c 2008 ICCES

Copyright 

ICCES, vol.7, no.1, pp.23-42

Analysis of Flexible Media Transport Characteristics of
Crown Roller and Its Application to Design
Iizuka Yoichiro1, Hiroshi Yamaura

Summary
Crown rollers are often used in the flexible media transport mechanism consists
of a rubber layered roller and a steel roller. In this paper, the flexible media transport
characteristics of crown roller is investigated theoretically. The purpose of this
study is to analyze the flexible media transport characteristics such as longitudinal
distribution of nip pressure, traction and transport velocity and so on, and to develop
the design method of crown roller that has desired characteristics.
In the first step of this study, a numerical analysis method of the slip and traction characteristics between a rubber-layered roller and a mated steel roller based
on the Boundary-Element Method was established. Under the assumption of a
plane-strain, Green’s functions of a rubber roller with a rigid core based on polar
coordinates were analytically derived in our method. A contact problem of two
rollers under normal and tangential loading forces was numerically analyzed using derived Green’s function. Coulomb’s friction law, with a constant coefficient
of friction, and no difference between the adhesion and the sliding coefficient of
friction, was considered in the contact problem. The normal and tangential contact
pressures, strain of rubber surface, nip width and indentation depth were iteratively
calculated so as to satisfy the given normal and tangential loading forces. The
tangential velocity ratio between the two rollers was also calculated for various
parameter values. It was confirmed that the numerical results agree well with the
experimental ones.
In the second step of this study, an analytical approach that can estimate flexible
media transfer characteristics of crown rollers was developed. In the analysis, two
types of crown rollers, i.e. a rubber roller with crown shape in its internal diameter
and a steel roller with crown shape in its diameter, were examined. And based
on analysis results, a design approach of crown shape which can realize uniform
longitudinal distribution of nip pressure was proposed. Designed crown rollers
were fabricated and the performances of them were confirmed with experiment.

Introduction
For the flexible media transport mechanism composed of long rollers, it is very
important to uniform longitudinal distribution of the nip pressure, traction, transport velocity, and so on. The deviation of longitudinal distribution of nip pressure
is mainly subjected to the deflection of the roller shaft. Lots of methods that can
1 Department

of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology. e-mail:
iizuka.y.ab@m.titech.ac.jp

24

c 2008 ICCES
Copyright 

ICCES, vol.7, no.1, pp.23-42

reduce the deviation have been developed and used practically. One of the methods involves a technique to change the diameter of the roller along the longitudinal
axis, namely crown roller or crowning roller. Dimensions of the crown roller are
designed experientially, because theoretical design method has not been revealed
yet. Purpose of this study is to develop the analytical method of flexible media
transport characteristics of crown roller and establish the theoretical design method
of the crown roller.
Some researchers have been focused on a contact problem in a flexible media feeding mechanism. Soong and Li[8] considered a sheet in the nip of two
cylinders and calculated pressure distribution for a normal load. In order to obtain
traction characteristics of a feeding mechanism analytically, normal and tangential load should be considered. Soong and Li[9] proposed an analytical technique
to calculate the traction characteristic between a rubber-layered roller and paper.
They assumed a general stress function by the Fourier series in polar coordinates.
In a nominal contact problem, their collocation method calculates the normal and
tangential pressures at a contact area, tangential velocity ratios of two rollers and
paper. Kalker[10] proposed a numerical algorithm to solve a rolling contact problem of viscoelastic multilayered cylinders with dry friction based on Bentall and
Johnson[5]. Recently, this problem is focused upon and discussed in a research
working group of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering. Wu et al. [11] investigated the traction characteristics of a paper and rollers experimentally. Okamoto
et al.[12] analyzed the same problem by using a commercial FEM software and
investigated the effects of friction, non-linearity of elastic modulus and large deformation, stress relaxation, rotating speed and the edge effect of a short roller as
well as a normal and tangential load, and showed the validity and usefulness of the
numerical analysis by experiment for short rollers. However, considering the fact
that the actual feeding rollers in printers and copiers are longer than 200mm, it is
almost impossible to numerically analyze the effect of a non-uniform nip load and
skewed angle of such long feeding rollers by FEM.
Accordingly, in the first step of this paper a numerical analysis of the slip and
traction characteristics between a rubber-layered roller and a mated rigid roller
based on the Boundary-Element Method is presented. In order to investigate the
basic contact characteristics of a rubber roller, the situation of no flexible madia
between the two rollers is considered. The Green’s function of a rubber-layered
roller based on polar coordinates is obtained under the plane-strain condition, and
then by using this Green’s function, the relation of load force and penetration depth
of the two rollers is calculated. The validity of the calculated results are shown by
the experimental results.
In the second step, the crown roller is investigated based on the results of the

the deformation of steel parts is ignored. Figure 2: Infinitely small element and stress Figure 1: Analitical model of a rubber roller . Long rollers whose shaft deflection cannot be ignored have the longitudinal distribution of the nip pressure. The rubber is deformed by contact with the mated steel roller. defined and design procedures of these rollers are shown. Uniform contact along the axial direction of the rollers is assumed in this analysis and only the deformation of rubber in a section is considered under the assumption of the plane-strain. a rubber roller with crown shape in its internal diameter and a steel roller with crown shape in its diameterare. Thus. The analytical method is applied to a design method of the crown shape that can realize uniform longitudinal distribution of nip pressure.Flexible Media Transport Characteristics of Crown Roller 25 first step. the rubber deformation is threedimentional but it can be modeled with two-dimensional contact mentioned before because the out-of-plane strain is much smaller than the plane strain.e. Because Young’s modulus of steel is larger than 105 times of that of rubber. an analytical method that is based on the results of the two-dimensional contact analysis and can estimate the longitudinal distribution of nip pressure of the long rollers is developed. Two types of crown rollers i. Green’s Function Derivation Basic Equation and General Solution Figure 1 depicts an analytical model of a rubber-layered steel roller and a mated steel roller. Dsigned crown rollers are fabricated and the performances of them are confirmed with experiment. In this case.

an independent variable r is transformed into a new variable t with r = et in order to obtain six ordinary differential equations related with . these equations are represented by normal and tangential deformation u. pp.1. + 2(1 + ν ) r2 ∂ θ r ∂ r r2 r ∂ r∂ θ ∂ r2 ∂ 2u 1 ∂ u u − + ∂ r2 r ∂ r r2  (3) (4) where E and ν are a Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of rubber. The equilibrium equations of stress are given by ∂ σr 1 ∂ τrθ σr − σθ + + ∂r r ∂θ r τrθ ∂ τrθ 1 ∂ σθ + + 2 r ∂r r ∂θ = 0 (1) = 0 (2) By substituting Hooke’s Law into stress σr and τrθ . v.  κ  2  β ∂ 2v κ −β2 1 ∂v +κ 2 − + r ∂ r∂ θ 2(1 + ν ) r ∂θ   2 2 2 1 ∂ v 1 ∂ 2u κ −β + + = 0 2(1 + ν ) r ∂ θ ∂ r r2 ∂ θ 2   β ∂ 2u κ ∂ u ∂ 2v + 2 + r ∂θ∂r r ∂θ ∂θ2   κ 2 − β 2 1 ∂ u 1 ∂ v v 1 ∂ 2u ∂ 2v − + + + = 0.(3) and (4).23-42 Figure 2 shows an infinitely small element and definition of stress.7. In order to solve these partial differential equations. Notation κ and β are constants related to ν as follows: κ = 1 − ν 2 . After substituting Eqs. ∞ ∞ k=1 ∞ k=1 ∞ k=1 k=1 u ≡ G0 (r) + ∑ Gck (r) cos kθ + ∑ Gsk (r) sinkθ (5) v ≡ K0 (r) + ∑ Kck (r) cos kθ + ∑ Ksk (r) sinkθ (6) Notation k represents number of harmonics. respectively. β = ν (1 + ν ).26 c 2008 ICCES Copyright  ICCES.(3) and (4).(5) and (6) into Eqs. vol. u and v as two Fourier series are defined as followings. no. Eqs.

  2   2 d d − 1 G0 = 0.(8) is rather complex to be solved. Kck(t). Gck(t). Gsk(t). k − 1. general solutions of G0 (t) and K0 (t) are obtained as follows: G0 (t) = CG01 et +CG02 e−t .CG02 . 2(1 + ν ) By solving Eqs. (9) K0 (t) = CK01 et +CK02 e−t where CG01 .(8) are calculated as λk1 ∼ λk4 = k + 1. Eq. (10) Considering λ13 = λ14 = 0 for k = 1.(7). Gs1(t).Flexible Media Transport Characteristics of Crown Roller G0 (t). the general solutions of Gc1 (t). Primarily.CK01 and CK02 are constants calculated from boundary conditions. Ks1 (t) of the forms are obtained. four eigen values of Eqs. − 1 K0 = 0 dt 2 dt 2 ⎫     2 d d ⎪ 2 κ 2 − (κ + α k ) Gck + (β + α ) − (κ + α ) kKsk = 0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ dt dt ⎪ ⎪  2    ⎪ ⎪ d d ⎪ 2 ⎪ κ 2 − (κ + α k ) Gsk − (β + α ) − (κ + α ) kKck = 0⎪ ⎬ dt dt     ⎪ d d2 ⎪ α 2 − (κ k2 + α ) Kck + (β + α ) + (κ + α ) kGsk = 0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ dt dt ⎪ ⎪     ⎪ 2 ⎪ d d ⎪ 2 ⎭ α 2 − (κ k + α ) Ksk − (β + α ) + (κ + α ) kGck = 0⎪ dt dt The notation α is defined as α= 27 (7) (8) κ2 − β 2 . Ksk (t). Kc1 (t). −k + 1. ⎫ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Gc1 (t) = ∑ A1 j exp (λ1 j t) + A13 + A14 t ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ j=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Gs1 (t) = ∑ B1 j exp (λ1 j t) + B13 + B14 t ⎪ ⎬ j=1 (11) 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Kc1 (t) = ∑ η1 j B1 j exp (λ1 jt) + (B13 + η13 B14 ) + B14 t ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ j=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Ks1 (t) = − ∑ η1 j A1 j exp (λ1 jt) − (A13 + η13 A14 ) − A14t ⎪ ⎭ j=1 . −k − 1. K0 (t).

1. Boundary Conditions at the Inner Radius The boundary conditions at the inner radius of the rubber roller. . . 2. are derived as follows: ⎫ 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Gck (t) = ∑ Ak j exp (λk jt) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ j=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Gsk (t) = ∑ Bk j exp (λk jt) ⎪ ⎬ j=1 (13) 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Kck (t) = ∑ ηk j Bk j exp (λk jt) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ j=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Ksk (t) = − ∑ ηk j Ak j exp (λk jt)⎪ ⎭ j=1 where k + 4(1 − ν ) . .7. the following equations are obtained G0 (lnRin ) = K0 (lnRin ) = 0 Gck (lnRin ) = Gsk (lnRin ) = 0 (k = 1. are u(Rin . · · ·) Kck (lnRin ) = Ksk (lnRin ) = 0 (15) (16) Boundary Conditions at the Outer Radius The boundary conditions at the outer radius of the rubber roller. Rout . Subsequently. ηk4 = k + 2(1 − 2ν ) ηk1 = − ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (14) And Ak j and Bk j (k = 1. . are expressed by two sets of Fourier series for two loading conditions. .23-42 where η11 = − 5 − 4ν . no. θ ) = 0. 3.28 c 2008 ICCES Copyright  ICCES.. η13 = 1 3 − 4ν (12) And general solutions of Gck (t). j = 1 ∼ 4) are also constants calculated from the boundary conditions. . 2. vol. . −1 + 4ν η12 = 1. Gsk(t). ηk2 = 1 k − 2(1 − 2ν ) k − 4(1 − ν ) ηk3 = −1. Rin . Kck (t) and Ksk (t) for k = 2. θ ) = v(Rin . pp.

(17) and (18) or Eqs.(17). these stresses are theoretically related to deformations. the boundary conditions are : σr (Rout . the way to solve contact problem is shown. are expressed not by deformations but by stresses. However. we obtain the equations of the Fourier coefficients in Eqs. θ ) = = = lim 1 d θ →0 Rout d θ 1 δ (θ ) Rout 1 1 ∞ + ∑ cos kθ 2π Rout π Rout k=1 τrθ (Rout . Ensuingly. Second.Flexible Media Transport Characteristics of Crown Roller 29 First. 2π Rout π Rout k=1 (20) Solutions of the Green’s Function The boundary conditions at the outer radius.(19) and (20). shown in Eqs. θ ) = 0 τrθ (Rout .    E ∂u u 1 ∂v +β + σr = κ (21) κ2 − β 2 ∂r r r ∂θ   1 ∂u ∂v v E − (22) τr θ = + 2 (1 + ν ) r ∂ θ ∂ r r By substituting Eqs. Analytical Model and Assumption Figure 3 depicts an analytical model of a flexible media transport mechanism consisted of a rubber-layered steel roller and a steel roller. the boundary conditions are : σr (Rout . for the tangential unit force. (20). The coordinates. θ ) = 0 (17) (18) where δ (θ ) is the Dirac’s δ function. the deformation of steel parts is ignored. O − XZ is a Cartesian coordinate system whose origin is set on an undeformed surface of the rubber. The rubber is deformed by contact with the paper supported by the steel roller. θ ) = (19) ∞ 1 1 + ∑ cos kθ . Because Young’s modulus of steel is larger than 105 times of that of rubber.(21) and (22) and considering the harmonic balance with the boundary conditions of Eqs. denote polar coordinates . for the normal unit force.(5) and (6) to Eqs. it is finally determined that the Fourier coefficients by using the boundary conditions at the inner radius in Eqs.(5) and (6). o − rθ .(15) and (16). Contact Problem In this section.

• Tension T works on the flexible media directory and no break torque works on the steel roller.1.7. In this section. respectively.23-42 whose origin is the center of the rubber roller. Deformation of the Rubber Surface due to Normal and Tangential Pressure Assume that the point of application of force is θ and the point of observation of deformation is ψ . The rigid core of the rubber roller is fixed in space but rotatory. then Up (ψ ) and Vp (ψ ) denote the normal and tangential deformation due to a normal pressure p(θ ). Figure 3: Contact model In the previous section. • Bending stiffness of the flexible media and deformations of the flexible media in the nip can be ignored. Green’s functions of the cylindrical rubber were derived analytically under the plane strain assumption. The tension of the paper −T is acting on the rubber surface so that a point on the free rubber surface at X = 0 moves to X = δX < 0. respectively. stick and slip area. contact normal and tangential pressure distributions. The steel roller can move along the Z-axis and the penetration depth is δZ (> 0). In the inlet region. Also. the following assumptions are further considered.30 c 2008 ICCES Copyright  ICCES. The rotation direction of each roller has been shown in the figure. strain of the rubber surface against the normal force F and the tension T are calculated. The contact area is represented by angle. Negative and positive X corresponds to the inlet and outlet of rotation. −b ≤ θ ≤ a. the rubber sticks to the steel surface and the constant strain εθ maintained along the θ -axis in the stick area because no slippage occurs in the stick area. In this section. pp. no. Uq (ψ ) and Vq (ψ ) . vol.

4. ψ − θ ) q(θ ) Rout d θ (26) We assume the linear elastic deformation in this analysis because the nonlinear deformation should not be utilized in the actual mechanism from the viewpoint of durability of the rubber roller. are shown in this subsection.  ψs  R out Rs  Rout(1-cosψ) +(Rs(1-cosψ s+Tp)(1-cosψ s) +R s) ψ R in Figure 4: Initial gap A steel roller whose outer radius is Rs is considered. tangential pressure and boundary of the contact area. respectively. A deformation condition of the direction of Z was derived. ψ − θ ) q(θ ) Rout d θ (25) vq (Rout . ψ − θ ) p(θ ) Rout d θ (24) uq (Rout . ψ − θ ) p(θ ) Rout d θ (23) v p (Rout . (27) .Flexible Media Transport Characteristics of Crown Roller 31 denote the normal and tangential deformation due to a tangential pressure q(θ ). These deformations are represented in the following equations using Green’s functions. Formulation of Contact Analysis The condition equations of deformation. U p (ψ ) = Vp ( ψ ) = Uq (ψ ) = Vq (ψ ) = a −b a −b a −b a −b u p (Rout . normal pressure. The initial gap of the direction of Z is defined as shown in Fig. −{Up (ψ ) +Uq (ψ )} cos ψ + {Vp (ψ ) +Vq (ψ )} sin ψ = δZ − Rout (1 − cos ψ ) − Rs (1 − cos ψs ) + εθ Rout ψ sin ψ .

the normal and tangential loading forces are given by F= a T= −b {−p(θ ) cos θ + q(θ ) sin θ } Rout d θ . Poisson’s .1. Coulomb’s frictional low. normal and tangential pressures.Vq are deformations on the rubber surface given by Eqs. {Up (ψ ) +Uq (ψ )} sin ψ + {Vp (ψ ) +Vq (ψ )} cos ψ = δX + εθ Rout ψ cos ψ . εθ . The examples of the relation of load force and penetration depth obtained by theoretical analysis are shown in Fig. a and b are iteratively calculated by using Eqs.32 c 2008 ICCES Copyright  ICCES. p and q.(27). q(−b) = q(a) = 0 (33) In the calculation procedure. μ . Young’s Modulus of rubber are 5. q. pp. (31) (32) Boundary conditions of the contact area are given as follows.35MPa.Vp . In the calculation. are defined on 50 points in the contact area and p. Calculated Result Calculated results of the relation of load force and penetration depth are mainly discussed below.57MPa and 1. no.   −1 Rout sin ψ ψs = sin (28) Rs A deformation condition of the direction of X should be considered in the stick area. And ψs is defined as the following equation. δX .Uq . The absolute value of the tangential pressure q doesn’t exceed μ p in the stick area and a deformation condition of the direction of X is given.(23)∼(26). vol. p(−b) = p(a) = 0 . in the slip area. a −b {p(θ ) sin θ + q(θ ) cos θ } Rout d θ . δZ . with a constant coefficient of friction.5.23-42 where Up . the outer radius of each roller is 15mm. (33). (30) |q(θ )| = μ |p(θ )| From the equilibrium conditions of normal and tangential pressure. an alternative condition equation should be considered.7. (29) On the other hand. and no difference between the adhesion and the sliding coefficient of friction between the paper and the rubber surface is assumed.

5 and the normal loading force F is changed from 100 to 700N/m.00015 0. In this calculation. And.57MPa. friction coefficients μ is 0. In all calculation. the case of Tr = 5. Er = 5.0006 0 0.5mm 700 500 400 300 8mm 500 400 300 200 200 100 100 0 0 0 0.0001 Ǭz [m] 0.Flexible Media Transport Characteristics of Crown Roller 33 ratio of rubber ν is 0.253 × 1010δz2 .0004 0.00005 0. load force F were chosen as variable parameters. tangential loading force T is 0.5mm.49. Young’s Modulus of rubber Er . approximate quadratic function is F = 3. .0002 0. rubber thickness Tr .424 × 106 δz + 1.5 that the thinner the rubber is the harder the rubber roller behaves.5mm Tr= 3mm 600 8mm F [N/m] F [N/m] 600 5.0002 Ǭz [m] (a) 30Hs (b) 70Hs Figure 5: Nonlinear spring characteristics of rubber roller Weight Rubber Roller Velocity control Driven Steel Roller Figure 6: Experimental setup of short roller It is found from Fig. 800 800 700 Tr= 3mm 5. each plot can well approximate with quadratic function that throughs origin. For example.

9.31 0. pp.23-42 Preliminary Experiment and Discussion Experimental Apparatus and Conditions In order to confirm the validity of our calculated results. It is noted that the calculation results agree well with experimental ones. an analytical method that is based on the results of the twodimensional contact analysis and can estimate the longitudinal distribution of nip pressure of the long rollers is developed.8.34 c 2008 ICCES Copyright  ICCES. respectively. The bearing span of rollers is 55mm. the normal loading force F was changed from 100 to 700N/m. The penetration depth was measured as the displacement of rubber roller unit by a CCD camera and monitor. The normal loading force is given to the rollers by weights and decides the penetration depth. no. The thickness of rubbers are 3. The hardness of the rubbers are s =70 Hs and s =30 Hs and the value of Young’s Modulus was calculated from the hardness with Gent’s equation[14]. E(MPa) = 9. The static deformation of the rubber roller shaft zr (y) should be considered in the analysis of the longitudinal distribution of the nip pressure.6 was prepared. The nonlinear characteristics of springs were obtained in the two-demensional analysis shown in Section . the rubber deformation is three-dimentional but it can be modeled with two-dimensional contact mentioned before because the out-of-plane strain is much smaller than the plane strain. an experimental setup shown in Fig. vol.0mm. The steel roller is a drive roller that is actuated by a motor with a velocity controller. average and minimum values are shown in the figures. The rubber roller is a driven roller that rotates freely and is supported in a vertical plane with guide shafts.5.5mm and 8. When the longitudinal distribution of the nip pressure F(y) is given. All experiments were performed with rotational speed of the steel roller of 10rpm. Eight experiments were achieved for one loading condition and the maximum. In order to obtain the relation of load force and penetration depth. Two-dimensional model of rubber deformation leads a simple model with parallel independent nonlinear springs shown in Fig. In this section. Analysis of the Longitudinal Distribution of the Nip Pressure Long rollers whose shaft deflection cannot be ignored have the longitudinal distribution of the nip pressure as shown in Fig.7.0mm.8 × 10−2 s + 7. In this case.1.0456(100 − s) (34) Comparison Between Calculated and Experimental Results Figure 7 indicates the relation of load force and penetration depth obtained experimentally. The radius and length of each roller is 15mm and 40mm. Six silicon rubber rollers are prepared for experiments. zr (y) is calculated from the following .

respectivelly. the static defromation of the steel roller was ignored in the analysis. dy4 (35) where Es and Is = (π R4c )/4 are an elastic modulas and the second moment of area of the rubber roller shaft. On the other hand.0004 0.0006 0 0.00015 0.00005 Ǭz [m] 700 700 600 600 F [N/m] 800 500 400 Numerical Average Min Max 200 100 0.0002 (d) 70Hs.00005 0.0002 500 400 300 Numerical Average Min Max 200 100 0 0 0 0. Es Is d 4 zr (y) = F(y).5 mm F [N/m] 0. Tr = 5.0002 0.0002 0.0002 Ǭz [m] (e) 30Hs.0001 Ǭz [m] 500 400 300 Numerical Average Min Max 200 100 0 0 0 0. Tr = 3 mm 800 300 0. Tr = 8 mm (f) 70Hs. Tr = 5.0001 Ǭz [m] (c) 30Hs.00015 (b) 70Hs. Tr = 8 mm Figure 7: Experimental results of relation of load force and penetration depth equation.0006 0 0.0004 0.00015 0.00005 Ǭz [m] 700 700 600 600 500 400 Numerical Average Min Max 200 100 0.0002 0.0004 0. In the calculation .0001 0.5 mm 800 300 0.0006 0 Ǭz [m] 0. because it is thicker than the rubber roller shaft. Tr = 3 mm 800 F [N/m] F [N/m] (a) 30Hs.800 800 700 700 600 600 F [N/m] F [N/m] Flexible Media Transport Characteristics of Crown Roller 500 400 300 Numerical Average Min Max 200 100 35 500 400 300 Numerical Average Min Max 200 100 0 0 0 0.

pp. vol.06 0.24 Figure 10: Longitudinal distribution of nip pressure .12 y [m] 0.c 2008 ICCES Copyright  ICCES.1.23-42 FR [N] Rigid Body F [N/m] 2Rb 2Ra Steel Rubber Lc y 2Rb FL [N] La Lb z (y) Tr 2Rc δ s (y) φ 30 o 2Ra φ 30 FL [N] Lb La FR [N] z Figure 8: Calculation model Steel roller Rubber Rubber roller shaft Figure 9: Nonlinear spring model 1000 30Hs 8mm 30Hs 3mm 70Hs 8mm 70Hs 3mm 800 F [N/m] 36 600 400 200 0 0 0.18 0. no.7.

Crown Design In this section. i. The dimensions of each type of crown roller were calculated with a computer program whose flow chart is shown in Fig. Start 㪘㫊㫊㫌㫄㪼㩷㪩㫆㫃㫃㪼㫉㩷㪪㪿㪸㫇㪼 㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷 㪚㪸㫃㪺㫌㫃㪸㫋㪼㩷㪧㫉㪼㫊㫊㫌㫉㪼 㪛㫀㫊㫋㫉㫀㪹㫌㫋㫀㫆㫅 㪬㫅㫀㪽㫆㫉㫄㪼㪻 㪛㫀㫊㫋㫉㫀㪹㫌㫋㫀㫆㫅 㪩㪼㫊㪿㪸㫇㪼 㫋㪿㪼㩷㪩㫆㫃㫃㪼㫉 No Yes End Figure 11: Flow chart of crown calculation Crown of Steel Roller In this subsection. a rubber roller with crown shape in its outer diameter was ignored. However.10. design procedure of crowned steel roller is shown. From the two-dimensional analysis. other types of crown rollers.11.8N in these calculations. the way to uniform the longitudinal distribution of nip pressure using crown roller is shown.e.(35) by FEM and utilized with nonlinear stiffness of rubber. two types of crown roller were discussed. Load force acting on each side was assumed to be 58. a rubber roller with crown shape in its inner or outer diameter were able to assumed. A crown roller generally means a steel roller with crown shape in its diameter.Flexible Media Transport Characteristics of Crown Roller 37 procedure. the stiffness of the rubber roller shaft can be calculated from Eq. nonlinear spring characteristics of the rubber roller is derived as F(y) = b1 δz (y) + b2 δz (y)2 (36) . Examples of calculated longitudinal distribution of the nip pressure of straight rollers were shown in Fig. More than 10% deviation of the longitudinal distribution of the nip pressure is observed even in the bast case of the examples. Because it is difficult to fabricate rubber with high accuracy. Thus.

1. pp. the following equation is obtained. From this equation.38 c 2008 ICCES Copyright  ICCES. no. vol.7.23-42 Notations b1 and b2 were resulting coefficients derived from nonlinear spring characteristics of the rubber roller. .

24 Figure 12: Example of crown shape of Figure 13: Example of crown shape of steel roller rubber roller shaft Figure 12 shows an example of crown shape derived from calculation.0147 0 0. Crown of Rubber Roller In this subsection.012 0.01 0. −b1 + b21 + 4b2 F(y) δz (y) = (37) 2b2 In the case of straight rollers. or be thinned where load force is weak.0151 R in [m] Rs [m] 0.18 0. constant penetration depth of rubber roller required. Using this property. design procedure of crowned rubber roller shaft is shown. . Thinner rubber has harder spring characteristics. Rs (y). then the penetration depth of rubber roller should be a function of y.06 0.18 0. In the design procedure. Thus. is changed iteratively so that the penetration depth at y coincides with that of the reference point yr . This is the reason of the nonuniform longitudinal distribution of nip pressure.5mm 8mm 0.006 0.06 0. longitudinal distribution of nip pressure could be uniformed. the rubber should be thickened where load force is strong.002 0 (38) 30Hs 8mm 30Hs 3mm 70Hs 8mm 70Hs 3mm 0 0. It is found from Fig. calculated crown height Rsmax − Rsmin is less than 20μ m. Rs (y)new = Rs(y)old − δz (y) + δz (yr ) 0. it can be concluded that uniform longitudinal distribution of nip pressure is hardly achieved practically with the crowned steel roller. a reference penetration depth is chosen and the diameter of the steel roller at y.24 0.0148 0. In order to obtain uniform longitudinal distribution of nip pressure.12 y [m] 0. The rubber roller shaft deflection is a function of y.014 0.004 0. Thus.008 0. The crown shape actually agrees with the rubber roller shaft deflection loaded static uniform load force.015 0. each position of the rubber surface should move a constant distance by contact.0149 3mm 5.12.12 [ [m] 0.

In order to confirm the validity of our calculated results. In these cases. the roller end was chosen as the reference position. an experimental setup shown in Fig. It can be concluded that uniform longitudinal distribution of nip pressure will be achieved practically with the crowned rubber roller shaft. Even in the case of soft and thin rubber.(36). And the coefficients of b1 and b2 in this equation are functions of the inner radius of the rubber roller. (39) j=1 where Rin is a radius of the rubber roller shaft and B is the number of calculated case.8N loading force for each side of rollers. These coefficients were obtained for various inner radius by two-dimensional analysis and derived interpolation functions of them. These rollers were designed for 58. Experiment and Discussion In this section. the radius of the rubber roller shaft at y that gives the same nip pressure with that of the reference point yr was callculated iterativelly by the following equation. the thickness of rubber is 3mm at the edge of roller. Those of the other one are 30Hs hardness rubber. Rin (y)new = where F  (y) = B+1 F(yr ) − F(y) + Rin (y)old F  (y) ∑ ( j − 1) δz (y) (41)  j−2 C1 j + δz (y)C2 j Rin (y)old j=1 Examples of crown shape of the rubber roller shaft are shown in Fig.13. Experimental Apparatus and Conditions Only one type crown rollers were fabricated that were rubber rollers with crown shape in its internal diameter.Flexible Media Transport Characteristics of Crown Roller 39 As mentioned before. 2). bk (r) = B+1 ∑ Ck jRinj−1 (k = 1. Thus.14 was prepared. To measure the longitudinal distribution of nip . F(y) = b1 (y)δz (y) + b2 (y)δz(y)2 B+1  = ∑ δz (y) C1 j + δz (y)C2 j Rin (y) j−1 (40) j=1 From this equation. One of crown rollers proparties are 70Hs hardness rubber. the thickness of rubber is 3mm at the edge of roller. the rubber roller has nonlinear spring characteristics shown in Eq. the calculated crown height Rinmax − Rinmin is about 300μ m. the experiment of crowned rubber roller shaft is shown.

And PRESCALE can’t measure precise puressure.75 1 0 0 0.25 0. no.5 y / LE 0.7. Straight steel roller rotates freely.5 0.75 1 (a) 30Hs (b) 70Hs Figure 15: Experimental result of longitudinal distribution of nip pressure of crown roller pressure.25 0. vol.25 0 0 0.1. Crown roller is drived by servo motor of 10rpm. Comparison Between Calculated and Experimental Results Because of PRESCALE characteristics.8N for each side of rollers. measured pressure is very noisy. pp.25 0. the averaged pressure was normal- .5 0.40 c 2008 ICCES Copyright  ICCES. The loading force is 58.5 y / LE 0.75 with crown experimental straight numerical 0. pressure measuring film called PRESCALE was used. So the average of pressure of its driving direction is derived from measured data.23-42 Figure 14: Test bench of Crown roller 1 F / Fmax F / Fmax 1 0.75 with crown experimental straight numerical 0.

If longitudinal distribution of nip pressure is uniformed. H. Designed crown rollers were fabricated and the performances of them were confirmed with experiment." Transactions of JSME. K. In this design procedure. Vol. the way to obtain crown shape that can uniform longitudinal dostribution of nip pressure was shown. Calculated results were confirmed with experiments of the relation of load force and penetration depth.62(C). firstly. 5. 3. No. 1996. 6. “Analysis of paper motion driven by skew-roll paper feedinf system.5 Conclusion In this paper. The dedign procedure to obtain crown shape based on the calculated relation of load force and penetration depth was shown. Compared to the calculation results of normalized pressure distribution of straignt rollers. The method to obtain the londitudinal pressure distribution of nip pressure of a long rollers was revailed. The way to obtain Green’s function was shown.. Table 1: Roller demensions H HH H H H L[mm] R[mm] a b c 7 5 93 7 240 9. The way to solve two-dimentional contact problem was shown. Experimental results were also compared with theoretical ones and discussed. two-dimensional contact problem was solved theoretically with Green’s functions of a rubber roller with a rigid core. 2. 4. and Ono. Figure 15 shows examples of the experimental results. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1.596. our crown roller gives well uniformed pressure distribution. References 1. normalized pressure distribution is flat and its value is 1. Fujimura. Secondly. The result of these calculation of experimental data is called normalized pressure distribution. the results of twodimensional contact problem was utilized.Flexible Media Transport Characteristics of Crown Roller 41 ized with its maximum value. pp.(in Japanese) .. And the relation of load force and penetration depth was obtained experimentally and theoretical results were confirmed by experimental results.1354-1360.

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