the original state 0=16.STEADY STATE STABILITY EXAMPLE Example 11. new state after ΔP is imposed =22.

0i .3 the characteristic equation of determinant (sI-A) or eigenvalue of A can tell the stability of system system is asymptotically stable iff eigenvalues of A are in LHP in this case. eigenvalues of A are -1.3 6.STEADY STATE STABILITY EXAMPLE Example 11.

STABILITY ANALYSIS ON SWING EQUATION Characteristic equation: d 2 d 2 2 n n 0 2 dt dt Analysis of characteristic equation s 2 2n s n2 0 for damping coefficient D 2 f 0 HPS 1 .

s2 have negative real part if PS is positive.STABILITY ANALYSIS ON SWING EQUATION Analysis of characteristic equation roots of characteristic equation s1. s2 - n jn 1 2 damped frequency of oscillation d n 1 2 positive damping (1>>0): s1. this implies the response is bounded and system is stable .

STABILITY ANALYSIS ON SWING EQUATION Solution of the swing equation d 2 d 2 2 n n 0 2 dt dt roots of swing equation 0 1 2 e nt sind t . 0 n 0 e t sind t 1 2 1 2 n n . 0 0 1 2 e nt sind t rotor angular frequency n 0 t e sind t .

STABILITY ANALYSIS ON SWING EQUATION Solution of the swing equation response time constant 1 n 2H f 0 D settling time: tS 4 relations between settling time and inertia constant H: increase H will result in longer tS. decrease ωn and .

TRANSIENT STABILITY Transient stability to determine whether or not synchronism is maintained after machine has been subject to severe disturbance Severe disturbance sudden application of loads (steel mill) loss of generation (unit trip) loss of large load (line trip) a fault on the system (lightning) .

TRANSIENT STABILITY System response after large disturbance oscillations of rotor angle result in large magnitude that linearlization is not feasible must use nonlinear swing equation to solve the problem .

TRANSIENT STABILITY Rotor Angle Unstable Disturbance Stable Time .

EQUAL AREA CRITERION Equal area criterion can be used to quickly predict system stability after disturbance only applicable to a one-machine system connected to an infinite bus or a twomachine system .

EQUAL AREA CRITERION Derivation of rotor relative speed from swing equation starting from the swing equation with damping neglected H d 2 Pm Pe Pa . please see pp. 2 fo dt Pa accelerati on power for detailed derivation.486 the swing equation end up with d 2f o dt H P m o Pe d .

EQUAL AREA CRITERION Synchronous machine relative speed equation d 2f o dt H P m Pe d o the equation gives relative speed of machine with respect to the synchronous revolving reference frame if stability of system needs to be maintained. the speed equation must be zero sometimes after the disturbance .

corresponding to power input Pm0 = Pe0 a sudden step increase of Pm1 is applied results in accelerating power to increase power angle to 1 .EQUAL AREA CRITERION Stability analysis stability criterion P m Pe d 0 o consider machine operating at the equilibrium point o.

still increases . the electrical power matches new input power Pm1. rotor acceleration is zero but relative speed is still positive (rotor speed is above synchronous speed).EQUAL AREA CRITERION Stability analysis the excess energy stored in rotor 1 P m Pe d area abc area A1 o when =1.

EQUAL AREA CRITERION Stability analysis as long as increases. at this time the new Pe >Pm1 and makes rotor to decelerate max P m1 Pe d area bde area A2 1 rotor swing back to b and the angle max makes |area A1|=|area A2| . Pe increases.

EQUAL AREA CRITERION Equal area criterion (stable condition) A2 Pm1 Pm0 A c1 b d A2max e Pm1 max 1 a 0 0 1 max t0 Equal Criteria: A1 = A2 A1 < A2max A1 = A2max A1 > A2max Stable Critically Stable Unstable t .

figure 11.489.APPLICATION TO SUDDEN INCREASE OF POWER INPUT Stability analysis of equal area criterion stability is maintained only if area A2 at least equal to A1 if A2 < A1. where 1 = -max .12) max o sin max cos max cos 0 max can be calculated by iterative method Pmax is obtained by Pm=Pmaxsin1. accelerating momentum can never be overcome Limit of stability when max is at intersection of line Pm and power-angle curve is 90o < < 180o the max can be derived as (see pp.

SOLUTION TO STABILITY ON SUDDEN INCREASE OF POWER INPUT Calculation of max max o sin max cos max cos 0 max can be calculated by iterative Newton Raphson method assume the above equation is f(max) = c .

SOLUTION TO STABILITY ON SUDDEN INCREASE OF POWER INPUT Calculation of max starting with initial estimate of /2 < max(k) < . Δ gives (k ) max (k ) c f max df d max ( k ) max where (k ) (k ) max 0 cos max df d max (k ) max the updated max(k+1) max(k+1) = max(k) + Δ max(k) .

SOLUTION TO STABILITY ON SUDDEN INCREASE OF POWER INPUT Equal-area criterion applied to the sudden change in power 2 Power. degree 140 160 180 . per unit 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Power angle.

5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Power angle. per unit 1. degree 140 160 180 .5 1 0.SOLUTION TO STABILITY ON SUDDEN INCREASE OF POWER INPUT Equal-area criterion applied to the sudden change in power 2 Power.

APPLICATION TO THREE PHASE FAULT Three phase bolt fault case – a temporary three phase bolt fault occurs at sending end of line at bus 1 1 Pe F – fault occurs at 0. Pe = 0 – power angle curve corresponds to horizontal axis – machine accelerate. stored – energy reduced to zero at f – A1(abcd) = A2(defg) f e A Pm a d2 g A1 b c 0 c max . increase until fault cleared at c – fault cleared at c shifts operation to original power angle curve at e – net power is decelerating.

APPLICATION TO THREE PHASE FAULT . Pe>Pm f rotor decelerates and retraces e along power angle curve passing through e and a rotor angle would swing back and forth around 0 at ωn with inherent damping.NEAR SENDING END Three phase bolt fault case Pe when rotor angle reach f. operating point returns to 0 A Pm a d2 g A1 b c 0 c max .

APPLICATION TO THREE PHASE FAULT .NEAR SENDING END Critical clearing time critical clearing angle is reached when further increase in c cause A2 < A1 c 0 Pmd max c Pmax sin Pm d cos c Pm max 0 cos max Pmax we obtain c from swing equation H d 2 f 0 dt 2 Pm integrating both sides from t = 0 to tc we obtain the critical clearing time 2 H c 0 t c f 0 Pm .

2 1 Pm 0.4 1.NEAR SENDING END Application of equal area criterion to a critically cleared system Critical clearing angle = 84.8 0.4 0.6 0.2 0 0 CB trip 20 40 60 80 100 120 Power angle.6 Power. per unit 1.8 1. degree 140 CB reclose 160 180 .7745 1.APPLICATION TO THREE PHASE FAULT .

AWAY FROM SENDING END Three phase bolt fault case a temporary three phase fault occurs away from sending end of bus 1 1 Pe F f A fault occurs at 0. increase A1 c B from 0 (b) until fault cleared at c (c) b fault cleared at c shifts operation 0 c max to curve C at e net power is decelerating. stored energy reduced to zero at f A1(abcd) = A2(defg) . Pe is reduced e C power angle curve corresponds A a d g to curve B 2 Pm machine accelerate.APPLICATION TO THREE PHASE FAULT .

operating point returns to the point that Pm line intercept with curve C e C A Pm a d 2 g A1 c b 0 c max B .AWAY FROM SENDING END Pe Three phase bolt fault case A f when rotor angle reach f.APPLICATION TO THREE PHASE FAULT . Pe>Pm rotor decelerates and rotor angle would swing back and forth around e at ωn with inherent damping.

AWAY FROM SENDING END Critical clearing angle critical clearing angle is reached when further increase in c cause A2 < A1 c max 0 c Pm c 0 P2 max sin d P3 max sin d Pm max c we obtain c Pm max 0 P3 max cos max P2 max cos 0 cos c P3 max P2 max .APPLICATION TO THREE PHASE FAULT .

5 use power curve equation to solve max and then c .23) curve c: after fault is cleared. 11.APPLICATION TO THREE PHASE FAULT . the second line is isolated See example 11.AWAY FROM SENDING END The difference between curve b and curve c is due to the different line reactance curve b: the second line is shorted in the middle point (Fig.

APPLICATION TO THREE PHASE FAULT .2 0 0 20 40 1= 26.8 P = 1.8 P = 0.46 sin 1.390 60 80 100 120 Power angle.65 sin 0.6 0.AWAY FROM SENDING END Application of equal area criterion to a critically cleared system Critical clearing angle = 98.8 1 Pm 0. degree c= 98.36 0.6 Power.800 140 160 m= 146.580 180 .80 sin 1.8335 1.4 r1=0. per unit 1.4 P = 1.2 r2 = 0.

Continue integrating and observe the response and monitor bus voltage levels. Remove the fault after some time (representing the relay setting time plus breaker clearing time). Stop when stability condition has been determined. .Most common transient stability analysis is numerical simulation Apply a fault and integrate the differential equations of all the generators while the fault is on.

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