Educational technology research and

development

Present to
Mr.Krittawit Krittayaruangroj

Made by
Mr.Natthakan
57130010027
Mr.Leelawat
57130010044
Mr.Atisak
57130010055
Mr.Sirasith
57130010432

Theplip
Uma
Waiprib
Hanbuntrong

This report is part of Information and communication
technology CC102
Srinakharinwirot University
Term 1 year of education 2015

2 Preface กระดาษในปปั จจจุบปันถถูกนนามาใชช้อยย่างแพรย่หลายในหลาย งานและงานททที่มก ท ารใชช้กระดาษมากงานหนนที่ งกก็คคืองานอารร์ต ถนง แมช้ดดิจดิตอลจะมทการพปัฒนาขนขึ้นมากในปปั จจจุบปันจนเราสามารถลด หรคือเลทที่ยงการใชช้กระดาษไดช้ แตย่ถนงอยย่างไรแลช้วกระดาษกก็ยง ปั คง เปก็ นตปัวสนาคปัญในการทนางานตย่างๆ ไมย่ตย่างกปับดดินสอ ในงานอารร์ต จนงมทการใชช้กระดาษอยย่างสดิขึ้นเปลคือง หลายคนไมย่คนานน งถนงผลกระ ทบการใชช้ การทนาลายทรปัพยากรธรรมชาตดิเพคืที่อผลดิตกระดาษ สย่ง ผลตย่อสภาวะโลกรช้อนแลช้วทรปัพยากรธรรมชาตดิลดลง ในโครงงานนทขึ้ จนงไดช้ศนกษาการใชช้กระดาษในงานอารร์ตอยย่าง ละเอทยดรวมถนงการแกช้ปปัญหาการใชช้กระดาษอยย่างสดิขึ้นเปลคือง การ ลดปรดิมาณการใชช้หรคือหลทกเลทขึ้ยงการใชช้ รวมถนงผลกระทบหาก เราใชช้กระดาษในปรดิมาณททที่มากเกดินไปจนไมย่คนานน งถนงสดิที่งแวดลช้อม เพคืที่อหาแนวทางแกช้ปปัญหาเหลย่านปัขึ้น คณะผช้ถูจปัดทนาไดช้รปับความรช้แ ถู ละประสบการณร์การประยจุกตร์ สารสนเทศกปับการทนาโครงงานครปัขึ้งนทขึ้ และใครย่ขอขอบพระคจุณอา จารยร์อธดิปปัตยร์ สมดิททองคนา ททที่ใหช้คนาแนะนนาและขช้อเสนอแนะททที่เปก็ น ประโยชนร์ในการศนกษาคช้นควช้าครปัขึ้งนทขึ้ คณะผช้ถูจปัดทนา .

3 Content .

development. and in a given context may refer to theoretical. online learning and. and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. It encompasses several domains. m-learning. Scope Educational technology refers to the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretic. algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not necessarily imply physical technology.4 Educational technology 1. utilization. Accordingly. The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) denoted instructional technology as "the theory and practice of design. using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources". “As such. management. 2. there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology:  Educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning  Educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge. and its development and exchange . educational technology refers to all valid and reliable applied education sciences. Definition Richey defined educational technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating. where mobile technologies are used. as well as processes and procedures that are derived from scientific research. including learning theory. computer-based training. such as equipment.

The first all multiple choice. large scale assessment was the Army Alpha. such as paintings on cave walls. such courses may be called "Computer Studies" or "Information and Communication Technology (ICT)" 3. From their introduction. books and pamphlets have held a prominent role in education. The use of media for instructional purposes is generally traced back to the first decade of the 20th century with the introduction of educational films (1900s) and Sidney Pressey's mechanical teaching machines (1920s).5  Educational technology for learning management systems (LMS). surer. or less expensive can be traced back to the emergence of very early tools. History Helping people learn in ways that are easier. used to assess the intelligence and more specifically the aptitudes of World . faster. such as tools for student and curriculum management. and education management information systems (EMIS)  Educational technology itself as an educational subject. Various types of abacus have been used. Writing slates and blackboards have been used for at least a millennium. From the early twentieth century. duplicating machines such as the mimeograph and Gestetner stencil devices were used to produce short copy runs (typically 10–50 copies) for classroom or home use.

but modern educators . Theory Various pedagogical perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with educational technology. Further large-scale use of technologies was employed in training soldiers during and after WWII using films and other mediated materials.1 Behaviorism This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by Ivan Pavlov.6 War I military recruits. E-learning theory examines these approaches. Tolman. The concept of hypertext is traced to Bush's description of memex in 1945. 4. Edward C. Hull. such as overhead projectors. Edward Thorndike. Clark L. cognitivism and constructivism. and B. These theoretical perspectives are grouped into three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks: behaviorism. Many psychologists used these results to develop theories of human learning. 4. Skinner.F.

These theoretical perspectives influence instructional design.2 Cognitivism Cognitive science underwent significant change in the 1960s and 1970s. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of verbal behavior and wrote "The Technology of Teaching". information processing and media psychology.3 Constructivism . While retaining the empirical framework of behaviorism.an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive load. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short term memory) and long term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. B.7 generally see behaviorism as one aspect of a holistic synthesis. that was based on behavior analysis but that substantially differed from Keller's and Skinner's models. named Celeration. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's working memory model were established as theoretical frameworks. 4. Ogden Lindsley developed a learning system.F. Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. 4. cognitive psychology theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning.

. 2012. related. in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities.8 Educational psychologists distinguish between several types of constructivism: individual (or psychological) constructivism. and social constructivism. Jonassen (1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. ideally involving real-world scenarios. Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may incorporate learner centered problem based learning. Constructivist learning environments require students to use their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new. project-based learning. such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development. and/or adaptive concepts in learning (Termos. and inquiry-based learning. as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives. providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. This form of constructivism has a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information.

In contrast to the linear delivery of content." Using Web 2. often directly from the instructor's material. discuss ideas. the neologism "e-learning 1.0" and "networked collaborative learning" (NCL).9 Collaborative learning Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) uses instructional methods designed to encourage or require students to work together on learning tasks. CSCL is similar in concept to the terminology. sharing information between multiple people in a network has become much easier and use has increased. wikis. and cloud-based document portals (such as Google Docs and Dropbox). Collaborative learning is distinguishable from the traditional approach to instruction in which the instructor is the principal source of knowledge and skills.[51]:1 One of the main reasons for its usage states that it is "a breeding ground for creative and engaging educational endeavors. blogs. and promote information. According to Sendall (2008). "e-learning 2. With technological Web 2. wikis.0 social tools in the classroom allows for students and teachers to work collaboratively. and social networking .0 advances.0" refers to the direct transfer method in computer-based learning and training systems (CBL). CSCL uses blogs. For example.

10 skills are found to be significantly useful in the classroom.0 tools. psychologists. According to the work of Cassandra B. The collaborative tools prepare students with technology skills necessary in today's workforce. the continuing attention to aspects of motivation and success in regard to e-learning should be kept in context and concert with other educational efforts. students reported an increase in knowledge and comfort level for using Web 2. Information about motivational tendencies can help educators. After initial instruction on using the tools. Locus of control remains an important consideration in successful engagement of elearners. Whyte. and technologists develop insights to help students perform better academically .

as well as on-demand and synchronous methods with digital video via server or web-based options such as streamed video from YouTube. image. Skype.  access to knowledge bases (help user find information needed)  alternate forms of knowledge representation (multiple representations of knowledge. document cameras. Teacher Tube. Video technology has included VHS tapes and DVDs. ePortfolios. e. electronic media. Adobe Connect. Interactive digital video games are being used at K-12 and higher education institutions . while streaming audio over the internet with webcasts and podcasts can be asynchronous. data) Numerous types of physical technology are currently used:[65][66] digital cameras. audio. Classroom microphones. and webcams. Audio and video Radio offers a synchronous educational vehicle.11 Media Educational media and tools can be used for:  task structuring support: help with how to do a task (procedures and processes). text. and LCD projectors. often wireless. 1. Combinations of these techniques include blogs. collaborative software. Telecommuting can connect with speakers and other experts. interactive whiteboard tools. can enable learners and educators to interact more clearly. and virtual classrooms.g. video. video cameras.

OpenCourseWare (OCW) gives free public access to information used in undergraduate and graduate programs. wikis. Social . and instruction manuals. blogs. PDF files. Many mobile devices support m-learning. setting reminders. and Twitter allow learners and educators to post thoughts. Computers. Mobile learning can provide performance support for checking the time. University of Pennsylvania. tablets and mobile devices Computers and tablets enable learners and educators to access websites as well as programs such as Microsoft Word. Mobile devices such as clickers and smartphones can be used for interactive audience response feedback. and comments on a website in an interactive learning environment. Participating institutions are MIT and Harvard.12 2. retrieving worksheets. Stanford. and University of Michigan 3. and images. ideas. Social networks Group webpages. Princeton. PowerPoint.

instant message.0 educational framework provides enough resources. and a Web 2. Social networking encourages collaboration and engagement and can be a motivational tool for self-efficacy amongst students. chat. learning styles. Every student has his or her own learning requirements. and more than 50% talk online about schoolwork. or blogs. The National School Boards Association found that 96% of students with online access have used social networking technologies. communication tools and flexibility to accommodate this diversity . video conference.13 networking sites are virtual communities for people interested in a particular subject to communicate by voice.