INTRODUCTION

Since operational performance in the industrial environment is heavily
dependent upon plant and equipment performing according to design, the
achievement of sustainable
operational
excellence
demands
that
employees have skills in Plant Maintenance. This applies not only to
engineering staff, but also those who use the assets.
Maintenance involves activities carried out to prevent a system or an
equipment from failing. It could also be said to be the repair of normal equipment,
degradation experienced with the operation of the device in other to put it in proper
working condition.

A plant is an arrangement of processing unit (reactors, heat exchangers,
pumps, distillation column, evaporators, and condensers) integrated with
one another in a systematic and rational manner. The plant overall objective
is to convert certain raw material (input feed stock) into desirable materials
using available resources of energy in the most economical way.
Maintenance is the work of keeping something in proper condition, running,
working, in good repair. It means to take care of or to protect, it also means
to fix or repair something. Plant maintenance usually refers to the methods,
strategies, and practices used to keep an industrial factory running
efficiently. This can include anything from regular checks of equipment to
make sure they are functioning properly, to cleaning garbage bins and
toilets. The general aim of plant maintenance is to create a productive
working environment that is also safe for workers. The overall objective of
the maintenance process is to reduce downtime, prevent deterioration of
equipment and ensure that there is no accidents/incident in the workplace
due to mechanical failures. The process industry has witnessed some of the
major disasters in the world. The prominent among them were Bhopal (India,
1984), Flixoborough (England, 1974) and Seveso( Italy, 1976). The major
reasons for the above disasters were due to negligence, not working in
accordance with engineering practices and inadequate maintenance plan
highlighted by Kletz (1994). Bhopal wouldn’t have happened ifv the
protective equipment were in place, also the refrigeration system was shut
down without any plan and the flare system which could have arrested the
vapors by burning them was out of order. All these events led to the domino
effect which caused the release of Methyl Iso Cyanide (MIC) thereby creating
havoc as reviewed by Crowl& louver(1990). Recently a check valve used to
control process gas flow for hydrocarbon gas service at shell oil company
(USA, 1997) failed due to high stress load on drive shaft dowel pin. The pin
fractured and drive shaft was expelled from the valve resulting in a large
flammable gas leak and vapor cloud explosion as comprehended by US EPA
and OSHA (1998). The plant downtime was three (3) hours while the
1

 Prevents unscheduled downtime. This resulted in many injuries and equipment damage. losses experienced in chemical process Examples of losses experienced in chemical process could take the form of : • Loss of/to human life • Loss in production activities • Loss to the environment To human life. loss could be.  Minor or major flesh wounds  Loss of internal organs  Loss of external (amputation) organs  Terminal diseases  Loss of life.explosion was felt 10 miles away. manpower and cost in the long run.  Creates a safe working environment. losses in production activities could be: 2 .  Prevents producing or rendering low quality services. IMPORTANCE OF MAINTENANCE  Prevents interruption of production.  Saves energy.  Increases efficiency and prolongs the life span of equipments and process lines. shut downs. The above incidents confirm that the accident happened due to mechanical failures coupled with operational errors so there is a need for maintenance of unit operations.

Planned maintenance Steps involved in planned maintenance are: Step 1: evaluate equipment and understand current conditions by preparing equipment ledgers. periodic maintenance and improve shutdown maintenance. equipment and components. equipment budget and systems for controlling spares and standby unit. Step 4: build a periodic maintenance system by preparing maintenance worksheets. Autonomous Maintenance: it is an independent maintenance carried out by the operators of the machines rather than by dedicated maintenance technicians. bolt tightening. CLASSES OF MAINTENANCE Maintenance can be classified as follows:   Planned Maintenance: Planned Maintenance is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent and suitable agent. Step 2: restore deterioration and correct weaknesses by preventing identical or similar major failures.• Equipment failure • Speed loss • Energy loss • Yield loss • Product quality loss • Unscheduled downtime • Start-up time • Financial loss. cleaning and also inspection and monitoring. evaluate standards from manuals. 3 . Abolish environment which causes deterioration. define failure ranks and understand the process meticulously. Autonomous maintenance has the operators performing the simpler and safe maintenance routines such as lubrication. to ensure that an item of equipment is operating correctly and to therefore avoid any unscheduled breakdown and downtime. Step 3: build up an information management system which consists of failure database.

The maintenance cycles are planned according to the need to take the device out of service. Step 6: evaluate the planned maintenance system by using reliability and cost data. Maintenance personnel choose different strategies depending on allocation and resources Corrective maintenance: Maintenance is carried out based on the detection of an anomaly. Step 3: Create cleaning and lubrication standards for activities. Autonomous maintenance Steps involved in autonomous maintenance are: Step 1: Perform initial cleaning and inspection of all equipment. Maintenance strategy is adopted in order to extend the life cycle of plants and its services. like a breakdown of the system. This strategy may be cost effective until catastrophic faults occur. Step 5: Carry out equipment inspection checks on a frequent basis. It is aimed at restoring normal operating conditions. Risk-based maintenance: 4 . Step 4: Conduct general inspection training for all equipment. Enna. Preventive maintenance: Maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals or according to prescribed criteria. Step 2: Establish counter measures for the causes and effects of dirt and dust. Step 7: Continuous improvement never ends.Step 5: build up predictive maintenance system. Step 6: Workplace management and control needed to ensure success. (www. The incidence of operating faults is reduced. The main purpose for maintenance strategies is to ensure the plant and associated services are in safe condition fit for use and comply with the law and all statutory requirements. aimed at reducing the failure risk or performance degradation of the equipment.com) MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES Maintenance can be defined as an activity carried out for any equipment to ensure its reliability to perform its functions.

According to a study on maintenance productivity.  Idling and minor stoppages. changeovers and adjustments losses. measurement and periodic test activities to standard preventive maintenance.Maintenance carried out by integrating analysis. The real actual equipment condition is continuously assessed by the online detection of significant working device parameters and their automatic comparison with average values and performance. and maintenance overhead cost are the cost tabulated and shown as maintenance costs. This strategy in the long term allows reducing drastically the costs associated with the maintenance. These hidden cost of maintenance are classified as the six big losses: Breakdowns and unplanned plant shutdown losses. All equipment displaying abnormal values is refurbished or replaced. Although many agrees that maintenance strategies such as preventative and predictive maintenance program has been shown to produce saving of up to 25%. The aim is to perform the asset condition and risk assessment. According to some company. there is a growing concern on the subject of higher maintenance cost and maintenance productivity. thereby minimizing the occurrence of serious faults and optimizing the available economic resources management. Typically.  Excessive set-up. operation and process condition of the equipment in the system. In this way it is possible to extend the useful life and guarantee over time high levels of reliability. it is very important for companies to maximize their maintenance effectiveness and equipment uptime. services. MAINTENANCE COST In recent years.  Running at reduced speed. surpass their annual net profit. Therefore. Condition-based maintenance: Maintenance based on the equipment performance monitoring and the control of the corrective actions taken as a result. maintenance cost can be divided into two main groups namely: 1) Direct costs are easy to justify and to report. materials. They consist of items such as labor. study have shown that still 1/3 of these maintenance cost can be saved. safety and efficiency of the plant. Maintenance is carried out when certain indicators give the signaling that the equipment is deteriorating and the failure probability is increasing.  Startup losses and  Quality defects. The gathered information is viewed in the context of the environmental. most maintenance department is only around 25% to 35% 5 . maintenance is the largest single manageable expenditure in the plant: in many companies. 2) Hidden or indirect costs which are harder to measure.

Table 2 shows some comparison between the effect of effective and non-effective maintenance process. Contradict to this. However. outsourcings also enable a company to gain greater control over maintenance results. reliability and avoiding down time. performance guarantees and continuous improvement goals provide greater control over maintenance results and assure production goals are being achieved. This causes many companies to experience difficulties with quality control. Another preference to increase the level of maintenance productivity is to outsourcing for maintenance partners. Associating with professional maintenance people give a company the advantage to address these issues with those experts who face and meet these challenges on a daily basis. maintenance and reliability group focuses their effort on equipment that is up and running and their concern are more on the machine availability. maintenance productivity can be drastically improved by planning and scheduling of maintenance activities. Clearly. In addition. TYPES OF MAINTENANCE 6 . since the equipment they are using is not properly maintained. Those measurements inevitably drive the project teams to focus on total installed cost. it is also important to integrate maintenance program into these improvement agenda. production levels and schedule adherence. For the past 20 years.productive. Thus another question arises as to when we have to start our maintenance program? The traditional approach of capital engineering and project organizations is measured on two key objectives – being on time and being on budget. most manufacturers has only focusing on reducing costs in the manufacturing processes to stay competitive as the low cost producer. it is important to note that the following key elements have to be highlighted to achieve the optimum benefit from these outsourcing activities:     Performance measurements are developed and clearly communicated Planned maintenance is established as the focus of the operation Maintenance becomes a competitive advantage Both manufacturer and maintenance contractor desire a mutually beneficial relationship Maintenance best practice are established and tracked In the maintenance partnership scenario. This effort although yielded some measurable productivity gain still retarded the opportunity for the additional maximum gain in the overall productivity since maintenance often was excluded from these improvement plans. However.

the maintenance technician must verify that the system is again successfully operating. It is known as the “run it.    Diagnosis of the problem: The maintenance technician must take time to locate the failed parts or otherwise satisfactorily assess the cause of the system failure. Advantages of Breakdown Maintenance   Requires less manpower Low investment cost for maintenance Disadvantages of Breakdown Maintenance       Unplanned downtime of equipment. Inefficient use of staff resources. usually by replacing or repairing the component that caused the system to fail. Leads to probable damage of secondary equipment. This type of maintenance is performed at unpredictable intervals because a component’s failure time is not known a priori. which is required to correct a failure that has occurred or is in the process of occurring.In this type of maintenance no care is taken for the machine/equipment until it fails. The objective of this maintenance is to restore the system to satisfactory operate within the shortest possible time. till it breaks” mode. The strategy is to apply the corrective maintenance activity only. Thus. Shortens lifespan of equipment. restoration or replacement of components. Low quality of products. Breakdown maintenance is typically carried out in three steps:. Increases cost in the long run. this activity may consist of repairing. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE: 7 . This type of maintenance could be used when the failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost (Example – allowing a light bulb to fuse before its replacement).BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE (REACTIVE MAINTENANCE) This is one of the earliest maintenance programs being implemented in the industry. Verification of the repair action: once the component(s) in question have been repaired or replaced. Repair and/or replacement of faulty components(s):Once the cause of the failure has been determined. action must be taken to address the cause. This usually involves replacing or repairing the components that is responsible for the failure of the overall system.

it is designed to preserve and enhance equipment reliability by replacing worn components before they actually fail. repairs are made and the equipment is then put back on-line. equipment is taken off-line. opened up and inspected. Includes performance of unnecessary maintenance. Costs less when compared to the reactive maintenance.This is a time-based maintenance strategy where on a predetermined periodic basis. This is where predictive technologies (i.. Increased component life cycle. Advantages      Cost effective in many capital-intensive processes.. periodic inspection or equipment condition monitoring. Apart from the predictive technologies. statistical process control techniques. It involves measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and 8 . overhauling or remanufacturing an items is done at a fixed intervals regardless of its condition at the time. May not reduce the likelihood of catastrophic failure.e. Based on visual inspection. etc. equipment performance monitoring or human senses are also adapted to monitor the equipment condition. and then taking action to avoid the consequences of that failures.) are utilized to determine the condition of equipment. vibration analysis. Recent technological advances in tools for inspection and diagnosis have enabled even more accurate and effective equipment maintenance. Preventive maintenance activities include equipment checks. Predictive maintenance is condition-based maintenance. lubrication and so on. and to decide on any necessary repairs. oil changes.This is a schedule of planned maintenance actions aimed at the prevention of breakdowns and failuresthrough the prevention of deterioration. The primary goal of preventive maintenance is to prevent the failure of equipment before it actually occurs. Energy saving. The approach is based on measuring of the equipment condition in order to assess whether equipment will fail during some future period. infrared thermographs. Incidental damages might occur during maintenance. Reduced equipment or process failure. Disadvantages     Labor intensive. ultrasonic detection. Thus under this equipment maintenance strategy. replacing. Predictive Maintenance This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis.

cannot -maintenance cost of the plants also increases  Product and service quality: -improper maintenance of machines produces poor quality products -improperly maintained machines have frequent breakdowns and cannot provide better service to customers  Employee or Customer safety: -improperly maintained equipments are likely to fail which may injure an employee -product of poor quality may injure the customer. proactive maintenance concentrate on the monitoring and correction of root causes to equipment failures. thus the capacity of the plant is reduced  Product cost: Labour cost per unit increases as the idle labour time increases - when improper functioning of machines takes place.generally employs an on-line surveillance system (Example – vibration measurement of turbine bearings). Proactive maintenance: Unlike the three type of maintenance strategies which have been discussed earlier. unit labour and material costs increases. This gives direct impact on the following:  Product capacity: machines failed due to breakdown manufacture. material scrap. proactive maintenance can be considered as another new approach to maintenance strategy. Effects of Poor Maintenance Improper maintenance effects the machine or equipment.  Customer satisfaction: 9 . The proactive maintenance strategy is also designed to extend the useful age of the equipment to reach the wear-out stage by adaptation a high mastery level of operating precision. This indirectly effects the production of the organization and the quality of the product. Dissimilar to preventive maintenance that based on time intervals or predictive maintenance that based on condition monitoring.

-also frequent breakdown leads to increase service time to customer. that is increased maintenance cost. labour cost e.-when production equipments frequently breakdown.t. o Reduce the system or equipment life o Reduce the efficiency of heat transfer o Increase the unwanted waste o Additional cost to clean the system o Can effect product quality o Reduce the plant productivity o Downgrades the system effectiveness o Decreased plant profit .  Organisation losses: -huge losses to organization. poor quality products will be produced.c -product manufacturing cost increases EFFECTS OF MAINTENANCE EFFECTIVE MAINTENANCE NON-EFFECTIVE MAINTENANCE o Restores system productivity o Avoid any unnecessary shutdown o Increase the efficiency of the equipment o Prolong the system life o Improve the overall plant productivity o Essential to maintain product quality o Increases plants profit 10 o Increased maintenance cost.