CHE 522
Supervised by

Charles Christopher
Williams Daniel
Ejokpa Godspower
Ebilueye Akhere
Osagie Osayuwamen
Orhotohwo Nicholas


There are also chemical hazards which include fire and explosion hazards. which is entering an Era of more complex processes: Higher pressure. The growth of an industry is totally dependent on technological advances. and toxic hazards. and Exotic chemistry. More complex processes require more complex safety technology. Examples of Safety technology include: Hydrodynamic models representing two – phase flow through a vessel relief Dispersion models representing the spread of toxic vapour through a plant after a release Mathematical techniques to determine the various ways that processes can fail and the probability of failure. There are mechanical hazards that cause worker injuries from tripping. reactivity hazards. Chemical plants contain a large variety of hazards. This is essentially true in the chemical industry. metal fatigue and other similar conditions. falling. over – temperatures. Safety in a chemical process is an act of preventing fires. spills. Process safety involves the prevention of leaks. explosions and accidental chemical releases in process facilities or other facilities such as refineries. corrosion. over – pressures. equipment malfunction. Many industrialists even believe that the development and application of safety technology is actually a constraint on the growth of the chemical industry. more reactive chemicals. TYPES OF SAFETY . Chemical Engineers will need a more detailed and fundamental understanding of safety for a proper handling of a chemical process. and oil and gas (onshore and offshore) production installations.INTRODUCTION As chemical process technology becomes more complex. or moving equipment.

It is important to distinguish between products that meet standards that are safe and those that merely feel safe. eliminating or reducing it to acceptable levels. This technical guide.  Substantive Safety: Substantive or objective safety occurs when the real – world safety history is favourable. originally developed by the UK’Health and Safety Directorate covers the various causes of industrial plant failure. a cathode (adjacent metal) and a conducting solution (acid/salts). burglary or vandalism. whether or not standards are met. OTHERS INCLUDE:  Process safety: This has to do with the prevention of dangers such fires. without consideration of standards or safety history. This excellent guide investigates common causes of industrial plant failure. FAILURE IN A PROCESS PLANT The failure of industrial plant and equipment can have serious consequences. regardless of the product’s actual safety history. It can occur both .  Security: This is also called social or public safety and it addresses the risk of harm due to intentional criminal acts such as assault. 1.  Engineering Safety: This assures that a life – critical system behaves as needed.  Perceived Safety: Perceived or Subjective safety refers to the user’s level of risk. The primary goal of safety engineering is to manage risk. CORROSION: Corrosion is caused by electrochemical process in which a metal reacts with its environment to form an oxide or compound by the formation of cells comprising an anode (the deterioration metal). health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. explosions. even when components fail. The highway community uses these terms:  Normative Safety: The Normative safety is achieved when a product or design meets applicable standards and practices for design and construction or manufacture. It is an area concerned with the safety. and the accidental chemical releases in a chemical process facilities  Occupational and health Safety: These are commonly referred to as occupational health and safety.

Others causes of industrial plant failure include.internally and externally to pipelines. 2. 3. unexpected and undersigned event which occurs suddenly and causes    Injury or loss A decrease in value of the resources. or An increase in liabilities Even when precautions are taken to reduce the risk of accidents in chemical plants. plants. machinery. structures and supports. HUMAN ERROR: One in five errors caused by equipment failures in the chemical process industries are the result of human and organizational errors research project. Knowing how and why accidents occur can help companies take even . process vessels (10%) and heat transfer equipment (8%) accounted for two thirds of accidents caused by equipment failures. MATERIAL SELECTION The materials selection philosophy aspect of the design phase of all plant and structures should take into consideration the anticipated conditions (pressures. they do happen from time to time. temperature and atmosphere) and the content of the system in order to either minimize corrosion or to make adequate allowances for it in the form of additional material thicknesses. storage tanks (14%). reactor (14%).         Erosion External loading Impact Pressure Temperature Vibration Wrong equipment Defective equipment CAUSES OF PROCESS PLANT ACCIDENTS An accident is an unplanned. vessels. Piping systems (25%). The study also identified the equipment most likely to fail and cause accidents.

industrial accidents are more likely to occur. Workers should be taught how to operate the equipment in the way it was designed to be used. Improper Training When personnel are not trained properly or adequately. This is because many of these control measures are handled by employees. it can malfunction and ultimately fail. An inspector may miss a defect that occurred during manufacturing. Employees should be well versed in what to do if something goes wrong so that they can work to correct the problem quickly before it gets out of control. Manufacturing Defects Accidents that occur in a chemical plant can also be the result of a manufacturing defect. When the proper equipment is not used by personnel. They should also learn to employ correct safety procedures when they are operating the equipment. Where humans are involved there is always a chance of human error. These defects can be present in a piece of equipment or in the materials used. Many of these accidents are a result of the worker failing to follow the safety procedures that have been put into place by the company where he or she works. Improper Maintenance A common reason that industrial accidents occur in chemical plants is the improper maintenance of equipment. This can result in dire consequences to the personnel who are operating and working around the machine. and improper maintenance. manufacturing defects. The problem may not be recognized until after an accident has occurred.more steps to reducing the likelihood of them happening in the future. accidents can occur. Although companies employ several quality-control measures during the manufacturing process. Human Error A majority of the industrial accidents that occur every year are a result of human error. When a piece of equipment is not properly maintained. some of these may fail. Regular maintenance at scheduled intervals following the manufacturer’s recommendations is important for ensuring that the equipment runs smoothly and safely. . Many injuries happen when personnel attempt to use improper tools to work on equipment. There are 4 main causes of accidents in a chemical plant: human error. The causes of accidents can also be broken down into unsafe conditions and unsafe acts Unsafe conditions are hazardous conditions or circumstances that could lead directly to an accident. improper training.

Albany. a storage tank failed causing a large spill of hydrochloric acid (HCL). 43 persons. Shaft blow–out of a pneumatically assisted check valve resulted in the release of large quantities of flammable hydrocarbon gas into a congested area. The tank was over pressurized during a filling operation. . of these. were treated at hospitals. Major plant damage occurred.Unsafe acts occurs when a worker ignores or is not aware of a standard operating procedure or safe work practice designed to protect the worker and prevent accidents. Highways west and south of the plant were closed for three hours Hydrochloric acid spill Surpass chemical company. One employee was hospitalized. June 22 199. and several others received minor injuries. including employees. and residents sheltered–in–place. Table 1: summary of unsafe acts and conditions Unsafe acts Operating equipment or machinery without permission Using defective equipment Using the wrong tool for the job Not using personal protective equipment Incorrect lifting techniques Working while intoxicated Horseplay Unsafe conditions Lack of guarding of machinery Crowding workers into one area Inadequate alarm systems Fires and explosion Fires and explosions Hazardous atmospheres Inadequate lighting Some examples of related process accidents investigated by EPA/OSHA include. Deer Park. April 8. One square block around the facility was evacuated INHERENT SAFETY An approach to process design and operation which builds in safety. NY. A vapour cloud explosion resulted. health and environmental considerations at the start. A hydrochloric acid cloud drifted offsite. Nearby resident areas suffered minor blast damage. Explosion in shell olefins production unit Shell chemical company. TX. a large explosion and fire occurred in an olefins production unit. and spilled liquid entered the city storm sewer. 4 were hospitalized. which was felt 10miles away. 1997.

A very simple example is making piping and joints capable of withstanding the maximum possible pressure if outlets are closed. Perform a hazardous procedure as few times as possible when the procedure is unavoidable  Substitute: Replace a substance with a less hazardous material or processing route with one that does not involve hazardous material. particularly by reducing the amount of hazardous material and the number of hazardous operations in the plant. Design processes. Two further principles are used by some:  Error Tolerance: Equipment and processes can be designed to be capable of withstanding possible faults or deviations from design.g. Inherent safety differs from intrinsic safety which is a particular technology for electrical systems in potentially flammable atmospheres. you can have an inherently safer design “An inherently safer design is one that avoids hazards instead of controlling them. However. Less equipment of any kind means that there is less to go wrong.g. using material in a dilute rather than concentrated form. In terms of making plants more user-friendly Kletz also added the following . Only fitting options and using complex procedures if they are really necessary.  Limit Effects: Designing and locating equipment so that the worst possible condition gives less danger. processing equipment and procedures to eliminate opportunities for errors by eliminating excessive use of add-on (engineered) safety features and protective devices -also called error tolerance. The 4 main methods for achieving inherently safer design are  Minimize: Reducing the amount of hazardous material present at any time. Use smaller quantities of hazardous materials when the use of such materials cannot be avoided -also called intensification. cleaning with water and detergent rather than a flammable solvent. e.In the chemical and process industries. a process has inherent safety if it has a low level of danger even if things go wrong.” Principles The terminology of inherent safety has developed since 1991. Use hazardous materials in their least hazardous forms or identify processing options that involve less severe processing conditions -also called attenuation or limitation of effects  Simplify: Designing out problems rather than adding additional equipment or features to deal with them.  Moderate: Reducing the strength of an effect. In reality no design can be inherently safe. e.

life and increasing productivity. Thus “To know is to survive and to ignore fundamentals of safety is to court disaster”. There is therefore the need for the implementation of a proper safety program so as to achieve the following. .  Software and management procedures. Record what needs to be done 2.S. a good safety program will eliminate existing hazards as they are identified and an outstanding safety program prevents the existence of a hazard in the first place thus saving loss time. 1. History: Everyone must also learn from the experiences of history of past accidents and ask for advice. 3. chemical engineers will need a more detailed and fundamental understanding of safety program. To record that the required task are done (J. construction and operation of their plants. Avoiding Knock-on Effects  Making Incorrect Assembly Impossible.A) REQUIREMENT OF EMPLOYEES IN A PROCESS PLANT TO ENSURE SAFETY 1. Positive Attitude: The participants of this safety program must have a positive attitude to it. 2.  Ease of Control. More complex processes requires more complex safety technology. With these considerations. Learning: The participants must understand and use the fundamentals of chemical process safety in the design. To do what needs to be done 3. THE NEED FOR SAFETY PROGRAM IN A CHEMICAL PROCESS PLANT As chemical process technology becomes more complex. resources. This includes the willingness to do some of the thankless work that is required for success.

Planning for an emergency 2. - Pay attention to the public address system (PAS) for directive - Learn CPR and first aid - For a place to shelter. These steps include 3 major stages. select a room that has few windows - Ensure all workers understand emergency situation and calls (May Day Shout) - Review you plan periodically and conduct drills During and emergency - Immediately proceed to the muster point and follow directives to the “shelter – in place” or safe heaven - Shut off heating/cooling system that draw in air from the outside - Shut and lock doors and windows - Stay off the phone – it should be used for emergency calls only - Be prepared to evacuate if ordered to do so by plant safety officials After an Emergency - Open doors and window - Turn on your heating/cooling system to ventilate the place - Go outside Nonetheless.SAFETY STEPS TAKEN IN A PROCESS PLANT A chemical emergency may occur anywhere hazardous materials are manufactured stored or transported. the most effective means of implementing a safety program is to make it everyone’s responsibility in a chemical process plant. 1. The older concept of identifying a few . After an emergency Planning for an emergency. - Study your surrounding for fixed and mobile sources of hazardous materials - Learn about warning sirens in the plant - Prepare and familiarize with a “shelter-in place” kit appropriate for the type(s) of emergency that could occur near you. the following procedures are taken. Chemical plants are obvious sources of potential accidents. During an emergency 3.

All employees in a process plant have the responsibility to be knowledgeable about safety and to practice safety.employees to be responsible for safety is inadequate by today’s standards. .