Turbine and nozzle

Introduction to turbines
• The basic mechanical principle, that if a fluid with large
kinetic energy content is allowed to hit a set of blades free to
rotate, certain amount of shaft work can be extracted from the
passing fluid, has been known for long.
• This energy is available in the form of rotating shaft power and
can be used for various purposes.
• Wind turbines also use naturally available wind kinetic energy
to extract power out of it.

Introduction to turbines
• It was also understood that for a gas turbine engine to go on an
aircraft it must be compact in size and must weigh as less as
possible.
• This requirement translates to the need for a turbine which
produces high energy extraction per unit mass (energy density)
of gas it is working on.
• Thus the gas, if it contains sufficient residual energy after the
turbine, can be exited through a jet nozzle to create direct
engine jet thrust.

• It is well known that turbine operates on the momentum principle
• part of the energy of the gas during expansion is converted into
kinetic energy in the flow nozzle .
• The gas leaves these stationary nozzles at a relatively high velocity.
• Then it is made impinge on the blades over the turbine rotor or
wheel. momentum imparted to the blades turns the rotor.
There are two primary parts of turbines are
1.The stator nozzle

Ca1). . is also made to take huge flow turning through the passage between the blades. and is made to go through the stator-where a large part of its internal energy is converted to kinetic energy.1. 2. impinging on the rotor blade.Flow comes from the combustor with high internal energy (T01. P01.The transfer of energy occurs in rotor as the high kinetic energy flow.

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Turbine stage is classified as 1.Turbine stage The stage consists of a ring of fixed nozzle blades followed by the rotor blade ring.An impulse stage 2.A reaction stage .

but the function in the rotor is two fold.To convert the kinetic energy of gas into work 2. This results from the expansion of the gas during its passage through the rotor. . the function of the stator is as same as that in the impulse stage. The reaction force is due to the increase in the velocity of the gas relative to the blades .contributes a reaction force on the rotor blades.• An impulse turbine stage is characterized by the expansion of the gas which occurs only in the stator nozzles . 1. • Further they convert the kinetic energy of gas into work by changing the momentum of the gas more or less at constant pressure. the rotor blades act as directional guide vanes to deflect the direction of air flow. • A reaction stage is one in which expansion of the gas takes place both in the stator and rotor .

Paddle wheel .A SINGLE IMPULSE STAGE • Impulse machines are those in which there is no change of static or pressure head of the fluid in the rotor. • The energy transformation from pressure head to kinetic energy or vice versa takes place in fixed blades only. • The rotor blades cause only energy transfer and there is no energy transformation. • As can be seen from the fig that the rotor blade passages of an impulse turbine there is no acceleration of the fluid. due to this the rotor blade suffers greater losses giving lower stage efficiency. • Hence the chances are greater for separation due to boundary layer growth on the blade surface . pelton wheel and curtis steam turbine . there is no energy transformation. • Examples.

parson’s turbine . • Therefore reaction turbines are considered to be more efficient. • Examples : Hero’s turbine . • The rotor experiences both energy transfer as well as energy transformation.A SINGLE REACTION STAGE • The reaction machines are those in which changes in static or pressure head occurs on both in the rotor and stator blade passages. • Here the energy transformation occurs both in the fixed as well a moving blades. lawn sprinkler . • This is mainly due to continuous acceleration of flow with lower losses.

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Turbine Velocity triangle .

• In the Impulse turbines described earlier. .0 • The work done in a gas turbines may be increased by increasing entry temp T01.0 • On the other hand. relative exit Mach number from the rotor M3-rel= V3/a3 < 1. V2=V3 • In reaction turbinesV3>V2 • In the aircraft gas turbines the exit Mach number from stator-nozzle M2 =1.

.Degree of reaction • The degree of reaction of a turbomachine stage may be defined as the ratio of static or pressure head changes occurs in the rotor to the total change across the stage.

• Last stage blades do not require cooling as the gas temperature is already substantially reduced.Turbine blade cooling • Various blade cooling techniques provide various amounts of cooling • Maximum cooling is normally applied to first HP stage stator. . which faces the highest temperature • Cooling is also applied to HP rotors. But the details of this technology is a little more complicated as the cooling has to be effected when the blades are rotating at high speeds • Modern LP stage stators are also cooled.

Methods of turbine blade cooling • Cooling of components can be achieved by air or liquid cooling. etc. . choking. • Cooling of components can be achieved by air or liquid cooling. corrosion. • On the other hand air cooling allows the discharged air into main flow without any problem. Liquid cooling seems to be more attractive because of high specific heat capacity and chances of evaporative cooling but there can be problem of leakage. • Quantity of air required for this purpose is 1–3% of main flow and blade temperature can be reduced by 200–300 °C.

Cooling effusion . Impingement cooling • External cooling 1.Methods of turbine blade cooling • Internal cooling 1. Convection cooling 2.Film cooling 2.

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Turbine materials :Inconel. Monel .

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Coolant flow paths in a modern HP turbine stator .

. • Main components: tail pipe or tail cone and the exhaust duct. • In turboprops. nozzles may generate part of the total thrust. • Nozzles could be either of fixed geometry or variable geometry configuration.Nozzles • Nozzles form the exhaust system of gas turbine engines. • It provides the thrust force required for all flight conditions.

• Variable area nozzles are used for adjusting the exit area for different operating conditions of the engine.Cont. • For thrust vectoring: vectoring the nozzles to carry out complex manoeuvres. • For thrust reversal: nozzle are deflected so as to generate a part of the thrust component in the forward direction resulting in braking. nozzles have other functions too.… • Besides generating thrust. • Exhaust noise control .

Axisymmetric or two-dimensional 3. • Other nozzle geometries are complex and require sophisticated control mechanisms.Types of nozzles 1. .Fixed geometry or variable geometry • Simplest is the fixed geometry convergent nozzle Was used in subsonic commercial aircraft.Convergent or Converging-diverging 2.

Variable geometry nozzles • Variable area nozzles or adjustable nozzles are required for matched operation under all operating conditions. .

Exhaust nozzles: Fixed geometry Subsonic convergent Tail pipe Supersonic C-D Nozzle Nozzle Tail pipe C-D Nozzle .

Exhaust nozzles: Variable geometry subsonic Supersonic After burner C-D Nozzle .

cost and maintenance while satisfying the above. .Requirements of Nozzle • Be matched with other engine components • Provide optimum expansion ratio • Have minimum losses at design and off-design • Permit afterburner operation • Provide reversed thrust when necessary • Provide necessary vectored thrust • Have minimal weight.

. • This may lead to a pressure thrust. leading to incomplete expansion. • A C-D nozzle can expand fully to the ambient pressure and develop greater momentum thrust. it is not used in subsonic transport aircraft. • These nozzles operate under choked condition. geometric complexity and diameter.Nozzles • Convergent nozzles are normally used in subsonic aircraft. • However due to increased weight.

• Provides exceptional agility and maneuvering capabilities. • The pilot can move. • This allows the aircraft to undergo maneuvers that conventional control surfaces like ailerons or flaps cannot provide. • Used in modern day combat aircraft.Thrust vectoring • Directing the thrust in a direction other than that parallel to the vehicles’ longitudinal axis. the nozzle up and down by 0-90 degrees. . or vector.

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• Most of the modern day combat aircraft have thrust vectoring. • Thrust vectored aircraft have better climb rates.Thrust vectoring • Thrust vectoring was originally developed as a means for V/STOL (Vertical or Short Take Off and Landing). besides extreme maneuvers. . • Some of the latest aircraft also have axisymmetric nozzle thrust vectoring.

• Most of the designs of thrust reversers have a discharge angle of about 45o • Therefore a component of the thrust will now have a forward direction and therefore contributes to braking. . wheel brakes alone cannot brake and aircraft. • Deflecting the exhaust stream to produce a component of reverse thrust will provide an additional braking mechanism.Thrust reversal • With increasing size and loads of modern day aircraft.

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Cont. • There are three types of thrust reversal mechanisms that are used 1. External bucket type 3. . Clamshell type 2. When deployed. These are normally used in non-afterburning engines. doors rotate and deflect the primary jet through vanes .…. Blocker doors Clamshell type is normally pneumatically operated system.

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• In normal operation.Cont.… • Bucket type system uses bucket type doors to deflect the gas stream. • The cold bypass flow is deflected through cascade vanes to achieve the required flow deflection. . the reverser door form part of the convergent divergent nozzle. • Blocker doors are normally used in high bypass turbofans.

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• Jet exhaust noise is caused by the turbulent mixing of the exhaust gases with the lower velocity ambient air. • Nozzle geometry can significantly influence the exhaust noise characteristics. • Better mixing between the jet exhaust and the ambient can be achieved by properly contouring the nozzle exit.Noise control • Jet exhaust noise is a major contributor to the overall noise generated by an aircraft. • Corrugations or lobes (multiple tubes) are some of the methods of achieving lower jet exhaust noise. .

Noise control Noise control using corrugations/serrations at the nozzle exit .

NOZZLE COEFFICIENTS 2. 1.NOZZLE PERFORMANCE. 3. Nozzle flows (i) Under expansion (ii) Over expansion (iii) Optimal expansion .• REFER BOOK FOR FOLLOWING TOPICS.