# Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2

A course on Vehicle Dynamics
By
Prof. Sarvesh Mahajan BITS, PILANI

Confidential

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Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Learning Objectives – Brief History of Vibration Importance of Study of Vibration Basic Concept of Vibration Number of Degree of Freedom Classification of Vibration Vibration Analysis Procedure Confidential 2 .

the relation between the pitch and the frequency was not understood until the time of Galileo in the sixteenth century. The Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras (582 507 B. probably. Although the concept of pitch was developed by the time of Pythagoras.C. Confidential 3 .) is considered to be the first person to investigate musical sounds on a scientific basis.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Brief History of Vibration – People became interested in vibration when they created the first musical instruments. whistles or drums.

in a treatise called Introduction to Harmonics. In A.C.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Brief History of Vibration – In about 300 B. Zhang Heng.. perceived a need to develop an instrument to measure earthquakes precisely. Euclid. who served as a historian and astronomer in the second century. along with the phenomenon of sympathetic vibrations (resonance).D. China experienced many earthquakes in ancient times. Confidential 4 . wrote briefly about music without any reference to the physical nature of sound. 132 he invented the world s first seismograph Galileo was inspired to study the behaviour of a simple pendulum by observing the pendulum Movements of a lamp in a church in Pisa He described the dependence of the frequency of vibration on the length of a simple pendulum.

which can be used to find multiple natural frequencies.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Brief History of Vibration – Notable among the many contributions of Rayleigh is the method of finding the fundamental frequency of vibration of a conservative system by making use of the principle of conservation of energy now known as Rayleigh s method. Confidential 5 . An extension of the method. is known as the Rayleigh-Ritz method. De Laval. This method proved to be a helpful technique for the solution of difficult vibration problems. and Mindlin are notable. the names of Stodola. In 1902 Frahm investigated the importance of torsional vibration study in the design of the propeller shafts of steamships. Timoshenko. Among the modern contributers to the theory of vibrations.

Human speech requires the oscillatory motion of larynges (and tongues). Confidential 6 . Breathing is associated with the vibration of lungs and walking involves (periodic) oscillatory motion of legs and hands. For example. foundations. turbines. Most prime movers have vibrational problems due to the inherent unbalance in the engines. structures. many investigations have been motivated by the engineering applications of vibration. we hear because our eardrums vibrate and see because light waves undergo vibration. In recent times. engines. and control systems. such as the design of machines.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Importance of Study of Vibration – Most human activities involve vibration in one form or other.

are also subjected to vibration. vibration can cause chatter. In machines. vibrations cause spectacular mechanical failures. the structures designed to support heavy centrifugal machines. or reciprocating machines. the vibration causes more rapid wear of machine parts such as bearings and gears and also creates excessive noise. Confidential 7 . the structure or machine component subjected to vibration can fail because of material fatigue resulting from the cyclic variation of the induced stress. which leads to a poor surface finish.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Importance of Study of Vibration – In turbines. In all these situations. Furthermore. vibration can loosen fasteners such as nuts. Engineers have not yet been able to prevent the failures that result from blade and disk vibrations in turbines. In metal cutting processes. like motors and turbines. like steam and gas engines and reciprocating pumps.

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Importance of Study of Vibration – Confidential 8 .

in general. The swinging of a pendulum and the motion of a plucked string are typical examples of vibration. a means for storing kinetic energy (mass). includes a means for storing potential energy (spring). and a means by which energy is gradually lost (damper). Confidential 9 . A vibratory system.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Basic Concept of Vibration – Any motion that repeats itself after an interval of time is called vibration or oscillation.

All systems shown below and Pendulum shown in above slide are having single degree of freedom Confidential 10 .Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Number of Degree of Freedom – The minimum number of independent coordinates required to determine completely the positions of all parts of a system at any instant of time defines the number of degrees of freedom of the system.

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Number of Degree of Freedom – All systems shown below and Pendulum shown in above slide are having two degree of freedom Confidential 11 .

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Number of Degree of Freedom – All systems shown below and Pendulum shown in above slide are having three degree of freedom Confidential 12 .

Confidential 13 . especially those involving continuous elastic members. of Degree of Freedom. Systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom are called discrete or lumped parameter systems. and those with an infinite number of degrees of freedom are called continuous or distributed systems. we need an infinite number of coordinates to specify its deflected configuration. A Cantilever beam is having infinite no. Since the beam has an infinite number of mass points.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Number of Degree of Freedom – Some systems. have an infinite number of degrees of freedom.

a repeating type of force).Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Classification of Vibration – Vibration can be classified in many ways but here we will discuss some important classifications – Free and Forced vibrations – Free Vibration. Confidential 14 . If a system is subjected to an external force (often. The oscillation that arises in machines such as diesel engines is an example of forced vibration. The oscillation of a simple pendulum is an example of free vibration. the ensuing vibration is known as free vibration. Forced Vibration. is left to vibrate on its own. No external force acts on the system. the resulting vibration is known as forced vibration. after an initial disturbance. If a system.

the mass. and the mathematical techniques of analysis are well developed. For nonlinear vibration. and techniques of analysis are less well known. the vibration is known as undamped vibration. If the vibration is linear. Confidential 15 . If any energy is lost in this way.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Classification of Vibration – Damped and Undamped vibrations – If no energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillation. If. it is called damped vibration. the superposition principle is not valid. however. the vibration is called nonlinear vibration. Linear and Nonlinear vibrations – If all the basic components of a vibratory system the spring. the principle of superposition holds. however. and the damper behave linearly. any of the basic components behave nonlinearly. the resulting vibration is known as linear vibration.

Examples of random excitations are wind velocity. road roughness. and ground motion during earthquakes. In some cases. It is possible to estimate averages such as the mean and mean square values of the excitation. In these cases. a large collection of records of the excitation may exhibit some statistical regularity. Confidential 16 .Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Classification of Vibration – Deterministic and non-deterministic vibrations – If the value or magnitude of the excitation (force or motion) acting on a vibratory system is known at any given time. the excitation is nondeterministic or random. The resulting vibration is known as deterministic vibration. the excitation is called deterministic. the value of the excitation at a given time cannot be predicted.

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-2 Classification of Vibration – Deterministic and non-deterministic vibrations – Confidential 17 .