# Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3

A course on Vehicle Dynamics
By
Prof. Sarvesh Mahajan BITS, PILANI

Confidential

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Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3

Learning Objectives –
Vibration Analysis Procedure
Natural Frequency
System Classifications
General Consideration
Characteristics of Discrete System
Linear Spring
Non-Linear Spring
Linearization of Non-Linear Spring
Confidential

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the reactive forces. we use the principles of dynamics and derive the equations that describe the vibration of the system. and the inertia forces. Derivation of Governing Equations. The steps can be followed as – Mathematical Modeling – The purpose of mathematical modeling is to represent all the important features of the system for the purpose of deriving the mathematical equations governing the systems behaviour.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Vibration Analysis Procedure – Step by Step we can analyze Vibration behavior of system to make it more accurate and simple to solve. The equations of motion can be derived conveniently by drawing the free-body diagrams of all the masses involved. Confidential 3 . The free-body diagram of a mass can be obtained by isolating the mass and indicating all externally applied forces. The mathematical model should include enough details to allow describing the system in terms of equations without making it too complex. Once the mathematical model is available.

Interpretation of the Results – The solution of the governing equations gives the displacements. Laplace transform methods. matrix methods. Depending on the nature of the problem. If the governing equations are nonlinear. velocities.1 and numerical methods. and accelerations of the various masses of the system. the solution of partial differential equations is far more involved than that of ordinary differential equations. they can seldom be solved in closed form.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Vibration Analysis Procedure – Solution of the Governing Equations – The equations of motion must be solved to find the response of the vibrating system. These results must be interpreted with a clear view of the purpose of the analysis and the possible design implications of the results. Furthermore. we can use one of the following techniques for finding the solution: standard methods of solving differential equations. Confidential 4 .

As an example we are showing here A motorcycle – Confidential 5 .Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Vibration Analysis Procedure – Mathematical Modeling can be done in stages to understand it more clear.

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Vibration Analysis Procedure – We can do First and second Model as follows – Confidential 6 .

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Vibration Analysis Procedure – Final Modeling – Confidential 7 .

This phenomenon is known as resonance. For a normal Spring Natural Frequency can be found out as – Confidential 8 . If forced frequency is equal to the natural frequency. the amplitude of vibration increases manifold. Natural vibrations are different from forced vibration which happen at frequency of applied force (forced frequency).Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Natural Frequency – Natural frequency is the frequency at which a system tends to oscillate in the absence of any driving or damping force. Free vibrations of any elastic body is called natural vibration and happens at a frequency called natural frequency.

and many things have more than one. natural frequencies that match the waves you want. If you want to make specific kinds of waves. 3. you need to create objects with 5. 4. All things in the universe have a natural frequency. you know how it will vibrate. If you know how an object vibrates. If you know an object’s natural frequency. 2.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Natural Frequency – The natural frequency is important for many reasons: 1. Confidential 9 . you know what kinds of waves it will create.

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 System Classifications - Confidential 10 .

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 System Classifications – Lumped Parameter System – Distributed Parameter System - Can be Defined by ordinary Differential Equation Infinite Dimensional Problems Deterministic System – Stochastic System - All the parameters are known exactly parameters are known probabilistically Continuous time System – Discrete time System - Variables are defined for all values of time Variables are defined only at discrete instances Linear System – Non-Linear System - Superposition Principle is satisfied Superposition Principle is not applicable Time-Invariant System – All Para constant (Such System can be defined by constant coefficient differential equations) Such System can be defined by time varying coefficient differential equations) Time-Varying System - Confidential 11 .

In this case.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 System Classifications – Lumped Parameter System v/s Distributed Parameter System A lumped system is one in which the dependent variables of interest are a function of time alone. this will mean solving a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) A distributed system is one in which all dependent variables are functions of time and one or more spatial variables. In general. we will be solving partial differential equations (PDEs) Confidential 12 .

Confidential 13 . and consist mostly of equations Quantum mechanics. a purely stochastic system is one whose state is randomly determined. having a random probability distribution or pattern that may be analyzed statistically but may not be predicted precisely. deterministic simulations contain no random variables and no degree of randomness.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 System Classifications – Deterministic System v/s Stochastic System In mathematical modeling. Chaos Theory In probability theory.

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 System Classifications – Continuous time System v/s Discrete time System A system is continuous-time when its I/O signals are continuous-time whereas Discrete time systems are where I/O signals are defined at discrete instances Confidential 14 .

superposition and homogeneity. The principle of superposition states that for two different inputs. f (x + y) = f (x) + f ( y) The property of homogeneity states that for a given input.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 System Classifications – Linear System & Non-Linear System Linear systems must verify two properties. and for any real number k. x and y. f (kx) = kf (x) Confidential 15 . x. in the domain of the function f. in the domain of the function f.

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 System Classifications – Time-Invariant System & Time-Varying System Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems are commonly described by the equation: x (vector) = Ax + Bu Time Varying systems are commonly described by the equation: Confidential 16 .

hence thorough study of single-DOF system through second-order-differential equation is very important for us. Confidential 17 . In general a system defined by single second order differential equation is known as Singledegree-of-freedom-system. The mathematical formulation associated with multi-DOF discrete and continuous system can be reduced down to set of independent second-order-differential equation. The response of system to initial excitation is known as free response. This case is for Linear systems only.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 General Considerations – By now we have learned DOF and System classifications. The response to externally applied force is known as forced response.

The most common example with which we can understand this principal is a Free Spring System. Confidential 18 . velocity and accelerations.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Characteristics of Discrete System Components – The elements constituting a discrete mechanical systems are mainly displacement. Springs are generally assumed to be of negligible mass and damping.

and it is given by U = 1/2kx2 Confidential (3.1) where k is a constant.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Characteristics of Discrete System Components – A spring is said to be linear if the elongation or reduction in length x is related to the applied force F as F = kx (3. The spring constant k is always positive and denotes the force (positive or negative) required to cause a unit deflection (elongation or reduction in length) in the spring. The work done (U) in deforming a spring is stored as strain or potential energy in the spring. known as the spring constant or spring stiffness or spring rate.2) 19 .

nonlinear springs whose force-deflection relations are given by - F = ax + bx3. it can be replaced by a linear spring by using the procedure discussed. If a nonlinear spring undergoes small deflections.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Characteristics of Discrete System Components – Non-Linear Springs Most springs used in practical systems exhibit a nonlinear force-deflection relation. particularly when the deflections are large. In vibration analysis.3) 20 . The spring is said to be hard if linear if b›0 b=0 and soft if b‹0 a›0 Confidential (3.

below - Confidential 21 .Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Characteristics of Discrete System Components – Non-Linear Springs The force-deflection relations for various values of b are shown in Fig.

Confidential 22 .Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Characteristics of Discrete System Components – Non-Linear Springs Some systems. may exhibit a nonlinear force-displacement relationship although the individual springs are linear. involving two or more springs.

Confidential 23 . (3.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Characteristics of Discrete System Components – Linearization of a Non-Linear Springs Actual springs are nonlinear and follow Eq.1) up to Elastic Limit as shown below and beyond Elastic Limit they start behaving Non-Linear.

the spring deflects by an additional quantity Δx. The new spring force can be expressed using Taylor s series expansion about the static equilibrium position as (3. let the static equilibrium load F acting on the spring cause a deflection of x*. If an incremental force ΔF is added to F. higher order derivatives can be neglected (3.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Characteristics of Discrete System Components – Linearization of a Non-Linear Springs To illustrate the linearization process.4) For small values of Δx.5) Confidential 24 .

6) Where k is Linearized spring constant at x* and can be expressed as (3. We can express ΔF as follows – ΔF = kΔx (3.Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Characteristics of Discrete System Components – Linearization of a Non-Linear Springs Since F = F(x*).7) Confidential 25 .

Vehicle Dynamics – Lecture-3 Characteristics of Discrete System Components – Linearization of a Non-Linear Springs Confidential 26 .