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Schematic of Sanitary Landfill

• Advantages

– Safer than other options


– Land may be reused productively
– Power generation may offset some costs
• Disadvantages

– Odors, disease, pollution reduced but still a risk


– More expensive than open dumps
– Not suited for medical or toxic waste
– Difficult to build in places with limited or expensive land
– Land may remain too unstable to build on
Toxic Wastes

Deep-well Disposal -

Advantages Disadvantages

Safe method if Leaks or spills at


sites are chosen surface
carefully
Leaks from
Wastes can be corrosion of well
retrieved if casing
problems
develop Existing fractures
or earth quakes
Low cost can allow wastes
to escape into
groundwater

Encourages
waste production
Fig. 21.14, p. 538

Hazardous Waste Landfill -


Plastic cover
Gas vent
vent
Earth Impervious
Sand mpervious cl ay cap
clay
Topsoil

Clay cap
Leak
detection
system

Bulk waste Reaction


wastes
Impervious in drums
clay

Earth

Groundwater
monitoring
Water table well

Groundwater

Fig. 21.16, p. 539


Double leachate Plastic double liner
collection system
Above Ground Hazardous Waste
Disposal -
Waste
transporter

Elevator shaft

Hazardous waste

Support
column

Inspector

Medical Waste Disposal

• Incineration – not allowed by Clean Air Act

• Autoclave

– Wastes are disinfected by exposure to high-pressure steam;


materials may then be disposed of in landfill

– Uses energy; generates wastewater

• Microwave

– Disinfects through intense radiation; energy-intensive

• Pyrolysis

– wastes are exposed to high heat with little or no air; oxidation is


minimized, reducing air pollution

– wastes are turned to ash, tar or slag; sent to landfill

– Allowed in principle by CAA, but NGOs claim they still generate


dioxins
PHILIPPINE LAW ON SOLID WASTES

• Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 (Republic Act No.


9003)

• DENR Administrative Order 2001-34

• P.D. 1152 (1977) or the Philippine Environment Code

• P.D. 856 (1975) or the Code on Sanitation

• P.D. 825 (1975) or the Garbage Disposal Law/ Anti-Dumping Law

• R.A. 7160 (1991) or the Local Government Code of 1991

• DAO 98-49 and DAO 98-50 – Municipal Solid Waste Disposal & Siting
Criteria for Sanitary Landfills

POLICY FRAMEWORK OF THE ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE


MANAGEMENT ACT

• Protection of public health and environment


• Use of environmentally sound methods (maximize resource
use and resource conservation and recovery)
• Solid waste avoidance and volume reduction (measures and
facilities)
• Proper solid waste segregation, collection, transport, storage,
treatment, and disposal
• Research and development programs
• Greater private sector participation
• Primary role of LGUs retained
• Cooperative effort among NGAs, LGU, NGO, private sector
• Use of MBIs (cooperation and self-regulation)
• Institutionalize public participation
R.A. 9003 (2000)
• Integration into academic curricula
PROHIBITED ACTS & PENALTIES (Solid Waste)
Littering, throwing, dumping of waste FINE P300-P1,000 or
matters in public places, causing or COMMUNITY SERVICE 1-15 days
permitting the same
Undertaking activities, or operating, same
collecting or transporting equipment in
violation of sanitation operation, other
requirement or permits.
Open burning of solid waste. same

Causing or permitting the collection of Fine of P1,000.00 – P3,000.00 or


non-segregated or unsorted materials. imprisonment for 15 days – 6 months, or
both.
Unauthorized removable of recyclable Same
material intended for collection of
authorized persons.

Mixing of source-separated recyclable For the first violation, fine of P500,000.00


materials with other solid waste in any plus 5%-10% of net annual income during
vehicle, box, container or receptacle used previous year. For second or subsequent
in solid waste collection or disposal. violation, additional penalty of
imprisonment for 1– 3 years.
Manufacture, distribution or use of non-
environmentally acceptable packaging
materials.

Importation of consumer products For the first violation, fine of P500,000.00


packaged in non-environmentally plus 5%-10% of net annual income during
acceptable materials. previous year.

Importation of toxic wastes Fine of P10,000.00 – P200,000.00 or


misrepresented as “recyclable” or “with imprisonment for 30 days to 3 years.
recyclable content”.
Knowingly use of a chemical substance Imprisonment ( 6 months and 1 day to
or mixture which is imported, 6 years and 1 day) PLUS
manufactured, processed or distributed Fine ranging ( P600.00 to P4, 000.00)
in violation of RA 6969 or DAO 29, If offender foreigner -> deported and
series of 1992. barred from any subsequent entry into
the country after service of sentence.

Cause, aid or facilitate, directly or Imprisonment ( 12 years & 1 day to 20


indirectly, in the storage, importation, years) If offender is a corporation ->
or bringing into Philippine territory, PLUS exemplary damage of
including its maritime zones, even in P500,000.00.
transit, by land, air or sea If offender a foreign firm -> director
transportation, or otherwise and all officers shall be barred from
entry into the county, IN ADDITION to
the cancellation of its license to do
business in the country.

What you can do?

• Advocate improved packaging

– They’ll make them only if we buy them


• Be aware of and avoid hazardous materials

– Paints, cleaners, batteries, pesticides


• Support your local scavenger

– Observe the 3 R’s, or let others do it for you


• Accept that waste disposal isn’t free