Journal of Medical Systems

(Manuscript No. MS:6699892415035920)

A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for Wireless Body
Area Sensor Networks
Sana Akram1 · Nadeem Javaid2,∗ ·
Ashfaq Ahmad2 · Zahoor Ali Khan3 ·
Muhammad Imran4 · Mohsen Guizani5 ·
Amir Hayat2 · Manzoor Ilahi2

Received: / Accepted: May 26, 2015

This manuscript should be cited as:
Sana Akram, Nadeem Javaid, Ashfaq Ahmad, Zahoor Ali Khan, Muhammad Imran, Mohsen
Guizani, Amir Hayat, Manzoor Ilahi, “A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for Wireless Body Area
Sensor Networks”, Journal of Medical Systems (in press), 2015.

Abstract As players and soldiers preform strenuous exercises and do difficult
and tiring duties, they are usually the common victims of muscular fatigue.
Keeping this in mind, we propose FAtigue MEasurement (FAME) protocol
for soccer players and soldiers using in-vivo sensors for Wireless Body Area
Sensor Networks (WBASNs). In FAME, we introduce a composite parameter
for fatigue measurement by setting a threshold level for each sensor. Whenever,
any sensed data exceeds its threshold level, the players or soldiers are declared
to be in a state of fatigue. Moreover, we use a vibration pad for the relaxation of
fatigued muscles, and then utilize the vibrational energy by means of vibration
detection circuit to recharge the in-vivo sensors. The induction circuit achieves
about 68% link efficiency. Simulation results show better performance of the
proposed FAME protocol, in the chosen scenarios, as compared to an existing
Wireless Soccer Team Monitoring (WSTM) protocol in terms of the selected
metrics.
Keywords Wireless body area sensor networks · multiple sinks · fatigue
measurement · routing · link efficiency · voltage gain · vibration detection and
vibration energy
1 Institute

of Space Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3 CIS, Higher Colleges of Technology, Fujairah Campus, UAE
4 King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
5 Qatar University, Qatar
∗ Corresponding
author is from Department of Computer Science,
javaidqau@gmail.com, www.njavaid.com
2 COMSATS

nadeem-

2

Sana Akram et al. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs

1 Introduction
Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs) have attracted attention
since 1995. The objective was to make communication at and near the human
body possible to measure different body attributes. The whole idea behind
developing these networks is to provide better health care services to patients
and elderly people. With modern medicine and better lifestyle, the average
expectation of life has increased. Nowadays, these devices are more needed
than ever before since our society has a higher number of elderly people who
need continuous monitoring and urgent medical aid. WBASN is excellent for
this purpose with very little human interventions [1].
Besides health monitoring of elderly people and critical patients, WBASNs
are also used in many other fields where continuous and remote monitoring of
health is necessary. These fields include players in different sports, astronauts
in space, soldiers in battle fields, etc.
For health monitoring of athletes and other players, parameters like respiratory rate, heart rate, blood oxygen, blood glucose and body temperature
are important. Another important issue with players is what is called “muscles
fatigue”. Commercially, many sensors are available for fatigue measurements
like temperature and heartbeat measuring sensors. However, the sensors measuring amount of lactic acid in muscles can provide more accurate results. This
is due to the requirement of more oxygen; lethargic muscles, which is fulfilled
at the production of lactic acid (as a by product) [2].
The idea of accurately measuring players’ fatigue levels can revolutionize
the sports industry across the globe. The sports that include more physical exertion and include a team of players of different stamina, can benefit the most.
One of the most popular games that fall under this category is soccer. Fans
get very upset when their favorite player(s) show bad performance because of
fatigue.
Typically, in-vivo sensors are used for soccer players that are not only
small in size but are also easy to use [3]. Being too small, these sensors have
low battery power and thus their data transmission rates are very limited.
Generation and transmission of redundant data is minimized by using different
threshold levels for sensors. A data packet is only generated by the sensor node
when the sensed value is equal to or above the provided threshold level.
As players and soldiers are the common victims of muscular fatigue due
to strenuous exercises and difficult duties. In FAME protocol, we introduce
a composite parameter for fatigue measurement by setting a threshold level
for each sensor. Whenever, any sensed data exceeds its threshold level, the
players or soldiers are declared to be in a state of fatigue. Moreover, we use
two threshold values for players and three threshold values for soldiers fatigue
measurement. For players fatigue measurement, we use a threshold for lactic
acid level in the blood and a threshold for total distance traveled by the player.
Whereas, for soldiers fatigue measurement, in addition to the aforementioned
two parameters, we also use a temperature sensor. This is because soldiers do
not have controlled or constant environmental parameters as players do. A

down hills. and then utilize the vibrational energy by means of vibration detection circuit to recharge the in-vivo sensors. Activity recognition theory. section VII includes a mathematical model for recharging implanted sensors. This AAT is based on ambient intelligence paradigm. present design and implementation of a body area sensor network and a gaming platform to dynamically adapt the physiotherapy treatments. Furthermore. To provide assistance to people. However. our contribution in this paper is to propose a fatigue measuring protocol for soldiers and a mathematical model for recharging the implanted sensors. Then planning is performed accordingly to each person. the used algorithm finds difference in patterns of the recently observed data from the stored data. As different people show different movements during various activities. crosses bridges and barriers. section IX concludes the paper. goes up hills. one of the major challenges is to correctly recognize their activities. This tool can be applied for continuous vital sign monitoring.Journal of Medical Systems. authors give a sparse representation theory for humans’ actions monitoring using inertial sensors. Kashif Kifayat et al. 2 Related Work Authors in [5] use wearable sensors to monitor humans’ daily life activities. section IV presents the FAME protocol for players. it is challenging to correctly monitor all of their movements and actions. Researchers in [7] introduce an Ambient Assisted Tool (AAT) for elderly people. . the game reaches its higher levels and becomes difficult. location detection and fall detection of humans. section III discusses experimental details for players as well as soldiers. presented in this article. For this purpose. Motivated by our preliminary work in this area [4]. a player performs strenuous exercises for a limited period of time within a controlled environment. so. section IV explains the basic fatigue measuring parameters and specifies the speed profile of a soccer player and a soldier. etc. a game and a data acquisition manager. The proposed framework uses three components side by side which includes a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). After this step. Routine activities are observed using different sensors. simulation results as well as their discussions are included in section VIII. section V extends the FAME protocol for use by soldiers. The WSN collects the information from the patients and forwards it to the data acquisition manager which then provides updates to the game. we use a vibration pad for the relaxation of fatigued muscles. Rest of the paper is organized as follows: section II presents the related work. They validated the method by carefully recognizing 9 different daily life activities by 14 subjects. As time passes by and the patient shows better mobility. section VI provides a technique to relax fatigued muscles.1% precise. 2015 3 soldier while exercising. In [6]. is almost 96. This is done to provide accurate training for patients with the passage of time.

4 Sana Akram et al. M-ATTEMPT uses. Lo et al. also report the experimental results of the proposed scheme for sensors that are resource limited. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs M-ATTEMPT [8] is an energy efficient routing protocol for heterogeneous sensors attached with the human body for continuous patient monitoring. whereas. If echograph is embedded with HIS network. . in absolute coordinates. It is a thermal aware protocol which when senses a hot-spot on the route. This technique is very helpful for calculating mobility patterns and observing daily life activities of a patient. multi hop is used for emergency data. in [9] introduce a Personal Wireless Hub (PWH) to collect Patient Health Information (PHI). Each player has BASN which provides players’ position information throughout the game. immediately changes its route by skipping that node until it is back to its normal temperature. This technique protects human tissues from being damaged. single hop communication for the delivery of normal data. Dhamdhere et al. longitudinally along the length of patients body. The technique is to use a barcode against each picture of the patient. The sensed data is then routed towards the health care center. The encryption scheme generates a key for every sensor’s data and the key is updated on a regular basis. echographs machines and network digital cameras. Information is collected via biomedical sensors. and then calculate the delay along with resource consumption profile of the WBASN for each team member. Authors. These results show that the protocol produces manageable overhead for these sensors. This technique reliably maps patients limb positions. This information saves precious time and lives. respectively. This is done by measuring and comparing instantaneous air pressures on each sensor node. Ubiquitous echograph is a common medical imaging device. Spatial information helps in identifying the exact location of sensors on the body. Researchers observe that only critical and important data should be routed to the PWH and this data must be secured. Researchers in [13] observe the Hospital Information System (HIS) and introduce an idea to embed different medical devices into the system. it is quite easy for doctors to immediately diagnose patients. The embedded network digital camera also saves hospital’s time and resources by assisting staff in recognizing the patients. They design a new mobility model called DynaMo and compared its delay and throughput with the Reference Point Group Mobility model (RPGM). then. He et al. Nardis et al. They give their own design where they divide team members into different categories on the basis of position from the sink. Authors present an encryption procedure based on polynomial authentication scheme. These devices are. in [12] use body area networks for soccer players to generate a realistic mobility model. The sink is placed at the center of the body. They present different challenges for monitoring soccer players. provide a real time team monitoring for a soccer match [11]. in [10] present a new approach to determine the location of nodes on the patients’ body. The communication is done using inter-BAN multi-hopping.

indoor positioning and ECG monitoring for the patients that are using it. and present a medium access control protocol and a thorough survey on energy efficient protocols for WBANs. called Wireless Soccer Team Monitoring (WSTM). so.Journal of Medical Systems. increasing network lifetime. Heart Rate Monitors (HRMs) are commonly used as a training aid in sports. the end to end transmission delay and network traffic increase accordingly. using coupled coils. 2015 5 Authors in [14] present a ZigBee based routing protocol to monitor patients. This wireless network performs fall detection. Voltage gain and link efficiency are used to verify reliability of the designed link. i. a fall is detected. The model ensures efficient energy and data transmission in implanted electronic devices. in [2] propose a new remote monitoring mechanism for soccer players. Ice hockey is very strenuous and difficult game because of its high speed requirements. In [21]. inductive link design. respectively. It uses a respiratory rate monitoring system and audio processing on the collected data to find fatigue in players. authors present. Two sinks are placed behind the goals and each player is equipped with a sub-BANs to calculate fatigue. for low network latency. players or soldiers or patients monitoring. treatment methodology. Keeping this in mind. They use multihopping topology for data routing in the network. parameter monitoring. In [19]. implement a heart rate monitoring algorithm for players. When HRMs are incorporated with WBAN. an inductive link is designed for medical implants. the network is able to tell the exact location of the fall to the hospital crew. etc. experiments are conducted on players as well as soldiers.e. Authors in [15] and [16] worked on a MAC layer of the OSI model. Whenever. Garcia et al. an inductive power system is proposed in which the implant receives power from an external transmitter through an inductive link between an external power transmission coil and the implanted receiving coil.. the existing protocols achieve reliable communication by using either broadcast or multi-cast transmissions. The paper focuses on using inexpensive sensors for college students playing ice hockey. performing strenuous exercises [17]. they can provide continuous and accurate monitoring of players during hard exercises. Zulkifli et al. In [20]. an innovative modeling method for mutual inductance of two magnetically coupled coils in an inductive link is proposed. Most of the existing literature seems to be focused on one of the specific aspects. any-cast routing protocol for patients’ vital signs monitoring. . Our approach considers all of the mentioned parameters along with a diversified range of applications. The results are plotted for the parameters of voltage gain and link efficiency. these protocols are also limited to one specific application. Lerer et al. As. Moreover. The protocol selects any receiver which is near the sensor. provide a personnel management system for collecting vital health information for ice-hockey players [18].

9 km/hour.6 Sana Akram et al. 1: Soccer player’s speed profile 3 Experimental Details for a Soccer Match and Battle Field The standard size of a soccer ground vary from 100 yards to 120 yards in length and 60 yards to 80 yards in width. direction and ball possession can all be compromised if he cannot recover from the fatigue. Soccer players usually sprint during the possession of the ball. 11 players per team. This distance is not only covered by running but. The first one needs 4 to 5 players in their own half of the field. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs Fig. A soccer player attempts approximately 100 sprints per match lasting about 2-5 seconds. We choose 106 × 68 square yards for the soccer field. The average running speed of a player can vary from 10. We can not predict anything about a war before it actually happens. some sprinting is also performed [22] as shown in the statistics provided in fig. the rest of the players try to be in the opponents half to try to score as many goals as possible in order to win the game. So.. The speed and fatigue analyses of players and soldiers are discussed in the following two subsections. 3. he can be seriously injured leading to a possible permanent damage of muscular tissues. where the total number of players from both teams is 22. On average. the total distance covered by a professional player is slightly more than 11 km per match (nearly 7 miles). to avoid this. a threshold for fatigue level must be defined beyond which players may face serious health issues. for a single match. Whereas. If a player continues to run instead of taking rest then. and can attain 25 km/hour at maximum [23]. Defense and attack are the two commonly used game strategies. to 12. Strategies of a war are also very diversified.3 km/hour. Soccer player’s speed.1 Speed analysis for soccer players On average. the minimum work to rest ratio for a soccer player is 1:2 [24]. the duration of a soccer match is from 90 to 100 minutes. During this time. In contrast to a soccer match. neither the boundaries nor the time period of the war are specific.e. . 1. i.

if the O2 supply is not enough then the pyruvate changes into lactate which is then transformed into energy as shown in fig. This shows the applicability of lactic acid as a good parameter to measure fatigue [25]. A human body generates most of the energy using aerobic methods. In harsh environments and difficult conditions.2 Speed analysis for soldiers As mentioned earlier that the parameters for war. mg/dL = milligrams per deciliter and mmol/L = millimoles per liter [26]. However. Otherwise most of the time. . When humans perform any vigorous exercise or do sprinting or swimming. Typically. lactic acid will start to accumulate in the muscles. glucose is metabolized into pyruvate which is further broken down in the presence of enough O2 to generate energy. 2015 7 Fig. a soldier mostly walks.5-2. the body uses anaerobic methods such as glycolysis which uses glucose for energy production. is an in-vivo sensor which includes a needle. they begin to inhale faster to send more oxygen to the working muscles. Normal results show a value between 4. Where.8 mg/dL (0. The number and duration of sprints for a soldier are also comparatively higher than that of a player. pricking the muscle to draw blood. 3. The sensor used to measure lactic acid level. In glycolysis. 2: Lactic acid production process in muscles 3. under some circumstances. 2.3 Muscular fatigue measurement for players and soldiers Muscular fatigue is commonly explained as the inability of muscles to generate any force.Journal of Medical Systems. However.5 to 19. where the required amount of oxygen (O2 ) is more as compared to the normally needed level. are very difficult to predict. the duties and exercises performed by a soldier are very strenuous. soldiers run.2 mmol/L). If muscular cells do the above mentioned practice for more than 3 minutes. battle or even a small military mission.

4) whose locations are given in table I. in team sports like soccer or hockey. fitness of each player is not only important but is also considered a match winning criteria. coaches and health officials immediately take precautionary measures to handle the situation which reduces the chances of any further injury. WBAN applications require minimum propagation delay as well as minimum energy consumption. we use direct transmission methods in the network topology supported by using multiple sinks at the boarder of the ground. any critical condition occurs. while minimizing the propagation delay. the normal running speed is assumed to be 10-12 km/hour. In FAME. during the transmission of fatigue information). we have deployed multiple sinks to minimize the communication distance which leads to minimization of propagation delay and minimization of nodes’ energy consumption (i. 3: Soccer player 4 The FAME Proposed Technique for Players In any sport. The assumed maximum speed is 25 km/hour. 3. sprinting and many other tiring activities. we use 6 sinks fixed at the boundaries of the ground (refer fig.e. For experimentation purpose. we consider two teams of 11 players each.. there should be a mechanism to constantly monitor each player in the team. To cater for the aforementioned issues. Typically. The problem with these sports is that the fatigue level of a player continuously changes during a game as it includes running. Each player has an implanted sensor to regularly collect the lactic acid level as shown in fig. we propose a technique. the maximum threshold level for lactic acid in blood or distance covered during the match. are reached. Whereas. for fatigue measurement of soccer players. To show a . Thereby. So.8 Sana Akram et al. In FAME. Whenever. whereas. As RPGM is one of the commonly used mobility models for soccer players. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs Fig. This information is routed towards the sink using only direct transmission due to its usefulness in decreasing the propagation delay. To support direct transmission mechanisms. multiple sinks in the field let the sensors consume less energy. FAME works on the network layer of the standard OSI model. FAME. one of the major concerns is the fitness of a player. thereby we adopt this model in FAME. whenever. each player’s fatigue information is transmitted.

N in the . 4: Fatigue measuring process during the game comparison between energy requirements of direct and multi-hop communication. the equations for both transmission methods are stated as: EM Htransmit (k. 2015 9 Table 1: Location of sinks at the soccer ground Sink N umber 1 2 3 4 5 6 Axis X (yards) Y (yards) 0 34 17 0 51 0 106 34 17 106 51 106 Fig. d) = N × (Ecircuitry + Eamp ) × k × d2 (1) EM Hreceive (k) = (N − 1) × (Ecircuitry + Eamp ) × k (2) EM HT otal = EM Htransmit + EM Hreceive (3) EDTtransmit (k. Ecircuitry is the electrical energy consumed by the circuit.Journal of Medical Systems. d) = (Ecircuitry + Eamp ) × k × d EDTT otal = EDTtransmit 2 (4) (5) where. k is the packet size and d is the distance from a sensor node to the sink.

multi-hop communications take place with reduced transmit power. these distances are very small for multi-hopping. Equations (4) and (5) clearly show that the total energy is N times less for a direct transmission scenario as compared to multi-hopping. given in equations (1). Here. 4. To lower the overall energy consumption of the sensor network. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs Fig. . the drawback of this approach is latency as compared to direct transmission. But this problem can be catered by using multiple sinks along the field. there exists a tradeoff between latency and energy efficiency. So. (2) and (3). 5: Flowchart of FAME for players first three equations. 5.10 Sana Akram et al. represents the number of hops needed to reach the sink. one can argue about the distance factor present in all the equations. as. Use of multiple sinks decreases the distance from sensor to sink. However. The flow chart of the proposed scheme is given in fig. The whole process of measuring fatigue during a live soccer match and the deployment of sinks at the boundary of the ground is depicted in fig.

however. and 24 km/hour. SSRM and SFRM. When any sensor has a value that is equal to or above the specified threshold. Instead. fatigue measurements are performed using three mobility models. Soldiers are also very common victims for chronic pains and muscular fatigue. it sends information to the sink which is a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA. For the soldiers’ fatigue measurement. and Soldier Fast Running Model (SFRM) with the speeds of 5 km/hour. are placed on the abdominal region of the body. They run. we measure the fatigue. covered For experimentation purposes. The values used in the radio model are given in table 3. checking the fatigue of a soldier. The speed values used in our work are not apriori fixed values. respectively [27]. perform long duties and do strenuous exercises on daily basis. a soldier wears it on his belt). This will also help soldiers to instantly make or alter their fighting plans.Journal of Medical Systems. Moreover. we extend FAME for soldiers in three exercising modes. we have used uniform distribution to generate speed values. we use a composite parameter consisting of body temperature. Soldier Slow Running Model (SSRM). because it continuously updates the military unit about physical states of the soldiers. Fatigue measurement in soldiers is very useful. F atigue = Body temp. Fatigue measurement could also be carried with a single parameter or two parameters. Soldier Walking Model (SWM). Subject to each bound. we consider a running track for soldiers inside a field of 100m × 100m as shown in fig. Three sensors. Out of the three sensors. 7. these are the upper bounds for the three exercising modes. 2015 11 Table 2: Thresholds for different sensors Sensor type Temperature Lactic acid level in blood Distance covered T hreshold value 40 0 C 20 mg/dl Vary according to mobility model (km) 5 The FAME for Soldiers: Extending FAME Protocol The physical condition of a soldier is one of the top priorities for military forces. The threshold levels that the sensors are using are listed in table 2. lactic acid level in blood and the distance covered by a soldier (walking or running in a spell). SWM. As the soldier moves on the track (motion in the exercising modes). As mentioned above. 15 km/hour. The whole scenario is depicted with the help of flowchart in fig. 6. for more accurate results we use three parameters because the chosen scenarios need more accuracy rather than the computational overhead. So. + Lactic acid level + Dist. This data is then transmitted to the main office which is monitoring the entire unit. . the one measuring fatigue is in-vivo whereas the other two are on the body. as all the three parameters are contributing to fatigue in an additive-linear manner thereby we add the three parameters to calculate the composite fatigue cost as follows.

2 nJ 0. we examine our technique for relaxing fatigued muscles. aid the player/soldier to get the muscles relaxed by providing a short-term therapy session.Sana Akram et al.72 nJ 36. in which a player being exhausted during play or a soldier being tired during exercise. . – Firstly. The player/soldier is benefiting from this pad in two ways. use a vibrational pad.3064 nJ 5 nJ 6 Relaxing Muscles using Vibrational Therapy In this section. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs 12 Finish Point Starting of Fatigue Calculating Exercise Track for Soldier Exercise Ground Fig. 6: Fatigue measuring track for soldiers Table 3: Radio model parameters P arameter Transmission energy Reception energy Data aggregation energy Multi-path energy V alue 16. the generated vibrations. attached on the fatigued muscle of the body.

This vibrational energy is changed into electrical energy using a piezoelectric sensor.Journal of Medical Systems. This is merely done to maximize the battery lifetime of the implanted sensors. etc. 7: Flowcahrt of FAME for soldiers – Secondly. with an aim to re-charge the implanted sensors. implanted inside the human body as shown in fig. 7 Recharging Implanted Sensors of Players/Soldiers with a Vibration Detection Circuit Implanted sensors can be recharged using sunlight. Fig. The primary circuitry generates flux which induces power in the secondary side (mutual inductance). coupling co-efficient (k ) is the degree of coupling between the two circuits. in which vibration pads are used as muscle relaxants. 9. 8 depicts the whole process. The skin acts as an interface between the two coils. 2015 13 Fig. we define the basic induction circuit.1 Basic induction model An inductive link consists of two coils. these vibrations are helpful in producing electrical signals. First. For WBANs. We use a method. measuring the level of fatigue. A parameter known as. Voltage gain and link efficiency are the two parameters upon which efficiency of inductive . Mathematical models and description of the techniques are given in the following section.45 for the safety of body tissues. forming a transformer. k should be less than a value of 0. 7. magnetic induction. infra red light.

In the circuit.Sana Akram et al. 8: Vibration pads for relaxing muscles Magnetic Flux Vs I1 Primary Side I2 SENSOR Vload Secondary Side Fig. k. That is why.2 Vibration detection induction model We use a vibration detection circuit for our technique. The above mentioned parameters are highly dependent upon the factor. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs 14 Fig. we model . a piezoelectric transducer gives a high DC output impedance. in this study. 7. 9: Basic induction model link is being measured.

10 shows the circuit diagram of a piezoelectric inductive link.Journal of Medical Systems.63 Ω Rload = 320 Ω Z1 is the impendence between the primary inductive coil L1 and insulation leakage resistance Ri . pressure. where.48 µH L2 = 1 µH RL1 ≃ 2. The output is then related to the available mechanical force. Ri (jωL1 + RL1 ) Z1 = (6) Ri + jωL1 + RL1 Z2 is the parallel impendence between Ri and Co . Z2 = Z1 jωCo Z1 + 1 (7) The source voltage Vs is given as: Vs = I1 (A) − jωM I2 (8) . Co represents the static capacitance of the sensor. Fig. 2015 15 M Ce Lm I2 I load I 2p L1 Vs I1 Co RI I2 RL1 Z2 L2 Rload Vload C2p RL2 Z1 Zload Secondary Side Primary Side Skin Interface Fig.56 MHZ L1 = 5. The equations for primary side are as follows: Table 4: Inductive link parameters Parameters Operating frequency Primary coil Secondary coil Parasitic resistance of the transmitter coil Parasitic resistance of the receiver coil Load resistance Values f=13. Ri is the insulation leakage resistance of the transducer. The voltage source Vs . The values of these parameters are shown below in table 4.12 Ω RL2 ≃ 1. or strain. inductance Lm is because of the seismic mass and inertia of the sensor. 10: Vibration detection circuit with induction link it as a voltage source and filter network. Ce is inversely proportional to the mechanical elasticity of the sensor. is directly proportional to the applied force.

we finally find η: η=[ ω2 M 2 Re[A] ω 2 M R2 ]2 + Re[A](R2 + RL2 ) R2 (17) . Vload is given as: Vload = jωM I1 − I2 (jωL2 + RL2 ) (14) Finally. we know that. Vload Vs + jωM Z load I1 = A (9) Now. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs 16 where. Zload = R2 + jX2 So. R2 = Rload 2 R2 1 + ω 2 C2p load (12) X2 = 2 jωRload C2p 2 R2 2 1 + ω C2p load (13) The output voltage. value of current is given as. we get. from equation (11).Sana Akram et al. the equations for the secondary side are as follows: By solving for Zload . Vload jωM Zload = 2 2 Vs ω M + A(Zload + RL2 + jωL2 ) (15) Now. for the link efficiency: η= Vload I2 Vs I1 (16) Using the value of the voltage gain. A= 1 jωCe + jωLm + Z2 For the primary side of the circuit. which is the impendence between the parallel capacitor C2p and the resistive load Rload . Zload = Rload 1 + jωC2p Rload (10) By further solving for Zload we get. Zload = 2 Rload jωRload C2p − 2 2 2 R2 2 2 1 + ω C2p Rload 1 + ω C2p load (11) As. the voltage gain is given as.

On the contrary. R2 = Re[Zload ] It is worth discussing here. The positions of sinks are given in table 1. 8 Simulation Results The following subsections consist of the results for the above three mentioned techniques in terms of their respective parameters: 8. However. We choose a packet size of 1024 bits for transmitting important informational packets to sinks.). Whereas. the intrusive or non-intrusive aspect of our vibration detection circuit. these quickly die in multi-hop communication. The flow chart of the process of finding fatigue of a soccer player and the whole network topology is shown in fig. After sending data to the nearest sink of each player. the sensor senses it and immediately transmits information to the concerned authorities. hence. – Whenever the threshold for fatigue in a particular player or covered distance reaches the threshold. In literature. As reception of packets consume nearly as much energy as in transmission which doubles the burden on the sensor nodes. we use a single-hop communication.1 The FAME for players The simulations presented in this paper are performed using MATLAB. The differences in the network topologies and some parameters used in both protocols are as follows: – WSTM [2] uses multi-hop communication for players’ data delivery to the BS. all the data from these sinks is aggregated at the data aggregation unit and then sent to the monitoring station where the team’s coach and health expert are present. in our proposed protocol. The location of the sinks is carefully chosen to maximize network’s throughput and to minimize the propagation delay of data packets. patients of dementia. we leave this area open to other researchers. Thus. and use RPGM as a mobility model for players. FAME on the other hand. etc. 2015 17 where. 5. – WSTM uses only two sinks present behind each goal. We consider a soccer field of 106 × 68 square yards. there exists non-intrusive vibration detection sensors like [28].Journal of Medical Systems. . our research work can be extended to other groups of people that need non-intrusive solutions (such as elderly. WSTM uses a period of 10 seconds after which it transmits data to the BS. Regarding the evaluation of FAME protocol. we choose WSTM as the counterpart protocol because it is the closest protocol to our work as far as we know. has six different sinks placed at the boundaries of the soccer ground.

having a packet drop probability of approximately 30%. However. Fig. etc. The stability period is the amount of time that elapses before the first sensor node in the network dies. In wireless networks. we assume a noisy channel for simulation purpose instead of an ideal one. sensor nodes in the FAME protocol transmit data only when the threshold level is reached for a particular player. In FAME. 11 shows that nodes live longer and need not to be changed frequently. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs 18 22 WSTM The Fame 20 18 No. whereas. WSTM does not mention any parameter. our protocol uses a direct transmission method with multiple sinks in the field. node directly sends data to the BS if it is at its minimum distance to it. as compared to WSTM protocol in which the first node dies after 2700 rounds. 12. of dead nodes 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 No. Fig. FAME shows that the first node dies nearly at 5100th round. 11 clearly reveals that our proposed protocol is 22% more stable than WSTM. is the amount of lactic acid accumulation in his/her muscle. 13 shows the amount of packets dropped in the network before . Keeping this in mind. As explained before. the proposed protocol only uses direct transmission method to send data to the BS. On the other hand. there are more packets generated in WSTM as shown in fig. otherwise it uses other players as relay nodes to route data towards the BS. 11: Total number of dead nodes in the network – The parameter uses to find fatigue in a player’s muscles. we use direct transmission with multiple sinks to avoid quick depletion of energy. WSTM uses multi-hop scheme to route data towards the sink. in WSTM sensor nodes quickly die as compared to our proposed protocol. of rounds (r) Fig. there is always some loss of data because of multi-path effects in the communication medium like refraction. like in the case of a goal keeper.Sana Akram et al. In [2]. Fig. Hence. The difference in results is because. reflection and absorption.

of packets sent to sinks 4 3. 12: Total number of packets sent to sinks 12000 WSTM The Fame No. of packets dropped 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 No. 14. Packets received successfully at the sink are roughly about 70%.5 1 0. The lifetime of nodes. The amount of packets received at all the sinks without any error is another important parameter to look for in the network.5 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 No.5 2 1. 15. depends on their residual energy. as the nodes consume more energy during the communication process because of multi-hop scheme. In WSTM. This parameter. 2015 19 4 4.Journal of Medical Systems.5 3 2. of rounds (r) Fig. 13: Total number of dropped packets reaching any sink. for both protocols. is presented in fig. so the energy . shown in fig.5 x 10 WSTM The Fame No. of rounds (r) Fig. This parameter shows the accuracy of the protocol and network topology.

16 compares the throughput of 2 schemes.5 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 No.18 0. of rounds (r) Fig. of packets successfully received at sinks 3 x 10 WSTM The Fame 2. Whereas. 15: Residual energy of the network can deplete very quickly.5 1 0. The throughput of a network is given by the following equation: T hroughput(%) = P acketsReceived × 100 T otalP acketsT ransmitted (18) .12 0.Sana Akram et al.2 0.5 2 1. in FAME protocol the nodes live longer despite of the fact that the nodes have very low initial energy. of rounds (r) Fig.1 0.16 0. Fig.24 WSTM The Fame 0.22 0. FAME and WSTM.08 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 No. 14: Total number of received packets at sinks Residual energy of the network (J) 0.14 0. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs 20 4 No.

we are confident to say that the packet delivery ratio is 8 % better for our proposed scheme as compared to WSTM.5 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 No. of rounds (r) Fig. It is obvious from fig. we want to quickly send critical data.5 2 1. 2015 21 100 WSTM The Fame 90 80 Throughput % 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 WSTM The Fame Fig. The propagation delay is an important factor to be handled in scenarios where.5 1 0. Our proposed protocol only transmits data. when a threshold for . 16: Throughput −3 3. 17: Propagation delay of data messages From fig. which uses multi-hop and generates more delay. 17 that FAME achieves less propagation delay than WSTM because it uses a direct transmission method to send information to the sink unlike WSTM.Journal of Medical Systems. 16.5 x 10 WSTM The Fame Propagation Delay (sec) 3 2.

Fig.2 The FAME for soldiers Simulations are performed to measure the fatigue of a single soldier. Fig. This is because the speed of a soldier is very slow and he is less likely to be in a state of fatigue. Fig. it is clear that in SFRM. From fig. 18 shows the death time for each implanted sensor node incase of a soldier. it is clear that the energy consumption for the nodes is less in case of a walking model. Therefore. sensing the fatigue parameters.Sana Akram et al. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs 22 3 No. of rounds (r) 1. Fig. the more the probability to be dropped. Packet drop probability for these simulations is selected to be 30%. The more the number of packets generated by the sensors. there is more chance for a soldier to be fatigued earlier. in SSRM and SFRM. SSRM and SFRM. that the sensors have to send less data to the sink because the soldier is less likely to . generate more data packets as the soldier is more fatigued in these scenarios. 19. 18: Total number of dead nodes in the network muscle fatigue is reached. soldiers are more fatigued and more packets are generated by the sensors. 21 shows that the running models.5 2 4 x 10 Fig. Whereas. The reason behind this is very obvious. of dead nodes SWM SSRM SFRM 2 1 0 0 0. 18 shows that in case of SWM. Three sensors are used in this technique measuring the temperature. Where. nodes live longer. the probability of successful reception of data packets is more for these scenarios as compared to SWM.5 1 No. we consider only three nodes for fatigue measurement. In this respect. 20 shows the number of packets dropped in the network for each model. 22. FAME should be preferred because it achieves minimum propagation delay. the lactic acid level in blood and the distance covered as the soldier moves along the track. 8. From fig.

5 No. of packets sent to sink 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0. of rounds (r) 2 4 x 10 Fig. . of packets dropped 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 0. 20: Total number of dropped packets be fatigued while walking.5 1 No. 19: Total number of packets sent to sink 16000 SWM SSRM SFRM No.Journal of Medical Systems. the energy consumption is relatively high. 2015 23 4 6 x 10 SWM SSRM SFRM No. of rounds (r) 1. For both running models. This is very obvious from fig. The propagation delay depends on the position of the sensor from the sink.5 2 4 x 10 Fig. the propagation delay is high due to more packet generation in the network. For the running models. However. 23.5 1 1. more data packets generated by the system shows a higher total propagation delay of the network.

The explanation for the results is given in the following two subsections.5 2 1.5 0.5 No.3 Vibration detection circuit Two parameters namely.8 0. 22: Residual energy of the network 8. of packets successfully received at sink 4 x 10 SWM SSRM SFRM 3.2 0.6 0.7 0. of rounds (r) 4 x 10 Fig. voltage gain and link efficiency have been investigated. 21: Total number of received packets at sink 0. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs 24 4 No.5 1 1.1 0 −0. of rounds (r) 2 4 x 10 Fig. .4 0.Sana Akram et al.5 3 2.5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 1 0.9 SWM SSRM SFRM Residual energy of the network (J) 0.3 0.5 2 No.1 0 0.

5 1 1.1 Voltage gain As shown in fig.9 Propagation Delay (sec) 0.2 0. Taking into consideration.4.3. 24: Voltage gain 350 400 . After which it increases with a little higher slope. 24. of rounds (r) 4 x 10 Fig. the induced output voltage is increased by a factor of 2 in relative to the input voltage.4 0.6 k = 0.5 k = 0.e.8 0. both on k and Rload .8 Voltage Gain ( Vload / Vs ) 3 2.5 2 No. This shows that voltage gain is dependent..5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Rload (Ohms) Fig.2 i.3 0.1 0 0 0. From Rload = 100 Ω. the voltage gain is about 2.6 0.2 k = 0. the graph has almost a linear trend. 2015 25 −4 1 x 10 SWM SSRM SFRM 0. 3. when the value of k increases. 23: Propagation delay of data packets 8.5 0.7 0. the safety parameters for body tissues.5 2 1.4 k = 0. at Rload = 320 Ω and at k = 0. the voltage gain also increases.5 1 0.Journal of Medical Systems.

7 0. Subject to declaration and therapy of fatigued muscles. To achieve minimum delay.6 k = 0. this paper enlists three major contributions. the link efficiency remains the same. Results provide a proof of the better performance of the proposed techniques in terms of the selected metrics as compared to the existing work. fatigue measurement via in-vivo sensors in soccer players and soldiers’ activities. in soccer players.e. The use of this composite parameter makes fatigue measurement more accurate. and utilization of the therapy vibrations for recharging the in-vivo sensors.4 0. After this value. use of vibration therapy for relaxing fatigued muscles.2 Link efficiency The graph presented in fig. is carried out with a composite parameter which consists of thresholds for lactic acid level and distance covered.2 0. players and soldiers are commonly the victims of fatigue.1 0 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Rload (Ohms) Fig.9 0. Fatigue measurement.8 0.6 0.. the efficiency is about 68% meaning that more than half of the input power is efficiently transferred at the secondary side.8 k=1 0. At Rload = 320 Ω and at k = 0. the graph has a constant behavior.4 k = 0.3 k = 0. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for WBANs 26 1 Link Efficiency ( P2 / P1) 0. as the circuit operates for higher resistive loads. there is a steep increase in the efficiency. the problem with direct transmissions is the high energy consumption of sensor nodes which is solved at the cost of multiple sinks along the boarders of the playing field.4. 25: Link efficiency (%) 8. whereas for soldiers the composite parameter is added with the temperature threshold. helping in driving the implanted circuit inside the human body to a greater extent. From the figure.Sana Akram et al.3. .5 0. it can be seen that till Rload = 200 Ω. thereby. However. 25 is for Rload = 100 Ω.2 k = 0. i. the efficiency increases and as the value of k increases. 9 Conclusion Due to strenuous exercises and tiring/difficult duties. direct transmissions from sensors to sinks is used.

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