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- form9

: ________

Enrolment No.___________

**GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
**

ME - SEMESTER–IV • EXAMINATION – SUMMER 2015

**Subject Code: 743901
**

Subject Name: Solar and Photovoltaics

Date: 01/05/2015

Time: 2:30 pm to 5:00 pm

Total Marks: 70

Instructions:

1. Attempt all questions.

2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary.

3. Figures to the right indicate full marks.

4. Use of solar energy data book is permitted after verification.

Q.1

(a)

(b)

Q.2

(a)

(b)

(b)

Q.3

(a)

(b)

Q.3

(a)

(b)

Q.4

(a)

(b)

**Discuss the solar cell characteristics and prove that maximum power for solar
**

cell is product of fill factor (F.F.), open circuit voltage (Voc) and light generated

current (IL).

Explain the working of photovoltaic solar cell with neat sketch and define the

Packing factor for solar Panel.

07

**Explain in brief the life cycle analysis for the solar water heating system.
**

Derive the expression for (i) reflectivity (ii) transmissivity based on reflection

and refraction for two component system.

OR

(i) Define the transmissivity-absorptivity product.

(ii) Find the transmissivity for the following cover system:

Material : Glass

Number of Covers = 3

Thickness of each cover = 5 mm

Refractive index of glass relative to air = 1.6

Extinction coefficient of glass = 15 m-1

Angle of incidence = 35o

07

07

**Define the following terms:
**

(i) Solar Constant

(v) Hour angle

(ii) Air Mass

(vi) Sun’s Declination

(iii) Beam Radiation

(vii) Diffuse Radiation

(iv) Zenith

A surface is tilted at 35o and faces 10o west of south at New Delhi [28o 35’ N,

77o 12’ E]. Determine the Angle of incidence at 13 hrs 13 min on 19th

September, 2015.

OR

Explain (i) Surface Azimuth angle (ii) incident angle and (iii) Slop with neat

sketch.

A solar air heater is installed at Jodhpur [26o 18’ N, 73o 01’ E] faces due south

and tilted at 10o with horizontal. Determine the monthly mean beam radiation

and global diffusion for the 13th April, 2015. Assume monthly mean of sunshine

is 11 hrs.

07

**Derive the expression for the collector efficiency factor for the flat plate
**

collector.

Calculate the overall loss coefficient, heat lost from top, heat loss from bottom,

heat loss from side and over all heat loss for a flat plate collector with two glass

covers with the following data:

Size of absorber plate = 1.1 m x 2.2 m

07

1

07

02

05

07

05

09

07

The measured beam radiation intensity is 450 W/m2 over a horizontal surface. Collector tilt is 19o. Calculate the useful energy of solar collector at 11 a.187 KJ/Kg K.005 KJ/Kg–K.05 W/m K OR Q. Ambient temperature = 27o C Solar flux incident on collector face = 830 W/m2 Average transmissivity-absorptivity product = 0. Nu=0.2 W/m2 K Bottom Loss coefficient = 0. All Notations have their usual meanings.077 Kg/m3. Cp for water 4. 72.079 x Re-0. Neglect heat loss from the sides. heat removal factor and instantaneous efficiency for the cylindrical parabolic collector.4 (a) (b) Explain the Testing procedure for the flat plate collector. solar absorptance of absorbing plate is 0. collector width is 1 m and length is 2 m.84 Top Loss coefficient = 6. Use relations. k = 0.8 and f = 0. Width of absorber plate = 1. on 10th August.25. Ambient air temperature is 36o C.3 cm Air flow rate = 213 Kg/h Air inlet temperature = 49o C. With the negligible bond resistance and wall resistance. OR Derive the expression for the collector efficiency factor. the tube outer and inner diameters are 1.7 m/sec Back insulation thickness = 9 cm Side insulation thickness = 5 cm Thermal Conductivity of insulation = 0.9 Assume mean fluid/air temperature = 55o C Assume very small difference of temperature between absorber plate and bottom plate.3 cm and 1.63o N.9 m. For collector take overall loss coefficient is 8 W/m2 K.m.8 W/m2 K Emissivity of absorber plate and bottom plate = 0. water flow rate is 0. µ=19.0287 W/mK. Centre to centre distance between two tube is 13 cm .0158 x Re0.5 (a) (b) 2 07 07 07 .83 Collector tilt = 22o Mean absorber plate temperature = 78o C Ambient air temperature = 22o C Wind speed = 2. Properties of air at 55o C are: ρ = 1.08 cm.93 Glass cover emissivity = 0.Spacing between first and second glass cover = 5 cm Spacing between absorber plate and first glass cover = 6 cm Absorber plate emissivity = 0. cover transmittance for solar radiation is 0.5 (a) Derive the expression for the collector efficiency factor. Fluid to tube heat transfer coefficient is 1500 W/m2 K.85 x 10-6 N-s/ m2.0 cm respectively. heat removal factor for the conventional air heater. Thermal conductivity of the plate is 210 W/ m2 K. fin thickness is 0. Explain the working of solar pond with neat sketch.93o E]. Cp=1.02 kg/sec and water inlet temperature is constant and equal to 78o C. Calculate the performance parameters of a conventional solar air heater with the following data: Length of absorber plate = 1. 05 09 Q.84 and is independent of direction.96 and independent of direction. 2015 for the location [20.0 m Spacing between absorber plate and bottom plate = 1. 07 (b) Q.

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