Institute of Space Technology

Assignment 2

No. of Pages
1

Instructor:
Dr. Muhammad Nasir Mumtaz Bhutta

Class: Electrical Engineering – BE
COURSE NAME: Computer Networks
Assignment Description:
Hints:
1. A point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two nodes or or directly
connected endpoints. (See page 8 of Chapter 1 Foundation for more details).
2. In a network transmission delay (or store-and-forward delay, also known as packetization delay) is the
amount of time required to push all the packet's bits into the wire. In other words, this is the delay caused
by the data-rate of the link. Transmission delay is a function of the packet's length and has nothing to do
with the distance between the two nodes. This delay is proportional to the packet's length in bits.
3. There are many situations in which it is more important to know how long it takes to send a message from
one end of a network to the other and back, rather than the one-way latency. We call this the round-trip
time (RTT) of the network.
1. In a network based on packet switching, processing delay is the time it takes routers to process the packet
header. The queuing delay or queueing delay is the time a job waits in a queue until it can be executed.
Usually processing delay + queuing delay can be considered = queuing delay.
2. In computer networks, propagation delay is the amount of time it takes for the head of the signal to travel
from the sender to the receiver. Propagation delay is equal to d / s where d is the distance and s is
the wave propagation speed. In wireless communication, s=c, i.e. the speed of light. In copper wire, the
speed s generally ranges from .59c to .77c. The details for speed of light for different mediums are
given on page 46 second paragraph Chapter 1 Foundation).
3. The delay (latency) of a network specifies how long it takes for a bit of data to travel across the network
from one node or endpoint to another. It is typically measured in multiples or fractions of seconds. Delay
may differ slightly, depending on the location of the specific pair of communicating nodes. Although users
only care about the total delay of a network,[citation needed] engineers need to perform precise
measurements. Thus, engineers usually report both the maximum and average delay, and they divide the
delay into several parts:

Processing delay – time routers take to process the packet header

Queuing delay – time the packet spends in routing queues

and data packets can be sent continuously.5 Mbps. At what bandwidth would propagation delay (at a speed of 2×108m/s) equal transmit delay for 100-byte packets? What about 512-byte packets? Q4. a packet size of 1 KB data. a packet size of 1 KB data. and up to 20 packets can be sent per RTT. Muhammad Nasir Mumtaz Bhutta  Transmission delay – time it takes to push the packet's bits onto the link  Propagation delay – time for a signal to reach its destination 4.Consider a point-to-point link 4 km in length.5-MB file in the following cases. Read Chapter 1 “Foundation” complete and Page 44 – Page 55 again 2nd time before solving the assignment. and data packets can be sent continuously. and an initial 2×RTT of “handshaking” before data is sent: (a) The bandwidth is 1. Calculate the total time required to transfer a 1. but after we finish sending each data packet we must wait one RTT before sending the next. Calculate the total time required to transfer a 1000-KB file in the following cases. (b) The bandwidth is 1. (c) The link allows infinitely fast transmit. assuming an RTT of 50 ms.5 Mbps. but limits bandwidth such that only 20 packets can be sent per RTT.” meaning that we take transmit time to be zero. Q1. but after we finish sending each data packet we must wait one RTT before ending the next. Q3. assuming an RTT of 80ms. (c) The bandwidth is “infinite. (d) Zero transmit time as in (c). (b) The bandwidth is 10 Mbps. Consider a point-to-point link 50 km in length. Q2.Institute of Space Technology Assignment 2 No. At what bandwidth would propagation delay (at a speed of 2×108m/s) equal transmit delay for 100-byte packets? What about 512-byte packets? . of Pages 2 Instructor: Dr. and an initial 2×RTT of “handshaking” before data is sent: (a) The bandwidth is 10 Mbps.

(b) Using the RTT as the delay. it would be impossible to distinguish between them. Suppose Mission Control on Earth wishes to download the most current image. How “wide” is a bit on a 10-Gbps link? How long is a bit in copper wire.000 km. Muhammad Nasir Mumtaz Bhutta Q5. Q8. which is 25 MB. . where the speed of propagation is 2. and data travels over the link at the speed of light—3×108 m/s. What other properties might be useful for network addresses to have? Can you think of any situations in which network (or postal or telephone) addresses might not be unique? Q6. Suppose a 1-Gbps point-to-point link is being set up between the Earth and a new lunar colony. (a) Calculate the minimum RTT for the link. Suppose a 128-kbps point-to-point link is set up between the Earth and a rover onMars. (b) Calculate the delay × bandwidth product for the link. (a) Calculate the minimum RTT for the link. One property of addresses is that they are unique. if two nodes had the same address. What is the minimum amount of time that will elapse between when the request for the data goes out and the transfer is finished? Q9. of Pages 3 Instructor: Dr. calculate the delay × bandwidth product for the link. How quickly after a picture is taken can it reachMission Control on Earth? Assume that each image is 5Mb in size. The distance from the Earth toMars (when they are closest together) is approximately 55 Gm. (c) A camera on the rover takes pictures of its surroundings and sends these to Earth.Institute of Space Technology Assignment 2 No. and data travels over the link at the speed of light— 3×108 m/s. How long does it take to transmit x KB over a y-Mbps link? Give your answer as a ratio of x and y. The distance from the moon to the Earth is approximately 385.3×108 m/s? Q7. (c) What is the significance of the delay × bandwidth product computed in (b)? (d) A camera on the lunar base takes pictures of the Earth and saves them in digital format to disk.

of Pages 4 Instructor: Dr. Muhammad Nasir Mumtaz Bhutta Q10.Institute of Space Technology Assignment 2 No. (d) Display the attributes of a file. For (a) and (b) assume there is a steady supply of data to send. Switches can send on one link while receiving on the other. Calculate the effective bandwidth for the following cases. (b) Same as (a) but with three switches. Q13. For each of the following operations on a remote file server. Calculate the latency (from first bit sent to last bit received) for the following: (a) 100-Mbps Ethernet with a single store-and-forward switch in the path and a packet size of 12. (c) List the contents of a directory. (c) Same as (a). Q11. but assume the switch implements “cutthrough” switching. Calculate the latency (from first bit sent to last bit received) for: (a) 1-Gbps Ethernet with a single store-and-forward switch in the path and a packet size of 5000 bits. it is able to begin retransmitting the packet after the first 200 bits have been received. but assume the switch implements “cutthrough” switching. Assume that each link introduces a propagation delay of 10 μs and that the switch begins retransmitting immediately after it has finished receiving the packet.000 bits. (a) 100-Mbps Ethernet through three store-and-forward switches as in Exercise 16(b). (b) Read the contents of a file. Q12. . Assume that each link introduces a propagation delay of 10 μs and that the switch begins retransmitting immediately after it has finished receiving the packet. (b) Same as (a) but with three switches. discuss whether they are more likely to be delay sensitive or bandwidth sensitive: (a) Open a file. (c) Same as (b). for (c) simply calculate the average over 12 hours. it is able to begin retransmitting the packet after the first 128 bits have been received.

store-and-forward packet processing at each switch incurs a 1-ms delay after the packet had been completely received. (a) Calculate the bandwidth at which each compression option takes the same total compression+transmission time. packet size of 12. Thus. Give the total number of overhead+loss bytes for packet data sizes of 1000. Assume you wish to transfer an n B file along a path composed of the source. (b) Explain why latency does not affect your answer.000-bit data packet. . and circuit setup requires a 1-KB message to make one round trip on the path. Suppose that a certain communications protocol involves a per-packet overhead of 50 bytes for headers and framing. Q15 . measured from first bit sent to first bit received. and 20. Calculate the delay×bandwidth product for the following links. Q16. Muhammad Nasir Mumtaz Bhutta (b) Same as (a) but with the sender having to wait for a 50-byte acknowledgment packet after sending each 12. Q14.Suppose a host has a 1-MB file that is to be sent to another host. 10.000. one data byte is corrupted and the entire packet containing it is thus lost. however. (c) Overnight (12-hour) shipment of 100 DVDs that hold 4. Suppose that packets have 24 B of packet header information and 1000 B of payload. Which size is optimal? Q17.We send 1 million bytes of data using this protocol. Use one-way delay. and 5 switches. and that the switches support both circuit and packet switching. destination.000 bytes. and 10 μs per link propagation delay.7 GB each. of Pages 5 Instructor: Dr.Institute of Space Technology Assignment 2 No. Suppose each link has a propagation delay of 2ms and a bandwidth of 4 Mbps. packets may be sent continuously without waiting for acknowledgments. 7 point-to-point links.000 bits. (a) 100-Mbps Ethernet with a delay of 10 μs. The file takes 1 second of CPU time to compress 50% or 2 seconds to compress 60%. (b) 100-Mbps Ethernet with a single store-and-forward switch like that of Exercise 16(b). you can either break the file up into 1-KB packets or set up a circuit through the switches and send the file as one contiguous bitstream.

latency. Muhammad Nasir Mumtaz Bhutta incurring a 1-ms delay at each switch after the message has been completely received. jitter. (g) Television broadcasting. (b) Print server. what are they? Q18. 24 bits/pixel. Q19. Calculate the bandwidth necessary for transmitting in real time: (a) High-definition video at a resolution of 1920×1080. and loss tolerance: (a) File server. (f ) Video monitoring of a waiting room. (e) Voice. Assume switches introduce no delay to data traversing a circuit. of Pages 6 Instructor: Dr.Institute of Space Technology Assignment 2 No.2 kHz. peak bandwidth. . (c) Digital library. Discuss the relative performance needs of the following applications in terms of average bandwidth. (d) HDCD high-definition audio of 24-bit samples at 88. Assignment Submission: The assignment can be submitted till 29 February 2016 before class starts on that day. You may also assume that filesize is a multiple of 1000 B. - Assignment must be hand-written. (d) Routine monitoring of remote weather instruments. 30 frames/second. (c) GSM mobile voice audio of 260-bit samples at 50 Hz. (a) For what filesize n B is the total number of bytes sent across the network less for circuits than for packets? (b) For what filesize n B is the total latency incurred before the entire file arrives at the destination less for circuits than for packets? (c) How sensitive are these results to the number of switches along the path? To the bandwidth of the links? To the ratio of packet size to packet header size? (d) How accurate do you think this model of the relative merits of circuits and packets is? Does it ignore important considerations that discredit one or the other approach? If so. (b) POTS (plain old telephone service) voice audio of 8-bit samples at 8 KHz.