# Institute of Space Technology

Assignment 2

No. of Pages
1

Instructor:

Class: Electrical Engineering – BE
COURSE NAME: Computer Networks
Assignment Description:
Hints:
1. A point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two nodes or or directly
connected endpoints. (See page 8 of Chapter 1 Foundation for more details).
2. In a network transmission delay (or store-and-forward delay, also known as packetization delay) is the
amount of time required to push all the packet's bits into the wire. In other words, this is the delay caused
by the data-rate of the link. Transmission delay is a function of the packet's length and has nothing to do
with the distance between the two nodes. This delay is proportional to the packet's length in bits.
3. There are many situations in which it is more important to know how long it takes to send a message from
one end of a network to the other and back, rather than the one-way latency. We call this the round-trip
time (RTT) of the network.
1. In a network based on packet switching, processing delay is the time it takes routers to process the packet
header. The queuing delay or queueing delay is the time a job waits in a queue until it can be executed.
Usually processing delay + queuing delay can be considered = queuing delay.
2. In computer networks, propagation delay is the amount of time it takes for the head of the signal to travel
from the sender to the receiver. Propagation delay is equal to d / s where d is the distance and s is
the wave propagation speed. In wireless communication, s=c, i.e. the speed of light. In copper wire, the
speed s generally ranges from .59c to .77c. The details for speed of light for different mediums are
given on page 46 second paragraph Chapter 1 Foundation).
3. The delay (latency) of a network specifies how long it takes for a bit of data to travel across the network
from one node or endpoint to another. It is typically measured in multiples or fractions of seconds. Delay
may differ slightly, depending on the location of the specific pair of communicating nodes. Although users
only care about the total delay of a network,[citation needed] engineers need to perform precise
measurements. Thus, engineers usually report both the maximum and average delay, and they divide the
delay into several parts:

Processing delay – time routers take to process the packet header

Queuing delay – time the packet spends in routing queues

and data packets can be sent continuously.5 Mbps. At what bandwidth would propagation delay (at a speed of 2×108m/s) equal transmit delay for 100-byte packets? What about 512-byte packets? Q4. a packet size of 1 KB data. a packet size of 1 KB data. and up to 20 packets can be sent per RTT. Muhammad Nasir Mumtaz Bhutta  Transmission delay – time it takes to push the packet's bits onto the link  Propagation delay – time for a signal to reach its destination 4.Consider a point-to-point link 4 km in length.5-MB file in the following cases. Read Chapter 1 “Foundation” complete and Page 44 – Page 55 again 2nd time before solving the assignment. and data packets can be sent continuously. and an initial 2×RTT of “handshaking” before data is sent: (a) The bandwidth is 1. Calculate the total time required to transfer a 1. but after we finish sending each data packet we must wait one RTT before sending the next. Calculate the total time required to transfer a 1000-KB file in the following cases. (b) The bandwidth is 1. (c) The link allows infinitely fast transmit. assuming an RTT of 50 ms.5 Mbps. but limits bandwidth such that only 20 packets can be sent per RTT.” meaning that we take transmit time to be zero. Q1. but after we finish sending each data packet we must wait one RTT before ending the next. Q3. assuming an RTT of 80ms. (c) The bandwidth is “infinite. (d) Zero transmit time as in (c). (b) The bandwidth is 10 Mbps. Consider a point-to-point link 50 km in length. Q2.Institute of Space Technology Assignment 2 No. At what bandwidth would propagation delay (at a speed of 2×108m/s) equal transmit delay for 100-byte packets? What about 512-byte packets? . of Pages 2 Instructor: Dr. and an initial 2×RTT of “handshaking” before data is sent: (a) The bandwidth is 10 Mbps.