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51 views7 pagesPaper on the Skin effect in thin films

Feb 26, 2016

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Paper on the Skin effect in thin films

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Paper on the Skin effect in thin films

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G. R. Henry

Citation: Journal of Applied Physics 43, 2996 (1972); doi: 10.1063/1.1661647

View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1661647

View Table of Contents: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jap/43/7?ver=pdfcov

Published by the AIP Publishing

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J.

Moyens d'Essais under contract No. 533/68.

APPPENDIX

For our range of densities, recombination is mainly

collisional, and we can evaluate RI1 and RIO, noting that

if local thermodynamic equilibrium occurs, we have

a microreversibility between the collisional processes

O=i and 1 =i; we obtain

2

J,+'

neRIO=no

wI " wQ o_l (w)f(w)41TW 2 dw ,

(A1)

go fo'" QO_i(U+Ui)e-U(u+u;)du

For a cold plasma (Te:S 104 OK, the principal contribution to the two integrals of Eq. (A1) is due to small

energies tmw 2 in the region where the two functions

(u+ut)Q1-l(u+ut) and (u+ul)Qo_l(u+ud verify l

(U+Uf'jQl_I(U+Un (u+U;)QO_I(U+U;) ,

yielding RI1 R lo .

tmw~ and tm (w t)2 are, respectively, the ionization

energy for levels 0 and 1.

RI1

RIO

no fw: WQO_I (w)f(w)41TW 2dw

= nl fwt WQl

National de la Recherche

Scientifique.

IN. Peyraud, J. Phys. (Paris) 30, 773 (1969).

2L. A. Shelepin, and L. I. Gudzenko, Soviet Phys. Doklady

_I (w

is Maxwellian at Te.

3V. A. Abramov and B. M. Smirnov, Opt. Spectros. (USSR) 21

(No. I), 9 (1966).

4The collision frequency 1J is, in the first approximation, as-

sumed to be constant.

G.R. Henry*

IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598

(Received 22 February 1971)

Numerical calculations are presented for the impedance per square of metallic films. We

consider in detail the case in which the mean free path of the conduction electrons is comparable to or greater than the film thickness (thin films at low temperatures), with particular attention to the transition between the dc limit and the anomalous skin-effect limit.

I. INTRODUCTION

Electrical impedance has been studied in many materials under various conditions. Here we discuss theoretically some aspects of impedance relevant to thin metallic films at low temperatures. The surface impedance

per square 1 is considered as a function of electrical

frequency, film thickness, and mean free path of the

conduction electrons. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine in detail the behavior of the impedance of a film where the skin depth is about equal to

the film thickness, a region where asymptotic formulas

do not apply. Thus, a bridge is established between,

for example, the anomalous skin-effect and the sizelimited dc regions. The most important restrictions in

this treatment are that the conductor be metallic (i. e. ,

that the Fermi surface be spherical or nearly spherical), and that the frequency be low enough to make the

displacement-current and electron-relaxation effects

negligible. All of these conditions are usually met by

conductors in integrated circuits; the considerations of

this paper are relevant to the possible use of integrated

circuits at cryogenic temperatures, where the mean

free path may be equal to or greater than the classical

skin depth2 and/or the conductor thickness.

symmetric boundary condition that the electric field be

the same on both sides of the film. 3 Other boundary

conditions are briefly discussed in Sec. IV. In Fig. 1,

a "map" is shown4 indicating regions where various

asymptotic formulas apply. Note that if one picks any

point on the map initially and then the mean free path

l is reduced, one is carried into the upper right quadrant, corresponding to the classical limit (either dc or

skin effect). Although three lengths are involved, one

length (chosen here as the mean free path l) merely

establishes the over-all scale, and the remaining two

(film thickness t and classical skin depth 15) then determine the important physical effects.

The impedance is approximately given by the following

formulas 5 in the various regions:

classical dc,

Z=l/at;

(1)

z=t(1 +i)1/al5;

(2)

size-limited dc, 7

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where a denotes the conductivity of the metal. This expreSSion is exact, and applies for all values of tlo.

ANOMALOUS

SKIN EFFECT

SIZE-EFFECT LIMITED

D.C. RESISTANCE

various asymptotic formulas for the impedance of thin films,

in terms of til (ratio of film thickness to electron mean free

path) and oil (ratio of classical skin depth to electron mean

free path).

4(1 )

(ljt)2

Z=:3 al In(llt);

(3)

(1)4/3

Z - -1(12)1/6(1)

- (1 + Y3i) - 4 7r2

al

o'

only for comparison to a more involved case where the

mean free path cannot be neglected. The magnitude of

the impedance is plotted in Fig. 2, in dimensionless

form applicable to any conductor. Figure 3 shows the

phase of the impedance. It is interesting to note that as

we go from the dc (large skin depth) region to the skineffect region, both the magnitude and phase of the impedance "overshoot" the skin-effect asymptotes and then

return to them. In fact, explicit calculation shows that

both the magnitude and phase oscillate about their

asymptotes in a very heavily damped sine wave of wavelength 21T in the ratio tlo. The choice of ordinate in Fig.

2, at I Z I , is particularly convenient when considering

the impedance as a function of frequency (and, therefore of 0) at a given film thickness t. To consider the

impedance for various thicknesses at constant frequency, a more convenient ordinate would be ao I ZI = (01

t)at I Z I . It is easy to see that in terms of this new ordinate, both asymptotes are rotated counter clockwise by

45, and the "overshoot" discussed above becomes an

absolute minimum in impedance. In other words, considered as a function of frequency the impedance has no

minimum; at constant frequency, however, there is a

film thickness which minimizes the impedance. The

minimum occurs at tlo = 2.365, at which point the magnitude of the impedance is given by

atl

(4)

zl =1.46

(6a)

or

In the latter two expressions, as in the rest of this paper, we have assumed that any electron striking the

face of the film is scattered in a completely diffuse

(nonspecular) manner, as is suggested by direct measurement. Remarkably enough, the anomalous skineffect impedance is hardly changed in making the opposite assumption8 (of complete specularity), although

there is no longer any size effect for dc, 7 with the impedance given by (at)-1 irrespective of I. By convention,

an inductive reactance is a positive imaginary impedance.

aol zl

(6b)

The latter expression indicates that the impedance minimum is lower by a factor of 1.14 than the skin-effect

mean free path of the conduction electrons is arbitrarily

small) giving analytical results. Numerical results in

the more complicated case of long mean free paths (l

comparable to t and/or 0) are presented in Sec. III, and

concluding remarks are made in Section IV.

D.C. LIMIT

The classical limit applies to situations where the electron mean free path may be neglected. In this case

Ohm's law, J = aE, applies point by point throughout the

conductor.

Neglecting the displacement current, an analytic expression for the impedance per square is easily derived

in this limit:

z=

1+ i[sinh(t/o) - sin(tl 0) 1

cosh(tjo) - cos(tjo)

u

(5)

O. I L---'--'-'-.L.LLJ..J.l_-L-L--'-.JLLLJ...LL_---"------"---..L.L-'--LJuJ

0.01

0.1

10

8/t

FIG. 2. Magnitude of impedance per square in the classical

(small mean free path) limit. With the boundary conditions

chosen, current flows on both sides of the film in the skineffect limit, so that the impedance is half as large as that

associated with the surface of a semi-infinite conductor.

J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 43, No.7, July 1972

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2998

G.R. HENRY

50r----------,-----------.----------~

III

~ 40

II:

(!)

~ 30

N

\J..

that point, but also on the field that existed in the recent past within roughly a mean free path of the point in

question. Pippard8 has quoted a very lucid, simple

derivation (due to Chambers) of the generalized form

of Ohm's law that applies when the mean free path is

taken into account; the result (which has also been obtained more formally) is found to be

J(t 0) = ~f r(r

20

(!)

'4rrl

<t

W

III

10

a.

0.1

10

SIt

(small mean free path) limit. In the skin-effect limit, the resistive and reactive components of impedance are equal, as

implied by the 45 phase asymptote.

This overshoot, or minimum, may be understood as a

rather muted thin-film interference phenomenon. It

turns out to be somewhat easier to think about the resistance rather than the magnitude of the impedance.

First, if t Ii, the electric field is essentially constant

in magnitude and phase through the film. As the film becomes thicker, the resistance falls in the usual dc manner. At some thickness, however, the field begins to

vary appreciably inside the film, both in phase and

magnitude. In fact, at a thickness t=rrli it is easy to

show that the field at the center of the film is 90 out of

phase with the surface field. Should the thickness be increased a bit beyond this point, the resistive component of the current in the central region of the film will

cancel some of the resistive current flowing near the

surface; thus a small increase from t= rrli leads to an

increase in the film resistance, and we would expect

the resistance to be minimum at t= rrli. This is indeed

found to be the case. The size of the effect is fairly

small, owing to the heavy damping of the field within

the film: The magnitudes of the field and current at the

center of the film are substantially reduced from those

at the surface. Thus instead of a sine-wave interference

pattern typical of light in transparent films for example,

we barely see the first half-wave of the interference

phenomenon. Similar considerations apply to the magnitude of the impedance, although it is more difficult to

find the minimum with simple physical arguments.

These qualitative features of the dc-to-skin-effect

transition persist and become more pronounced as the

mean free path of the conduction electrons become

longer (see Sec. In).

III. NONZERO MEAN FREE PATH

The only essential complication introduced by consideration of nonzero mean free paths is that Ohm's law becomes effectively nonlocal. The current density at a

[E(r)])e-~/I dV

r

(7)

current is evaluated. The brackets around E(r) indicate

that it is to be evaluated at the time t - r/~, where ~

denotes the Fermi velocity of the conduction electrons;

however, the neglect of electron relaxation effects implies that the electric field is essentially constant over

the time interval l/~, and we may therefore drop the

brackets.

The integration in Eq. (7) extends over all space; in applying the result to a sheet of finite thickness, it is

necessary to consider what happens at the faces of the

sheet. As stated above, we assume that the electrons

are scattered diffusely from the faces of the film; in

this case electrons just scattered from a surface look

like electrons arriving from a field-free region outside

the film. Thus we may set E =0 outside the film or,

equivalently, restrict the integration to the volume occupied by the film.

For a film of thickness t, perpendicular to the z axis

(with the faces at 0 and t), it is found that, for currents

and fields tangential to the film,

J(z) = !~ i t K(Z

~ZI)E(Z')dZ"

(8)

with

K(u)

(9)

Maxwell's equations

(10)

so that

2

d E(z) _ .~ J:.... (tK(Z' -Z) E( ')d '

dz2 -z2 li21Jo

1

Z z.

(11)

Equation (11) is a particularly simple type of integrodifferential equation; the method used for numerical

solution is indicated in the Appendix. Once the E field

has been determined, the impedance is easily computed;

it is simply

Z=E(O) [j/J(Z)dz}-l

(12)

terms of the E field and its first derivative at the surface of the film:

Z= +[E (dE)-l]

,

Ii a

dz

(13)

.0=0

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2999

o,ooo,----,------,----,--------,

1000

ANOMALOUS SKIN

EFFECT ASYMPTOTE

from the classical dc region to the classical skin-effect

region, and finally to the anomalous skin-effect region.

In this case the phase would show a plateau at 45, between the 60 and zero limits.

It is difficult to give simple physical arguments for the

free path case. In essence, it turns out that the E field

is in some sense more lightly damped than in the claSSical case.

100

\

\~

'..:~-----II.I.=1/4

10

IV. CONCLUSIONS

.~

>''''''__-1=.1.

0.1

0.01

10

8/.1.

(a)

ANOMALOUS SKIN

EFFECT ASYMPTOTE

are established above, under the restrictions that electron relaxation and displacement current can be neglected. The latter condition is equivalent to the dielectric relaxation time of the conductor being short

compared to w- 1 , and for most metals represents a less

severe restriction than that involving electron relaxation, particularly at low temperatures. It is reasonable

to require (in order to make electron relaxation unimportant)

2rrj=w ~/l,

~,--_ _ _

expression (14) turns out to be too restrictive at low

temperatures where the mean free path becomes longer

than the classical skin depth; a more realistic condition

is that8

I/.I.=2-IO

' ......

2rrj=w ~/l,

"\

."\.

(14)

l<o

2rrj=w ~/(lo)1/2,

(15a)

l>o.

(15b)

11.1.=2- 6

1~0~-6~~~~10~-5~~~~IOL-4~~~~IOL--3~~~10-2

8/.1.

(b)

classical skin depth (and therefore of frequency, implicitly) for

various choices of film thickness. (b) Continuation of Fig. 4(a)

over a wider range. The "overshoot" becomes more pronounced as conditions become more anomalous (as til becomes

smaller), and is moderately enhanced over the classical case.

in Figs. 4 and 5, in a form independent of material; the

magnitude of the impedance is given through the dimensionless quantity o-l!Z!, as a function of oil and

parametrized by til. The phase of the impedance is also

shown for a range of oil and til. In the dc limit, the

phase goes to zero as expected (no inductive reactance),

while in the anomalous skin-effect region the phase is

asymptotic to 60 in accord with the result that the inductive reactance is greater than the resistance by a

factor of ..f3.

It is clear that the behavior of the impedance in the

that in the classical region, although the "overshoot"

or "minimum" tends to be somewhat more pronounced.

The curves presented in Figs. 4 and 5 correspond to

transitions from the dc size-limited region directly to

the anomalous skin-effect region, which is of greatest

importance for very thin films. For a film with t l,

(a)

~80,---~~----,-----,------,

ffiw 60r--.L.---------'~-----\,__

-.40

u.

~

~

if

20

?0-6

10-4

8/.1.

(b)

classical skin depth (and therefore of frequency, implicitly) for

the film thickness shown in Fig. 4(a). (b) Continuation of Fig.

5(a) to film thicknesses shown in Fig. 4(b). Again the "overshoot" is more pronounced than in the classical case.

J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 43, No.7, July 1972

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3000

G.R. HENRY

f 3 x 1013 Hz,

(16)

f5 x 109 Ts/3 Hz,

= - 2'3

d 2g

lx2 =

PIt

1)2

[2

(til

2' 1)2 10

II

(A1)

(17)

numerical results presented above are therefore applicable to frequencies of interest in most circuit applications. Detailed consideration has been given to the

operation of logic circuitry at low temperatures by

Keyes, Harris, and Konnerth. 9

From the over-all similarity of the numerical calculations to the classical case, it may be possible to draw

some rough conclusions about other geometries and

boundary conditions from the classical case. 6 If the

boundary conditions are chosen as "one sided" (E

specified on one side, outgoing plane wave on the other

side), one has in the classical case

Zone olded(t) '" 2Z.ym(2t).

d 2f

lx2

(18)

mismatch between the conducting sheet and free space,

which ensures nearly perfect reflectivity at the faces.

Finally, the results for planar films continue to hold

approximately for cylindrical films (with the driving

fields on the inner and/or outer faces) if the film thickness is small compared to the radius of the cylinder. It

may reasonably be expected that these classical results continue to apply very roughly in the anomalous

region. The appropriate boundary conditions depend of

course on the specific problem addressed. In performing impedance measurements by introducing the film

into a microwave cavity, for example, symmetric (or

other) boundary conditions are easily realized. In circuitry, the symmetric case discussed above applies to

a shielded strip line (planar center conductor between

two ground planes); a strip line on a single ground

plane involves the "one sided" boundary conditions mentioned above in Eq. (18), but not explicitly solved in the

anomalous skin-effect limit.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

the interest of this problem and for many helpful suggestions. Extended discussions with E. P. Harris on

both mathematical and physical aspects of this problem

were invaluable. We also thank A. F. Mayadas and M.

Shatzkes for interesting discussions.

approximately, at each of the N + 1 points at the ends of

the N intervals,

(A2)

that K(O) diverges. In such intervals, K(O) was replaced by the average value of K over the interval. Vmn

and w" are appropriate weight factors for differentiation

and integration, respectively. Since m takes on N + 1

values, we have N + 1 pairs of equations for a nominal

2N + 2 variables. Actually, the equations in general

have no solution at this point (they are homogeneous

equations, and the relevant determinant need not be

zero). We could not expect a unique solution anyway,

since no boundary conditions have been imposed.

Equations (A2) form a very convenient starting point for

imposition of boundary conditions. For example, we

choose in this paper to make E real and unity on both

faces of the film, or in other words, fl = fN +1 = 1, gl

=gN+I =0. With this choice we now have 2N +2 inhomogenous equations for the remaining 2N - 2 variables.

The "overdetermination" is an artifact of the numerical

approximation technique: for N = 108 there is "relatively

little" overdetermination, on the way to the continuum

limit N - 00. It would be efficient to use all of the equations to determine the best-fit solution on the basis of

some sort of least-squares criterion; in practice we

found it convenient simply to solve a subset of 2N - 2

equations (by choosing different subsets one gets some

feeling for the accuracy, through the slight scatter in

results).

As is characteristic in the numerical solution of integral equations, increasing the number of intervals increases the number of equations to be solved, which

turns out to be a fairly severe problem. In the work

reported here the effective limit appeared to be reached

at an average phase change (in the E field) per interval

of about 15. All computation was carried out in APL/

360, in a 32Kbyte "workspace".

APPENDIX

are essentially those used for integral equations and

will only be briefly discussed here. In essence, the

complex equation (11) is first written as two real coupled equations, and the integrals are approximated by

sums, the derivatives by polynomial differentiation

formulas. The resulting set of linear algebraic equations is then solved.

Defining a dimensionless coordinate, x=z/l, and two

real functions by E=f+ig, Eq. (11) becomes, with no

approximation,

K-16, Monterey and Cottle Roads, San Jose, Calif. 95114.

lIn a planar film with current flowing parallel to the faces of

the film, consider any square of the film with edges parallel

and perpendicular to the current flow. The surface impedance

of this square is defined as the ratio of the potential difference between the perpendicular edges (at the film surface) to

the total current flowing through the perpendicular edges.

This impedance is readily seen to be independent of the size

of the square..

2In nonmagnetic metals the classical skin depth is given by

0= C(21TW<T)-1/ 2 (cgs units), 0 = c(4m,O>I/ 2(21Tw<T)-1/ 2 (MKS units),

with W the angular frequency, c the velocity of light, and <T

the bulk conductivity of the metal.

139.133.30.239 On: Mon, 28 Sep 2015 14:07:08

3This boundary condition clearly applies in the DC limit; we

choose to retain it at nonzero frequencies as well.

4The precise boundaries chosen are of course somewhat

arbitrary and depend slightly on the parameter of interest

(e.g., magnitude of impedance, resistance, etc.).

5All equations in this paper (except those of Ref. 2) are

written so as to be valid in both cgs and MKS units.

6S. Ramo and J. R. Whinnery, Fields and Waves in Modern

3001

lE.H. Sondheimer, Advan. Phys. 1, 1 (1952).

sA. B. Pippard, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics,

edited by L. Marton (Academic, New York, 1954), Vol. 'VI,

p. 1. This paper gives an excellent discussion of the anomalous skin effect from first principles.

9R.W. Keyes, E.P. Harris, andK.L. Konnerth, Proc. IEEE,

58, 1914 (1970).

P.A. Miller, J.B. Gerardo, andJ.W. Poukey

Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87115

(Received 27 January 1972; in final form 24 March 1972)

Studies of the propagation of pulsed relativistic electron beams through initially un-ionized

background gases are reported. At very low pressures, pronounced beam front erosion occurs owing to the slow buildup of radial force neutralization of the beam electrons. Numerical simulation and an approximate analytical model are used to describe this beam-loss process. The results of experiments with two different electron accelerators (p/y ~ O. 05 and 1)

are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with the mathematical descriptions over the

pressure range of ~ 1 1.1 to ~ 1 Torr in a large variety of gases. Propagation characteristics

are found to scale in pressure from gas to gas inversely with the high-energy ionization

cross sections of the gases. The study shows that direct ionization alone is sufficient to explain the experimental results. The theoretical calculations indicate that the low-pressure

propagation characteristics of the lower JJ/Y beam are sensitive indicators of the beam's

transverse energy. The calculations also indicate that this is not the case for the higher

JJ/y beam.

I. INTRODUCfION

of delivering up to hundreds of thousands of amperes of

megavolt electrons for tens of nanoseconds have been

developed. Beams from these machines are of interest

for material studies, 1-3 generation of x rays, microwaves4 and neutrons, plasma heating, 5 ion acceleration, 6,7 and ignition of fusion reactions. 8 In a typical

machine configuration, a high voltage is applied between

a field emission cathode and a thin foil anode; electrons

are accelerated through the anode into a drift region in

which they are transported to a target. The transport

medium which may provide electrostatic and magnetic

neutralization of the beam fields may be simply an

initially un-ionized gas or a preformed plasma 9- 12 with

or without guiding magnetic fields. Equilibrium configurations for intense relativistic electron beams

propagating through such media have been investigated

by several authors. 13-18 In this paper we present the

results of a study of one aspect of the beam transport

problem, namely, the initial buildup of ionization and

the development of radial force neutralization which

occurs when a high-energy electron beam first enters

an initially un-ionized background gas.

The problem which we address may be described as

follows: An electron beam is injected into a gas-filled

cylindrical drift tube which is several times larger in

diameter than the beam. The beam drifts down the drift

tube and is collected by a Faraday cup whose aperture

is equal to the tube cross section. The front of the beam

expands rapidly as the beam propagates due to spacecharge repulsion; in this manner, much of the beam is

lost to the tube walls if the background pressure is too

low (e. g., 0.1 Torr) to provide rapid space-charge

neutralization. Actually, only fractional space-charge

neutralization is required for the beam to drift without

to constrict the beam. Higher gas pressures allow more

rapid radial force neutralization and thus more efficient

propagation. The necessity of space-charge neutralization for efficient transport has been well recognized for

some time, but a self-consistent model of its development which agrees with experimental results has not

previously been presented. Mathematical models are

presented here which evaluate space-charge blowup

losses as a function of drift-tube gas pressure, and the

calculated Faraday cup current waveforms are compared with measured currents.

A useful measure of the effect of an electron beam's

self-magnetic fields on the beam electrons' orbits is the

ratio lilY; it is equal to the ratio of the beam current to

the Alfven19 current limit (17 00013y). The Larmor radius

of an electron in a lilY == 1 beam (with no magnetic neutralization) is about equal to one-half of the beam radius. Beams from two different accelerators with lI/y

-0.05 (1. 5 MeV, 3 kA) and -1 (350 keV, 25 kA) were

transported through a variety of gases in order to check

the validity of our calculations over a wide range of parameters.

In Secs. II and III of this paper we present two conceptually different theoretical analyses of the radial force

neutralization problem. The first consists of a multiparticle numerical Simulation; the second consists of

solving a differential equation for a single particle trajectory. While it is felt that the Simulation is basically

the more trustworthy of the two, the analytical approach

gives essentially the same results and is advantageous

because it consumes much less computer time (e. g. ,

12 sec vs 20 min of CDC 6600 time for one waveform).

In Sec. IV the experimental apparatus is described and

in Sec. V experimental results are compared with theJ. Appl. Phys., Vol. 43, No.7, July 1972

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