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Acknowledgements .....................................2 Preface.........................................................3 Analysis - Defining the slum..........................5
The term “slum”...............................................5
Where to find slums.............................................6 Who is affected....................................................7 What was the beginning of slums?......................8 Decentralized sanitation solutions.....................26 Simple improved pit latrines........................27 Ventilated improved pits (vip)......................28 Pour-flush latrine..........................................28 Composting dry latrine.................................29 Locating the latrines.....................................30 Decentralized water solutions ...........................30 Instant microbiological purifier ...................31 SQflex...........................................................31 Centralized toilet and water solutions...............32 Community-designed toilet blocks ..............32
Housing.............................................................9 Water and sanitation......................................11 Describing the UN-HABITAT definition of “adequate housing”.............................................13
Problems on administration and political level. ........................................................................35
Designing a realistic building code ....................35 Fire precaution in the slum................................36 Using community contractors............................37
Discussion – Upgrading of today.................16
“Warm humid regions” and “dry hot regions” . 16 Ventilation through roof construction...............17 Using the wall and the floor for ventilation and light....................................................................18 Improving building materials.............................19 Wood ...........................................................19 Adobe...........................................................20 Bricks by wastepaper....................................22 Plastic bottles as masonry............................23 ecoBUILD......................................................23 Concrete.......................................................25
Review – Towards a better future...............39
Building methods and materials........................39 Water and sanitation.........................................40
Towards a better future for the slum dwellers42
Economical solutions.........................................43 Microfinance................................................43 Technological and building method solutions...44 The IKEA concept..........................................44 Energy supply solutions.....................................46 Educational solutions.........................................47
Water and sanitation......................................25
Slum upgrading, on microlevel in a global perspective Dissertation, Copenhagen Technical Academy Autumn 2009 Troels Vejby, 7I
1. Henriette Nobili Christiansen 2. Jørgen Eskemose 3. Kat 4. Fader 5. Ole 6. Kiran Sandhu 7. Mirona Motoc Thank you so much.
Slum upgrading, on microlevel in a global perspective Dissertation, Copenhagen Technical Academy Autumn 2009 Troels Vejby, 7I
This dissertation will be a report describing how to upgrade slum areas, on a micro level, but in a global perspective. Simple and basic ideas for how to improve or build housing, water and sanitation for the poorest people all over the world. All written in a perspective of the overwhelming urbanization and the about one billion people living in the slum. The slum issue of today is a two folded issue, that pretty much divides itself at equator. The problematic of slum that occurs in the northern part of the world, are of a completely different state, then the slum in southern countries. It is important to underline, that this dissertation only relates to the slum on the southern globe. The dissertation takes its beginning, at the UNhabitat defined, minimum requirements for dwellings. These requirements defines the minimum standards that all homes or dwellings should provide. Based on the UNhabitat requirements and common building knowledge, deferent materials and methods will be examined. In the end the end, the examined materials and methods, will be evaluated and finally different possible solutions to the problem will be sketched. Question: How can we improve life of slum dwellers around the world with help from already knowns methods and materials? And how can we make future improvements?
A ay i n lss
Slum upgrading, on microlevel in a global perspective Dissertation, Copenhagen Technical Academy Autumn 2009 Troels Vejby, 7I
Analysis - Defining the slum
The term “slum”
Defining the term slum has been done, various times and in various ways. The areas called “slums” are different all over the globe. The word has different meanings depending on which country you go to. Sometimes the are called “slums”, sometimes “informal settlements”, “favellas”, “chanty towns”, “skid rows”, etc1. Defined by the United Nations agency UN-habitat, the slum is, a “run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security”2.
Ill. 1:Slum in Rio de janairo.
The characteristics associated with slums vary from place to place. Slums are usually characterized by urban decay, high rates of poverty, and unemployment. They are commonly seen as "breeding grounds" for social problems such as crime, drug addiction, alcoholism, high rates of mental illness, and suicide. In the slums of the poor countries that this dissertation is about, people exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care. Low socio-economic status of its residents is another common characteristic of slums.3 Although slums exist in both the developed and the undeveloped world, there is a fundamental difference between them. Ishøj and Albertslund in
1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slum 2 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/mdg2007.pdf 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slum
Ill. 2:Slum in Mumbai
Denmark are of course of a completely different standard than the poorest slum areas in Mumbai. The fundamental difference between the “northern” and “the southern” slum is the great difference in income or the massive economicalal poverty and the great infrastructurure needs in the third world.
Where to find slums
Ill. 3:30 biggest slums in the world. Source: Mike Davis: “Planet of the slums”
The worst kind of slums are to be found in South America, south of Sahara and South-east Asia. Countries like India, Mexico and Nigeria have become known for there giant slum districts. Slums also occurs on the northern hemisphere. China, Russia and Turkey house millions of slum dwellers, although the conditions of these slums offer a higher standard, and therefore not to be classified as poorly, as the slum on the southern hemisphere.
Number of slum dwellers by country
China India Brazil Nigeria Pakistan Bangladesh Indonesia Iran Philippines Turkey 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Number of slum dwellers by region
South Asia East Asia Sub-sahara Africa Latin America North & West Africa Europe & Central Asia North America
Ill. 4:Source: UNhabitat 2003
Ill. 5:Source: UNhabitat 2003
Urbanization today seems to have exploded.4 In 2006, a tipping point was reached: more then half of the worlds population was living in cities5. As a consequence cities like Mumbai, Sao Paulo, and Lagos have reached the status of mega cities. Cities with more then 10 million inhabitants. Massive cities are rising around the actual city cores, with millions of people, desperately trying to make a living. They seek the cities, looking for a better life than the rural areas can provide. But in the Third World the migration towards the city often many times has a completely different and more crucial character. Dreams of working in a factory or behind a desk often become an illusion. And instead of house, car and education it ends in poverty and unemployment. But still, it is a better life then the rural life. In the city it's easier to make a living. Selling chewing gum, corrugated iron sheets, or other accessories at street corners is often seen, but too often the city dream also ends in prostitution, drugs and crime.
Who is affected
According to the UN, one billion people worldwide live in slums and the figure will likely grow to 2 billion by 20306, and often the numbers are underestimated7. That makes one of every six person in this world a slum dweller. The proportion of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the developing world between 1990 and 20058. However, due to rising population, the number of slum dwellers is rising. Since the fundamental problem of the slum cities is the poverty, the overall description of slum
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% $1 $1.25 $1.45 $2 $2.5 $10
People in the world at different poverty levels
Income per day
Ill. 6:Source: The world bank; Poverty overview.
dwellers is poor people. In 2008 the World Bank defined the absolute poverty as an income less of
4 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization 5 United Nation Human Settlements Program. 2003
6 Unhabitat 2007: ”Slum Dwellers to double by 2030”
7 2005, UN millennium project. p.15 8 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/mdg2007.pdf
1.25 dollar a day per person, and moderate poverty when a person lives below 2 dollars a day9. Other characteristics of the urban poor are a minimum educational level and a very young demographic distribution.10
What was the beginning of slums?
One can wonder why some local authorities and city administration seem to do very little - or choose to ignore the problems concerning slums altogether. All cities with slums also have large numbers of beggars, thieves and pavement dwellers in the city center. People that make a living from crime or street sale. The Danish artist Jørgen Leth made a description from Haiti: “They (the rich) solve the problem with devastated roads, by buying hummers, huge hummers, for
Ill. 7:The borderline between the very rich and the very poor, have a great potential for conflicts.
themselves”11. This is how the leading class in Haiti solves the infrastructural problems of their country: They buy themselves a better car. This is the ignorance the slum dwellers are left dealing with. Mostly the city administrations have only cared about providing the most basic infrastructure, such as limited water supplies, or a little street light, enough infrastructure to keep people from rioting. Sometimes the city administration has done nothing at all. Not just roads, water, electricity, but also security is a matter for the inhabitants. This has left the space open for gangs and clan leaders. Several times it has come to great clashes between military police and gangs in the slums around Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The gangs have been growing through their power bases in the unstable slum. The ignorance has left the inhabitants of the slums with a great feeling of alienation. For instance, they are often left with a lack of the most basic attribute of citizenship, the street ad-
9 The world bank: “poverty overview” 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slum 11 ”Esman og Leth”, www.dr.dk/Podcast/A-G.htm
dress12. This does not make people feel like they belong and therefore does not inspire a common responsibility for the area. In areas with no building codes, no regulations and no cadastral number, you can not own anything and there will be no legal consequences if somebody harms or takes your property. Even if the city helped solve the deficiencies of the urban poor, it would be dealing with a rather difficult group. People with very little education and, after often two or three generations in the highly dense slum, a strong sense of group mentality. Convincing these people to move to better standards is hard. Clean and open spaces often creates a feeling of xenophobia, because the dense, dirty areas are such a great part of there life. Further more it would require massive investments.
Slum dwellers in countries like Mozambique have during the last 20 years made a great leap in terms of improving their housing standards.13 The move from thin straw walls, to concrete masonry, changed many things: structure, durability, private security and removed the constant fear of fire. African slum shelters are often alike. Not because of common family or social structures, but because building materials are very similar. A typical African slum dwelling is about 40 m2 and is often used by the whole greater family. In the case of Maputo, Mozambique, the houses are often divided into rooms of 6 m2 and the average family size is about 5. Leaving less then a couple
12 United Nation Human Settlements Program. 2003 13 Source: Jørgen Eskemose
Ill. 8:Plan and section of a typical slum dwelling in mozambique.
of square meters per person14. Sometimes with a dividing pathway and constructed with a mono, one direction, pitched roof. The most common wall construction is created from a 150mm concrete brick(Ill. 9), for external walls, and 100mm concrete brick for internal.15 The bricks are made of factory-produced cement and gravel or sand, found locally, for aggregate. The concrete bricks are flexible in the building process and easily produced on the site. The factory produced cement requires a demanding and costly preliminary work. Besides it has a significIll. 9:Concretebricks are vastly used as a building material. Photo: Eskemose
ant negative environmental impact. As mentioned. it provides the dweller with security, structure, durability and prevents against fire. The concrete block has, because of its density, a rather high heat absorption. The bricks are connected with mortar. Alternatively the walls can be created from the same iron sheets as used for roof construction, wooden boards or from random waste. Also burned clay blocks and other masonry materials can be used. Choice depends on local materials, traditions and income. The external walls are often left without any openings. If
Ill. 10:Concrete bricks are to be constructed on site. Photo: Eskemose
there are openings, they are protected with bars. Glass are
rarely seen because of security related issues. The only opening is the door. An expensive but secure door that when closed leaves the inside pitch dark. In general inhabitants in these buildings do not care about the darkness. Protecting oneself against burglary and other crime has first priority16.
14 Source: Jørgen Eskemose 15 Source: Jørgen Eskemose 16 Source: Jørgen Eskemose
It's not only the light, but also the indoor climate, that has second priority. In many places, all around the world, the roof is almost always one layer of a corrugated iron sheet. The length of the sheet determines the width of the house. The sheets is very cheap, easy to produce and sold on every street corner in the slum cities. Sometimes it is supported with
Ill. 11:Concrete bricks in constructions.
lathes, sometimes it is left with stones on top to keep it in
place (Ill. 12). The metal has a negative impact on the indoor climate. It conducts the heat, when it should protect against it. Underneath the roof, temperature can reach 60°C in the middle of the day17. Often no space or openings are left open for ventilation. The heat, combined with indoor cooking, overcrowded sleeping facilities and no ventilation, creates a great potential for infections to be spread.
Ill. 12:Corrugated iron sheets holded down by stones and cartires. Also wall construction executed in corrugated iron sheets. Photo from Soweto, Johannesburg.
Water and sanitation
Travelling through India by train gives a great impression of the dimension of the problem. For lack of better sanitation facilities people often use the “no man's land” along the rail tracks for toilet purposes. The level of sanitation is different from community to community. Often it depends on the local community leaders engagement, local initiatives or a NGO´s local assistance. Hardly never
Ill. 13:Mumbai. The no-mans land between tracks and housing are often used as toilets. Photo from Mumbai.
does the the toilet facilities do not connect to the official sewer system. Sometimes, in a few inter17 Source: Jørgen Eskemose
esting cases, “islands” of toilet blocks have been executed for common use. In those cases, connection to municipality sewer line, has often been executed. As already mentioned, water is almost always inaccessible for the poor. In most cases the water facilities are located far from where they are needed. Sometimes water are only available few hours a day. This forces people, mostly women, to spend hours daily to bring water. Time that would have been much better spend with their families or at jobs. In many cases there is no clean water. The wells can be poisoned or polluted or simple dried out because of low ground water. If the water supply is connected to the local sewer line, the piping cope with surface water only. Without clean water and descent toilet facilities, diseases, bacteria and viruses can spread easily, especially in hot areas. Often there is only little awareness of basic hygiene. Simple hand washing would make a giant leap in terms of improving hygiene. It is estimated that 2.5 billion people live without proper water or sanitation in the world18.
Ill. 15:Women queuing to get water at a well. Photo: Eskemose. Ill. 14:A hole in the ground used for toilet purpose. Photo from Mumbai.
can be poor or the quality of the water bad. In cases of inaccessible water supplies, people have to
Describing the UN-HABITAT definition of “adequate housing”
The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–HABITAT) is the United nations agency for human settlements. Its mandate is to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all. As a part of the UN defined “millennium development goals”, the UN-Habitat is working to “halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation19” and “have achieved, by 2020, a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers”20. Central for the UN-HABITAT is characterizing the personal relation to adequate housing as a “right”. This element has been adopted by all UN members in the habitat agenda. The agenda defines “adequate shelter” as “more then just a roof over one´s head. Adequate shelter also means adequate privacy, adequate space, physical accessibility, adequate security, security of tenure, structural stability and durability, adequate lightning, heating and ventilation; adequate basic infrastructure, such as water supply, sanitation and waste management facilities, sustainable environmental quality and health- related factors and adequate and accessible location with regard to work and basic facilities; all of which should be available at an affordable cost.”21 Since this dissertation is about issues relevant for constructing architecture, the following terms will be fundamental for the assignment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. “adequate security”, “structural stability and durability”, “adequate lightning”, “heating and ventilation”, and “water supply and sanitation”,
. The terms “waste management” and “heating” carry less relevance. The professor at the Copenhagen school of architecture, Jørgen Eskemose, has experience in working with upgrading
19 United Nation Human Settlements Program. 2003 20 United Nation Human Settlements Program. 2003 21 United Nation Human Settlements Program. 2003:
slums over decades. According to him only a few per cent of the urban poor have problems with heating, therefore heating is not a problem with dealing with. Neither are waste management. Since people are poor they do not produce very much waste, and what they produce they reuse. The term “security of tenure” is, in my perception too peripheral for a constructing architect, to deal with. Fundamental for all terms is the term “affordability”, second the term sustainability.
Dic s in s u so
- p rd go td y u ga i fo a n
Discussion – Upgrading of today
“Warm humid regions” and “dry hot regions”
Establishing a decent lightning and indoor climate in the slum, without compromising security is possible. Doing the same with a small, relative increase in expenses and no help from electrical suppliers is a little harder, but feasible. Sometimes it does not even mean an increase in money, but is only a matter of understanding basic building physics. Slum areas are all different geographically and vary all in their climate. Generally speaking, slum areas can be divided into two categories: hot dry regions and warm humid regions 22. The principal elements that should be taken into consideration when examining an area, are: solar radiation, air temperature, relatively humidity, rainfall and wind.
Hot dry regions: Defined by very hot days and a remarkable decrease in temperature during night. The basic aim for the building is to protect against the solar radiation and heat transfer during the day. The building should, if possible, store the heat, to release it during night. Warm humid regions: Defined by a high humidity and high temperature during night and day. As a consequence, the building can not cool down during night. The aim is in this part of the world to 22 Development advisory group aps. 1999 Page 16
reduce heat storage and improve air movement. Since the slum mostly is emerging on the southern hemisphere, the highest amount of solar radiation is towards north (compared to south as in Denmark).
Ventilation through roof construction
The strongest thermal impact will occur across the roof, as it receives the greatest amount of solar radiation and is the most difficult to protect. The easiest solution is a mono pitched composite roof. The roof is executed with a ventilated cavity between ceiling and roof, and enough overlap from external wall to end roof to protect against rain. Depending on geographical placement, a overlap of 200 to 400mm should be enough. Various other solutions of a higher technological standard are of course available. But it is important to stress that the complexity of many of these solutions would be impossible or too costly to implement in areas such as these. The direction of the roof pitch, should be considered. To minimize the solar radiation on the roof, the pitch should point towards south. In some cases, where the roof are well ventilated and the external walls are constructed poor, the roof pitch can point north. In the warm humid areas, the roof construction should first of all protect against the sun. But also ventilate and create a proper air movement inside the house. By using a air penetrable material, such as perforated plywood in the ceiling the composite roof can play a greater role in a total housing ventilation. A cheap version would be using fabric or perforated plastic instead
Ill. 17:Ventilation in hot dry areas. The ventilation in the composite roof and the walls are separated. Ill. 16:Ventilation in hot dry areas. The composite roof and the walls are integrated in a overall ventilation system.
of plywood. This has some of the same qualities, although it can be argued that it has a larger life cycle cost. In the hot dry areas the composite roof can be a solution as well. But since it gets cold during night, it will be necessary to limit the heat loss. By using ordinary plywood (not perforated), the roof can be constantly ventilated. But it will not be integrated in a overall ventilation and will therefore help limit the heat loss during night. If wooden boards are not available, two layers of corrugated iron sheets can also create a composite roof. If all these solutions are too expensive. Small ventilation shafts, or air tunnels, can be created in the top of the wall. Alternatively roofing can be executed in the same material as the external wall. Ancient Middle East building methods prescribe a roof constructions, done with a rounded or curved shape. By using the rounded shape, the solar radiator decreases to a minimum. Since the roof construction are executed in materials of a high density, the absorbency and heat storage increases. This technique requires a rather deIll. 19:Rounded roofing constructing minimize the solar radiation. Adobe construction. Ill. 18:Pvc pipe, max 120mm, used for light and air tunnels.
veloped know-how, but, if using cheap basic materials, not more expensive then the metal boards. If using clay, the rounded roof sets high requirements to the surfaces treatment, to protect against rain and wind (see the adobe chapter)23.
Using the wall and the floor for ventilation and light
Using the composite roof system, as part of a total housing ventilation, requires other entrances
23 Byggeriets udviklingsråd. 1993
for the incoming air. These holes could also be used for the incoming light. The holes have to be constructed so, that thieves, including kids, and insects can not enter. By using PVC or concrete pipes, diameter 120mm or smaller with insect screens, the light and air can enter through the tunnels. The majority of ventilation shafts should be placed in southern façade, were the impact of the sun is lowest. To optimize the ventilation, the shafts they should be placed as low as possible. The lower the shafts get, the colder the air are and the longer the air has to travel to get out. The opposite goes for the lightning canals. The higher they are placed the more useful are the incoming light. By using relatively long pipes the direct sun will be excluded and the indirect light can enter. A combination of very low and very high placed tunnels are therefore recommended. The low for the incoming air and the top ones for light and outgoing air(Ill. 16).
Improving building materials
Most housing is made of concrete bricks masonry in slum-cities today. It is a popular building material popular because; they the easy to use for inexperienced house-builders, they are produced locally, and they provide both security and structural stability to the dwelling. But it is neither cheap or sustainable. Finding an alternative to the concrete bricks is big challenge. First of all criteria for a successful material is needed. A successfully material should be: affordable, sustainable, flexible and provide security and structural stability.
Wood is properly one of the best materials to build from. But it can also be one of the worst. Great because it is sustainable. Bad because it can result in deforestation and expanding of the desert. The best scenario would be using wood from areas where new trees are planted, when others are fell. Trees that gowns fast and straight, similIll. 20:Ill. 17:The south american organisation "Un techo para pais" making house of wood. Photo: “Un techo para mi pais”
arly to our pine trees. This could create a building industry that is CO2 neutral and secure a lot of jobs. Especially in counties like Brazil, where logistics based on illegal logging, that threatens the existence of the rainforest. A restructuring of the forest industry in this area could prove very positive. If no such structure is in place, and the transportation and cutting up of the wood requires massive amount of preliminary work, then it is a very bad building material. Successful projects have been carried out with wood. The South American organisation “Un techo para mi pais” (“A roof for my country”) have executed no less then 42.000 transitional houses in 15 South American counties. The transitional houses are made of wood and are designed to be
Ill. 21:Housing construction in wood. Photo:”Un techo para mi pais”
low-cost, easy to construct and mobile. A typical house is 18 m2 (6x3) in size and costs approximately US $1,500, of which the beneficiary family contributes 10 percent. It is built in two days by a team of eight to ten volunteers working alongside the beneficiary family24.
Using sunburned clay for building material is a ancient method. Recently the tradition was widely spread all over the world, and are still used in some parts. In Denmark it was used to half timbered houses until the second world war. The Danish production of burned clay bricks are somehow similar to the adobe methods. Instead of using the sun for drying, the clay would be burnt in a kiln. This makes
Ill. 22:Industrialized adobe production. Photo: eartharchitecture.org
the brick more durable, but it is also a more costly method than using the sun for drying. Because the clay is very easy to get hold of, It is a very easy basic material to get hold of. To use it as a building material, one only need low technology methods. This can open up for varies local suppliers and can create small, new industries. The abode bricks are shaped to a small square and left to dry in the sun. It can also be shaped in the hand and build while it still carries vapour, but then the construction will scrimp while drying.
Ill. 23:Multible adobeconstructions in yemen.
To improve the durability and the structure, straw or other fibres can be added before drying. The mix should carry at least 15-25 per cent of clay and straw around 20-30 per cent, in pieces of maximum 5cm. Other materials, such as concrete or bitumen can be added to create a more flexible or durable stone25. Clay can be used in multiple storey buildings and is therefore usable in denser cities too. A great example of this what have been build in Yemen26.
Ill. 24:Adobeconstruction in Brazil.
25 Byggeriets udviklingsråd. 1993 26 Byggeriets udviklingsråd. 1993
To prevent that the clay get washed away by the rain, a surface mixture cover by lime and sand or lime, cement and sand, depending on the durability, can be added. Like we know it from plaster. Afterwards lime, combined with various colours, can be used as a very beautiful and very cheap paint. This could add a charm to the often depressing neighbourhoods. Although the adobe technology have been used since the ancient time, the general know-how in this area is not that great. But often people would only have to look a few generations back to retrieve the traditions. This could make the technology easy to re-implement.
Bricks by wastepaper
Various projects have been carried out by using waste paper as aggregate in cement bricks. Laid as normal concrete bricks, they have proved capable for one storey housing constructions, what most slum cities are build in. They can solve the problems of getting rid of paper waste. But as they still are cement based, they are expensive and not a sustainable solution. According to fastening of windows and doors, they have the same properties as concrete, as blocks27. In cases where alternatives is not reachable and paper waste is overwhelming, this could be a possible method. But in most cases poor people do not produce very much paper waste or any waste at all28.
Ill. 25:Brick by wastepaper. Photo: Mads Kristiansen.
they are to be screwed in. Ventilation and light tunnels are integrated similar as in concrete
27 Byggeriets udviklingsråd. 1993 28 Kristiansen. 2009
Plastic bottles as masonry
The “United Bottle” project by Instant Architects solve a two folded demand in emergency situations. The demand of water and shelter. The water bottle is designed so that it, after being emptied for water, can be filled with gravel or sand and used as a brick for walls and roofs. Since the bottle construction does not create a waterproof roof, a plastic tarpaulin must be tightened up on the roof construction. There have been no real experiments with the “United bottle”. So weather the plastic can resist the impact of the sun is not known. Also there is no solution for how to fasten doors; screws does
Ill. 26:Housing construction from United bottle. Photo: United Bottle.
not seem like an option. Since the construction are not windproof, it will be self ventilating29. Neither does flooring or foundation seem to have a prober solution. It does not seem like the United bottle projects can be a solution to scale.
The South African architectural office MMA won the “curry stone foundation prize” 2008, with their interpretation of the ecoBUILD system. The assignment was to built low income housing in the dimension 10x10 meters. The ecoBUILD system, are created from sandbags, executed in a aluminium and timber frame construction30. The building system begins with conventional
Ill. 27:Sandbags create the filling and aluminium the superstructure in ecoBUILD. Photo: ecoBUILD..
concrete footings and foundation brickwork, or with sand bagged footings depending on local topography and founding material. The floor may be conventional concrete, or sand bagged with screed over, or timber floor boards on timber joists. The superstructure is built in a timber frame construction and consists of vertical beams approximately one meter apart to form the stud work with sand bags roughly 300x200x100mm packed neatly in between. The external and internal wall surfaces are clad with plaster or planks laid ship-lap. The completed wall system, providing acoustic and thermal insulation, wind and impact resistance. Window and door frames are incorporated as in conventional timber frame building, and the roof construction may be of beams and rafters or trusses supporting sheeting or tiles. According to the suppliers directions, the wall are both fire resistant (dos not say how much) and bullet proof31. Construction can take place at locations to which road access or electricity is not provided, only minimal amounts of water and cement are required. 1500 bags fit into the boot of a small car and weigh only a few kilograms(Ill. 29). This is the equivalent of 3000 bricks over the same area in a cavity wall32. The only "wet" trade required is the plasterer. The plaster adheres easily to the sandbags and chicken wire that covers the walls. The ecobags
Ill. 29:Bags can easily be transported to site site. Photo: ecoBUILD. Ill. 28:Vertacal section of the ecoBUILD structure. Drawing: ecoBUILD.
30 http://www.ecobuildtechnologies.com/products.htm#bag 31 http://www.ecobuildtechnologies.com/products.htm#bag
are made wet before the plastering process. The wet bags behind the plaster enable the plasterwork to "cure" instead of merely drying, as it does in standard construction. The end result is a very hard and reinforced cement finish.
Today concrete are properly the the most popular building material in the western world. It has great structural and flexible qualities. But when it comes to using concrete as building material in the slum it has no future. Neither in situ or prefabricated elements. The concrete in itself has the same weaknesses as the concrete blocks used today. The cements requires to much preliminary work and is far from sustainable. Besides the reinforcement steel also makes it very expensive.
Ill. 30:Concrete works great in the western world industrialized building systems. But would have difficulties with implementation in the slum.
Water and sanitation
The best option is of cause to create real sewage systems and then toilet facilities for all people in all houses. But this is utopical. It is to expensive, not to talk about political and logistic difficulties. Therefore we have to deal with alternatives. There are varies. From very cheap and easy ones to more expensive and more requiring ones. For both water and sanitation the primary goal is to limit the spread of diseases, bacteria and viruses. Flies, are not just ridicules annoying, they are
Ill. 31:The nutrient circle.
a great generator for the spread of infections. In order to attain all health benefits, technical solutions are not enough. Sanitation and hygiene education, primary washing hands, is also needed. Secondary, but still important, privacy and odour should be considered. The lack of water has a great impact on the average day. Often people, especially women, have to walk for hour, seeking water. Minimum requirements for a person is 50L a day33. The most seen solution is to dig a great hole and leave the excrement and urine to the ground. Depending on the existing culture, income and building possibilities, there are several alternative technical solutions for treatment of human urine and excrements. The potential of the excreta should therefore be thought through and not just considered as waste(Ill. 31). Most of these solutions, when properly planned, built, used and maintained, ensure safe and adequate sanitation and provide significant health benefits. Sanitation methods should be chosen to motivate users for usage and maintenance of the facilities. To meet the needs of users, participation from the users side in sanitation planning is very important. Sanitation solutions dictated by outsiders are usually not long-lasting and in the long run inappropriate solutions culturally will not be used by the local population34.
Decentralized sanitation solutions
In less organized areas, very poor areas or areas with hard accessible terrain it might be a good idea to lay the responsibility for the sanitation on the individual level. On-site solutions, ecological sanitation where the excreta is dealt with on the site, in various latrine types, works great in areas where the water supply does not cover the recommended needs. The installations does not, in must cases, require water installations, and It does not necessitate much space and it can be utilized very well in high density populated areas.
33 S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006 34 S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006
Simple improved pit latrines
Pit latrines is, the most common and the simplest way to carry out a sanitation solution. It is a pit dug into the ground, from where the liquids absorbs to the ground. At least a two meter deep hole and about one meter in diameter, constructed of concrete bricks, clay or equivalent. Depending on soil hardness and quality. The pit is covered with a slab of wood or concrete, laying of the ground. A hole, fitting a lid, is made for both solid excrement and urine drops to the pit. The shelter, what is only for privacy reasons, should be constructed of secondary materials and will be taken down, or moved, when the pit is full. Afterwards a new will be dug or the old emptied and reused. The latrine type has a high amount of flies and odour problems, but is very cheap and dos not require a lot of know-how. When establishing a new latrine construction, one should always have in mind, that a minimum of two meters should be kept to the ground water, because of the construction stability and for not poisoning the water resources. In many cases the water simply comes from a local well35.
Ill. 32:Simple improved pit latrine. Drawing: S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006
Ventilated improved pits (vip)
The vip (Ill. 23) is a development of the pit latrine. The deference between them, is a ventila35 S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006
Ill. 33:Ventilated pit latrine. rawing: S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006
tions shaft of minimum 100mm, that keeps the shelter odurless and, more or less, free of flies. The ventilation pipe should at least be half a meter above the roof to ensure prober air movement. On top of the ventilation shaft is a fly screen to prevent flies from enter. The actual latrine should be painted a dark colour to direct to flies towards the light of the ventilation tunnel, where they eventually will die with the time36.
The pour-flush latrine is also a development of the pit latrine (Ill. 33). But were one dump the feaces directly to a pit, what leaves the connection between pit and shelter open, the pour-flush latrine break off the connection. This prevents flies and odour from entering, but also makes it a little more expensive and requires a higher level of know-how. A couples of litres of waters are used for flushing the toilet every time after use, this requires a reliable and constant water supply. Pour-flush latrine can be used if the ground is permeable and the climate does not alter the water seal to freeze37. Like the pit latrine, a latrine must often are used till its full, and then a new is dug. However a expanded version can be done, that makes it possible to empty it, and there a more permanent solution (Ill. 35). This has some great advantages. The excreta can be used as fertilizer for the ground and it makes it meaningful to invest properly in a comfortable shelter. But also it sets high requirements for the infrastructure: a piece of ground to fertilize, accessible roads for a suction truck, that frequently can empty the pit, what is more then most slum area can fore fill.
36 S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006 37 S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006
Ill. 34:Pour-flush latrine (expanded). rawing: S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006
Composting dry latrine
The “composite dry latrine” are built on the ground, what therefore makes it possible to use it in areas, where the ground water are close to the surface, or where the excreta would be run-off to the surface water. Efficient and safe use of the composite dry latrine requires education for the user and commitment in latrine handling and utilization of the composited material. A base is constructed out of bricks, or other water proof materials, divided into two parts. One for the excrements and one for urine. The excrement chamber are again divided, so that one room can be used while the other are decomposing, this might take up to a year. Decompressing requires relatively dry excrements. Therefore dry
Ill. 35:Composting dry latrine. Drawing: S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006
matter must be added after use. Urine can be collected in a pot or absorbed to the ground. Latrine should be painted dark blue so it dos not attract the flies38. The model is, as the pour-flush latrine, also based on the same concept of storing the excreta and thereafter using it for fertilizing the ground. But since it only have to be emptied half of the times that pour-flush has to, and provides far more usable material, it is a better but again more expensive solution.
Locating the latrines
Depending on the latrine and how well they are performed, a latrine can be build both inside the house, outside the house, in yards, etc, but especially with pit latrines, location and distance to it surroundings, should be considered. For not poisoning the water, latrines should be located at least 30 meters from wells, rivers and lakes, as low as possible, and no less then 2 meters above
38 S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006
the peak of the ground water39. The structure of the soil should influence the construction of the pit. If the soil is lose bricks or masoned should be lined. Alternatively are prefabricated concrete rings, diameter 1.2 or 0.9m, easy to use. When laying bricks one has to shore the soil from collapsing, but digging in the middle of a concrete ring, it will be self shoring during its way down40.
Decentralized water solutions
In areas without a centralized water supply, several smart inventions have been made to establish a access to clean and not infected water. The general problem of them is that they are to expensive and only work with external support. They often need the infrastructural or organizational powers of a NGO or require a highly sophisticated level of production machinery, that prevents them from being locally produced. Technical solutions should be so cheap to produce that, if they are not to be done by the locals, a investor could make profit by producing them and selling them. This is no easy conditions. But, looking at ourself, technology have played such a great part in the industrialized worlds evolution from poor to rich. So why should it not be possible in the third world?
Ill. 37:Lifestraw. Photo: Lifestraw. Ill. 36:Solar bottle. Photo: Solar bottle.
39 S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006 40 Source: Jørgen Eskemose
Instant microbiological purifier
Both the “life straw” and the “Solar bottle” have won the honourable Index award41. They are both able to purify infected water, by a microbiological process, and make it drinkable. Both are only temporary solutions. But they can give a brake from the difficulties and therefore help to point the focus towards a permanent solution. The purifiers are mobile units and easy to compress, what makes them cheap and flexible in distribution. Even though they are very cheap to produce they still require a rather sophisticated production maIll. 38:Lifestraw used as water purifier. Photo: Lifestraw.
chinery, what makes them hard to implement locally.
The SQflex is series of of water pumps from the worlds largest pump deliver, Grundfos. It can both work with solar panels, wind technology, diesel driven or battery driven. It is primary made for rural areas and not urban dwellers. The highly advanced technique that leis behind the pump make it, more or less, impossible to implement in the slum. It is too expensive for a great majority of the poor. But what it lacks in present relevance, it has in future. It can perfectly supply larger communities
Ill. 39:SQflex works on renewable energi. Photo: Grundfoss.
with water. Projects show that villages with up 1800 people easily can use the SQflex as they primary water supply. The Sqflex can go down to down to 200m below ground and each pump can
deliver up till 70 m3/day42. So when the slum infrastructure, sooner or later improves, a group of SQflex can provide clean, sustainable, water for the poor.
Centralized toilet and water solutions
Standing in line at a festival, waiting to make your turn, can be rather challenging expiries for must people. Doing it everyday, for us, would be unbearable. But the sanitation facilities at Roskilde festival would be luxury for many slum dwellers. The solution that most festivals uses, with water and toilet facilities “islands”, can be both on- and off-site solutions. In the off-site solution a cloaking pipe are dug and connected from the municipalities sewage system to the sanitation and water islands. In the off-site situation, the principal of the pour-flush latrine can be used as a picture.
Community-designed toilet blocks
Three Indian organizations: SPARC, the National Slum Dwellers Federation (NSDF) and Mahila Milan begun a project that in 1998. What served over half a million people in eight cities in India with toilet facilities43. The organizations, representing the slum dwellers, were frustrated about the city administrations lack of interest for the inhabitants. After spending a long time, convincing the city administration, they received a economical
Ill. 40:Cummity toilet bloc. Designed by SPARC. Photo: SPARC.
support that made it possible to built a series of toilet blocks, connected to the municipality sewer line. All with a caretaker and a pay-per-use system, that could first of all generate founds for maintenance. Further, hoping that people could see the connection between cost and maintenance, to protect against future vandalism. The success for the toilet blocks in India is more of a political victory then technical victory. But again it underlines that in these cases, they go hand in hand. The city administration stepped back,
42 Annex 43 Burra, Patel and Kerr 1998. p. 11 l.3
from the role as the overall employer. They focused on only setting the standards and deliver water and electricity and left the design, the construction and maintenance to the NGOs and communities. Instead of the “clients” or “supplicants”, they sew themselves as “partners”. The great lack of corruption tell something about how far a project can reach, when trusting the local communities. Clearing the communication through a weekly meeting “brought all stakeholders together to review progress and identify problems”44, also helped the process. An average toilet block contain 25 seats, five of them for children, cost around 53 UK£(1999) and can each be served by 50 person each a day.45 But no toilet block are alike. In all projects local people play a part in the process. Simply because there are all experts in their local community. The alliance of the three organizations developed innovations in their various project. ChilIll. 41:Interier of Indian toilet blocks. Photo: SPARC.
dren were often scared to use the municipality toilets, that was before. The latrine hole was to big, they were afraid of falling, the toilets were dark and unhygienic and the bad queuing habits, made them wait for long time to get in. Generally the toilets were working poor and people had no pleasure using them. Following initiatives improved the standards remarkably: • • • • • Bright and well ventilated buildings in the centre of the communities A larger water tank, that ensured enough water for hand washing and maintenance. Separating the entrances for men and women improved queuing habits, securing woman and children access to toilets and improved they privacy. The pay-per-use system, the caretaker and gaps in the door, for cleaning purposes, and pour-flush toilets improved the hygienic level. Toilet plumbing inside an enclosure, made exterior walls cheaper and made the building look cleaner.
44 Burra, Patel and Kerr 1998. p. 20 l.21 45 Burra, Patel and Kerr 1998. p. 20, prices in 1998 prices.
Planning the building with back to back toilets, with a single central pipe and single inspection chamber, limited the service installations. Cost of latrine sanitation solutions
Ill. 42:Latrines in Indien toilets blocks. Photo: SPARC.
Below are shown the cost estimations for different sanitation solutions implementation, include construction cost, variable cost (15 per cent) and utilization and maintenance cost. Prices around the world are different and therefore it is important to underline, that this is just a estimation.
Sanitation solution Cost/per person US$, 2006 Purification of wastewater and after treatment of water Sewerage system and wastewater treatment Joining to sewerage system Joining to sewerage system (use of local labour) Water latrine connected to septic tank Pour-flush pit latrine VIP Simple pit latrine Improved local practice
Toilet blocks, per seat
800 450 300 175 160 70 65 45 10 56
Illustration 1:Source: Burra, Patel and Kerr 1998 and S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006. Transcription done from the UK costumer prices index and the currency between UK£ and US$, 2006.
Problems on administration and political level.
Talking about issue on political and administration level, problems are visible as far the eye can reach: Corruption, incompetence, ignorance, bureaucracy to name some. But with the optic of an constructing architect we can limit the obstructions to three major issues: • • • Design a realistic building code, Urban planing, according to fire precautions, and Using community contractors in when tendering.
Others problems may be important and prevent development in multiple cases but are to be solved on other levels.
Designing a realistic building code
Building codes and regulations should be realistic, enforceable and reflective of community lifestyles and culture. Especially they should reflect the special needs of the poor in the slum according to minimum plot size, incremental construction, and home based economic activities. When upgrading slum, household are often demolished and people relocated far from their workplaces, in order to live up to the high standards and regulations. A major issue are the with of the roads. According to present standards, the with should be made wider, regulated for health and fire related causes. People have now, often for generations, dealt fine with the poor standards and therefore consider the regulations to be excessive. Low income communities does not have that many cars and no big vehicles. The big roads serve only a little purpose. Instead they can have a bad effect on the social life, because the roads often are used for gatherings and children's play. Big roads and requirements of minimum plot sizes raises the costs of the plots. This can make houses unaffordable for many poor. Often building codes and bylaws prescribe, what we would call descent, standards for buildings. The requirements of materials and constructions are often unreachable, and force the poor the violate the law. This again leads to risks of demolishing, fines and further more bribing of the city administration. Building codes should of cause prescribe requirements for materials, light, air etc. But instead of being a reason to introduce improved housing methods, it can work with negative effect and keep dwellers from
improving anything. The building code should also aim for improving the security for tenure, what is a major question for many poor people. If one does not have security of tenure one are risking to loose all investment if/when the authorities, companies etc. may want to use the land for other purposes e.g. up market housing, roads, educational facilities and more.
Fire precaution in the slum
Today the limited amount of belongings and vast use of cement and iron boards, makes the risk of fire low. But future growth in wealth will also create a raise in belongings and therefore raise the risk of fire. Establishing new slum areas often happens very fast. External factors often make eviction of city parts happen in “waves”. When a slum is establishing, it is important to pay attention to creating belts for fire prevention, so the fire does
Ill. 43:The roskilde festival have decades of experiences with fire prevention in camps.
not spread to much, if it starts. One should not expect help from the local fire department. If they do, they move out slow. Experiences from creating the huge festivals can be vulnerable. Inspiration to creating fire belts could wisely come from music festival were “cities” are raised in a matter of hours. More then 100.000 people camp at the Roskilde festival. When people enter it is important to strictly keep the fire belts. The dividing belts are of a with of about 6m and the squares of about 40x40m46. Controllers secure that fire belt are kept very strict sometimes with support from authorities until people have found there place and the structure becomes more stable.
46 “Roskilde festival – den grænseløse by”, Article in “Arkitekten” 8, 2009
Ill. 44:About 250.000 people at glastonbury festival 2009.
Using community contractors
When executing feasible improvement projects. Tendering process should be aiming at the communities cooperatives and the local dwellers organizations. This often requires to break up the projects to smaller and manageable pieces. All depending on the local contractors skills. This might be a more demanding process for the developer. But “such arrangements will generate a much needed income, improve skills, create a sense of ownership and civil pride, internalize profit margins, and improve transparency in the use of municipal resources.”47 To start with both parties properly will have lack in faith in each other, or just little experience with working with one another. Using a NGO or integrate the process in a development project might be a possibility. Using a already known model for collaboration, can move the “client” relationship between the two parties to a “partner” relationship.48
Ill. 45:Community contractors in Soweto, Johannesburg.
Introducing this process should be done on a legal basis. A beneficial agreement and later a contract. The contract should include: “technical options, type and amount of community contribution, wages, use of contractors, implementation modalities, supervision, maintenance” and “be responsible for operation and maintenance”49. This also gives formerly unorganized communities a possibility of discussing, and introducing, a negotiation process about their social and economical interest. Introducing community contracting to be applied in a larger scale, “community organizations need legal standing, enable them to interact effectively with external partners”50. By doing this, the possibility of passing ideas about democratically chosen representatives can also be applied. This can move them from a informal status to a formal.
47 Millennium project, 2005: p.55 l. 12. 48 Burra, Patel and Kerr 1998, p.20 49 Millennium project, 2005: p.56 l.23 50 Millennium project, 2005: p.56
R ve e iw
-o ad ab t ruue tw rs et ftr e
Review – Towards a better future
Learning from last chapter it, it becomes visible that the alternatives to the present slum, does exist. Both when it comes to housing construction, water and sanitation. They might not be a affordble. There is a need for the infrastructure that could make these solutions affordable and available. In general, a both sustainable and affordable upgrading of housing construction, might a reality in a not so far future. The UNhabitat definition of minimum requirement for a home: 1. structure/durability, 2. security, 3. light, 4. ventilation and 5. water & sanitation, Based on the UNhabitat definition is now possible to evaluate whethen the, in the discussion given, examples are useful as for future materials or methods. Bedsides aspects like: affordability, sustainability and fire precaution are fundamental from constructing architects point of view.
Building methods and materials.
Following diagram, based on the given factors, shows that the adobe and the ecoBUILD methods are far the best. Concrete are far from usable. And United bottles, in spite of the good idea, should improve there design in order to implement it. Light and ventilation are graded on the possibility of fixing a window or integrating a light tunnel in the wall. On account of thermal issues, the weight on ventilation and heat absorbency most be taken into consideration. In warm humid areas ventilation, most be prioritized over building materials with high density and heat absorbency weighted lower. In hot dry areas it is opposite. It is important to bear in mind, that all factors are subject to substantial geographical variation. This is a subjective grading: Page 39
Property analysis Weight
Grading, raising from 1-5. 15% 15% 5% 5% 40% 10% 10% Fireprecursion Sustainability Affordability Ventilation
Adobe ecoBuild Wood (from replanteble trees) Bottles Bricks by wastepaper Concrete
5 5 5 1 4 5
5 5 5 1 5 5
5 5 5 1 5 5
5 5 5 4 5 5
5 3 2 5 1 1
5 4 5 3 2 1
5 4 1 4 5 5
5,0 4,0 3,4 3,3 3,0 3,0
Water and sanitation
It is not possible to make the same property analysis for water or sanitation. Regarding sanitation and water the central issue are those of affordability and local conditions. Looking at the given numbers in last chapter, it is evident, that there are large differences in costs for sanitation supplies. From my point of view, one should always aim for the highest level of sanitation standards, the affordability and local conditions allows. If the income allow a composite dry toilet system, it would make no meaning to build a vip. Going from decentralized toilet facilities to centralized facilities is a great advantage. Both when it comes to economy, hygienic and connecting the local communities. The decentralized system should therefore work as a temporary solution, until a toilet block can be executed. Is the possibPage 40
Ill. 46:Toilet blocks seems to be the best solution, if they are possible to employment.
ilities of centralized sanitation facilities does not seem reachable, descent toilet facilities can also be executed as a composite toilet. It is recommendable to consider in depth whether there at all are basis for centralized sanitation facilities exists. Starting projects that does not have the needed infrastructural, economical or organizational support often seem to lead to great disadvantages in the long run. Also regarding water supplies the key factors are the economy and the local conditions. If a local well can not be executed and the city administrations are not capable of supplying water, temporary solutions are possible. These all rely on organizational structures for distribution, what make the water supply very fragile to a decrease in supply. The advantage of the purifiers are, that they are affordable, which makes production and distribution feasible. A water supply supported by the city administration, could be executed through a community managed toilet block.
Towards a better future for the slum dwellers
So far this dissertation has dealt with the problem, as if the solution for slum dwellers, was to be solved on an individual level. Each person, or thinking big, each community, solves their own difficulties. But working towards a sustaineble solution to the problem in the longer runrequires a larger planing. The world bank, the governments and the NGO´s have often been accused of incompetence, bureaucrat, corruption, and most of all not being apple to perform their task. But maybe they simply are not capable of solving the problem. And maybe we should start looking in new directions for the solutions. The mentioned organizations all work on the macro level. But in some cases it is much more likely to solve the problem on a microlevel, close to the slum dweller. By increasing the slum dwellers influence on the process, the personal commitment and responsibility increases. E.g. the community toilet block and community contractors from last chapter. In other cases solutions implemented on a macro level are are needed. Only on the macro level, sustainable solutions that require large investment in infrastructure, can be planed and executed. Four issues, that are fundamental to solve the problem in the long run: 1. Economical. External founding of future upgrading is necessary. Its is is not possible for the
slum dwellers with the resources and capacities of today can fund solutions themselves.
2. Technological- and building methods. Even though methods and material are reachable,
further development most take place.
3. Energy supplies. Today most slum dwellers have no electricity. In order to create a descent
infrastructure electricity are fundamental.
4. Educational structures. To distribute know-how and competencies an improved structure of
knowledge sharing most be introduced.
Economical Microlevel Macrolevel Microloan NGO/GO Alternative solution Present solution
Ill. 47:Alternative and present solutions.
Technological Manual production Prefabrication
Energy Selfsuficency Public suply
Educational (none) Open source
Organizations like the World Bank, the UN and the governments are today the only organizations that are capable of changing the conditions of the urban poor. They are all players on the global scene on macrolevel. This means that they all work far from the poor. Attempts has been made over several decades to improve the conditions, through development aid and development loans thing have only went to the worse. So maybe the solution is to be found somewhere else.
Thinking of the urban poor, not as poor, but as the middle class of tomorrow creates another perspective on the problem. The poor will be potential customers. We should therefore not talk about “funding” but “investing”51. The economical theory “Bottom of the pyramid” or “BoP” is about getting away from the “client” relation that today are infiltrating our way of thinking. This is exactly same that happened when the Indian slum dwellers alliance begun to take
Ill. 48:More then 4billion people live at the bottom of the economical pyramid. Source: C. K. Prahalad, “The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid”
the power in their own hands: They went from “clients” to “partners”. With a positive side effects. In 2006 the Nobel peace price went the Bangladeshi economist and the Grameen Bank founder, Muhammad Yunus. He created a business where tiny amounts of money, could be lent start to up small business, improve homes, create water supply or improve sanitation. Some invest in a cow, some in a shop, others in a well. All small projects, but it gives the power and the initiative
Ill. 49:Muhammad Yunus speaking at roskilde festival 2009.
to the poor. Suddenly he or she has the power to
improve their lives. So instead of waiting for NGO´s or governments, to do improve the lives of the urban poor, they can do it themselves. Experience has shown, that their service their loan. The bank has provided an estimated $5.7 billion in loans, to more then six million people in Bangladesh, 96 per cent of them are woman52. A average loan is about $200.53 Looking at the number from last chapter, $200 is enough to join a toilet block to the local sewage system or create three vip facilities.
Technological and building method solutions
According to Kiran Sandhu, professor at the university of Delhi, “prefabricated housing projects(...) have not been popularly applied”54 But how can this be? Thinking of the great results we have achieved in the developed counties, the first thing an Indian urban planer would do, was to start experimenting with prefabrication. The answer is two folded. First of all the poverty. Secondly infrastructural issues: possibilities of transportation and industrialized mass production. In order to bring the third world a step further, prefabrication of building elements and industrialization of the building process is needed. This is not just a matter of upgrading the slum, but also because industrialized production is a great tool to limiting the unemployment. If one person can get a job producing a house for another, he might afford a house for himself one day, what again creates a new job.
The IKEA concept
253 IKEA ware houses in 24 countries. Last year 565 mill. costumers paid a IKEA warehouse a visit. Why does IKEA have this massive success? Easy understandable and useful design for very low prices. All based on a vast mass production, in an area where labour are cheap. But the greatest force of IKEA is that they really have understood the concept of modularity. At the bottom line the IKEA design is like LEGO, cheap, mass produced unit pieces, that can be joined and make up a powerful connection. This concept could be part of a future solution: creating a system of modules, fitting each other,
52 53 54 news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/10/061013-nobel-peace.html news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/10/061013-nobel-peace.html Ammex 9
that people can put together themselves with a single, simple tool, produced in the cheapest place possible. But most often the cheapest place actually is to produce things in third world countries. Using, the only resource the slum is rich of, cheap manual labour. In order to expand their markets, IKEA have launched the experimental project BOKLOK. The concept is to mass produce, not just elements, but whole storey´s of houses. Designed so they fit the back of a truck, so it could be transported to the site, and added to the rest of the building, in a matter of hours. The aim of the project was to lower the cost prices in the long run, by making the building process more effective. This idea carry some relevance when thinking of slum. Just as well as the key factor is transportation for
Ill. 50:The experimental IKEA project BOKLOK.
IKEA, in their building process, it would be the same in the slum. But here the infrastructure does often not allow trucks, sometimes only animal driven vehicles. This sets a clearly limit to the extend of prefabrication. But still, thinking of modules, a production is possible. Modules of in- and external walls and roofs can wisely be prefabricated and transported to the site with mule driven vehicles. Another great key factor is to think the local needs, traditions and conditions into the design. Everything can vary from place to place so thinking local factors into the design is a absolutely must. One of greatest advantages of using modularity, is that families can develop a home subject to needs that might increase in the future. The housing need of a family is limited to a certain amount of square meters. But as it increases the family
Ill. 51:Almost all IKEA furnitures are to be collected with a simple umbraco tool.
will need further space. Instead of moving to another place, and losing the social network, that people desire so badly in poor communities, not to talk about all the other difficulties this leads to, a family can choose to enlarge their home. Expanding homes can by time create problems between neighbours. To think that areas with only a weak control of cadastral numbers, fights would occur between neighbours and could develop drastically. Experience show that people treat each other with neighbourliness 55. This is a important factor, since stronger regulation unlikely to emerge in these areas.
Energy supply solutions
A key element of our transformation, from rural to industrialized society, was the use of fossil energy. These days, because of the global warming, fossil energy might seem outdated, but maybe it is not. Nuclear power seems to face a new era, of clean, safe and CO2 neutral power. The nuclear power plants can provide massive amounts of energy. The Brazilian president Lula da Silva, therefore has invested heavily in this technology, and subsequently not in solar, wind or other renewal energy sources. But, even if the energy got affordable, it still demands a lot of investments to create a net of power distribution. Not to talk about the payments arrangement. The Brazilian administration seems confident in their task, so it might poses a non trival challenge. The alternative solution could be found looking at the possibilities on the micro level. By using renewable energy sources, like wind or solar power, a house or a community can become sufficient.
55 Source: Jørgen eskemose.
Ill. 52:Renewable energy can make the single house self suficient with energy.
have a future in Brazil. But distributing electrical power in the political unstable African countries,
Solar radiation can go from being a problem, as it is today, to become the greatest future resources. But as we saw with the SQflex water pump, the technology is far too expensive. As the prices of solar panels are increased with 50 per cent per year56, it will take long time before it become affordable. But inventions attempt to happen in leaps, not in a continuously development. Investing heavily in renewable energy, therefore seems as a great way to support improvements. Until the single dwelling becomes selfsufficient, energy wise, several smart ideas have been invented to integrate the slum dwellers in the surrounding world. Both a laptop and radio, with a crank, have been introduced to a large crowed in the third world. By letting the radio or laptop supply itself with energy, communication, education, etc. can be distributed vastly.
Ill. 53:Laptop and radio with a crank.
The school system, in many developing countries, are today far from the standards in the western world. The spread of Internet are on a minimum today. Though resent projects, as the crank drown laptop, might a future possibility for education. To use the internet for knowledge sharing, as a part of future upgrading, can be vulnerable. Implementation of internet and computers in the school system could be a positive inIll. 54:The school system in third world countries does hardly never include computers or internet.
vestment. Still wireless internet connection are none existing though. The open source internet projects, like wikipedia and Linux, are good examples of free knowledge sharing. The systems, based on volunteer contributions, have proved itself strong. Combining the ideas from IKEA, mass production and modularity, with open source, could create a “catalog”. From this “catalog” of solutions, people could get inspiration to create and produce housing, sanitation, water etc. Creating a direct link between the architects and engineers, on one side, and the poor, the community contractor or the NGO, on the other, can ease up the process and focus the energy towards the production or execution. Local materials, traditions and standards can create problems when using a system, created far from its needs. It is therefore important to underline that solutions should be considered according local conditions.
One easy conclusion would be: a possible improvement of the depressing situation is possible. The report have shown that both materials, methods does exist for future improvements. Also knowledge about how to design the infrastructure and create funding does exist. By choosing to look at the positive sides of the problem, we have all tools needed for improving present and future slum. Materials like the adobe seems to have a great future. Or revival, some would say. Also the ecoBUILD seems implementable. Wood are usable in the right conditions. Concrete is flexible, durable, but to expensive. Finally projects like bricks by wastepaper and United bottles are, more or less, wasted of energy and time. On all income levels a sanitation and water facility solution can be reached. Best are the toilet blocks. Both according to water and sanitation. Besides the economical aspect, it has other great community related side effects. If the needed infrastructure does not exist for the toilet blocks, other sanitisation and water facility systems can be implemented. Future work and upgrading should happened through community contractors. Building codes should be regulated according to the needs of the poor. And future city planing should take fire precaution into account. Even though the positive perspective can be laid on the problematic, another conclusion could also be made: a possible improvement does exist, but most likely it will not happen. The possibilities of improving the conditions have always been there. During the last decades, or ever since the colonisation, there was what was needed to improve the conditions. But there have never been the will. And before we, in the western world, decide to lower our living standards, to improve the standards in the third world, it will properly not happen. But we have to, no matter how depressing the situation are today, force ourself to look at the possibilities and positive sides. If we use the tool of today, we can improve the conditions of the urban poor. So far the problem have not been visible for us. We have been able to ignore that one billion people live in the slum. But maybe we will not in the future. In our own part of the world, Page 49
we have already seen the beginning impacts of the north-south problematic like immigrations and extremism, just to name some. These problems might grow drastically if we chose to ignore the present situations.
Annex Annex 1: UN Millennium Project. 2005: “A home in the city”. Task force on improving lives of slum dwellers. Earthscan. Annex 2: The urban age project by the London school of economics and Deutsche bank´s Alfred Herrhausen Society. 2007: “The endless city”. Published by Phaidon press limited. P: 54-69. Annex 3: United Nation Human Settlements Program. 2003: “The challenge of the slums: Global report on human settlements”. Unhabitat. Annex 4: Development advisory group aps. 1999: “Active design with nature – A guide for planing and design in hot dry and warm humid regions”. Danida. P:10; 19-47. Annex 5: Byggeriets udviklingsråd. 1993: “Lerjord som byggemateriale - en vejledning”. P: 23; 127-133. Annex 6: Mads Kristiansen. 2009: “Paper fibre based bricks for low cost housing in development countries”. MCs thesis project in civil engineering. http://restart.nu/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/bricks.pdf Annex 7: S. Huuhtanen and A. Laukkanen. 2006: “A guide to sanitation and hygiene for those working in developing countries”. Global dry toilet club of Finland. University of applied sciences, Tampere polytechnic. http://www.drytoilet.org/pdf/Sanitation_Guide.pdf Annex 8: Article in “Environment&Urbanization” vol 15, no 2, october 2003: Burra, Patel and kerr: “Cummunity designed, built and managed toilet blocks in Indian cities”. P:11-24 http://www.environmentandurbanization.org/documents/burra_patel_kerr.pdf Annex 9: Email correspondence with Kiran Shandu, Senior Lecturer Guru Ramdas School of Planning, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar. Annex 10: Grundfoss literature, Sqflex.
A n xs ne´
Gmail - FW: for Troels
Troels Vejby <firstname.lastname@example.org>
FW: for Troels
Hans-Christian Vejby <email@example.com> Til: firstname.lastname@example.org 17. maj 2009 11.31
Hans-Christian Vejby Architect MAA Tranegårdsvej 4 3th. 2900 Hellerup Denmark email@example.com +4520293316
From: kiran sandhu [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org] Sent: 16. maj 2009 08:59 To: email@example.com Cc: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: for Troels
Dear Troels, Greetings, From the information that Hans had mentioned in his email as also from your dissertation abstract I guage that you are working on options for housing the urban poor with particular focus on prefabricated housing. While some commendable initiatives related to urban poor housing have been done in India especially in context of slum networking and redevelopment projects, prefabricated housing projects to my knowledge have not been popularly applied and so even though I tried, I have'nt been able to find a casestudy that I could forward to you. However I am forwarding two casestudies one from the city of mumbai and the other from Indore which are good examples of how some low cost housing for the poor has been generated. I am also giving here the link of the organisation HUDCO and the BMTPC which are the premier public sector organisations in India working for housing and infrastructure development for the urban and rural poor.I am also sending you the email of a person whom I think might have more knowledge regarding application of prefabrication housing for the poor in India. (Dr.P.Jayapal, email: email@example.com)
I hope this information would be useful to you. If you let me know more details of exactly
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Gmail - FW: for Troels
what you are looking for then perhaps I could try finding more information. My best regards and I hope you dissertation shapes up very well. best wishes Kiran India
4 vedhæftede filer affordable housing for all.pdf 868K mumbai slum rehabilitation project.doc 45K aryana housing.pdf 2035K Indore housing project.pdf 1605K
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Water, wherever, whatever
> C A SE ST O R IE S
Sometimes Mother Nature needs a hand
Innovative technology and nature hand in hand Human existence and business prosperity in remote locations depend largely on the availability of clean water to people, livestock and crops. But in many parts of the world reliable power can be in just as short supply as the water. Grundfos SQFlex lends nature a helping hand by providing both water and the power needed to fuel the pump system. Areas that would previously have been considered uninhabitable or not supportive of life suddenly become viable and attractive. Application areas Designed for continuous as well as intermittent operation, the SQFlex system is especially suitable for water supply in remote locations such as:
· villages, schools, hospitals, single-family houses, etc.
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Based on renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power, SQFlex combines state-of-the-art pump technology with sustainable, energy efficient solutions to provide a reliable water supply to remote locations with little or no access to water and electricity. The better the quality of the water, and the more reliable the water supply, the better the quality of life for everyone.
· farms and ranches – watering of livestock – irrigation of crops and greenhouses
· game parks and game farms – watering applications
· conservation areas – surface water pumping
100% nature – just add water Whether you are blessed with an abundance of sunshine or wind, or a bit of both, SQFlex solar panels or wind turbines adapt to the characteristic weather profile of any given area. A generator or battery backup system can take over when the natural energy sources are scarce, and accumulate energy when they are plentiful. With an SQFlex system, there is water whenever and wherever you need it. It is as simple as that! · ponds and lakes – floating pump installations
Complete system ready to go Tell us where you are located, your water table depth and estimated water needs. By analysing location specific variables such as average sunshine and wind speed, we can tailor the system so it matches your application and local conditions perfectly. SQFlex is a customised product delivered as a plug-and-go solution complete with SQF submersible pump, controller, energy source and support structure. The system is remarkably easy to install and use under even the most difficult conditions.
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m a depth of r to draw water fro iprovides the powe SQFlex Wind ting the 3,000 ind d to a well, irriga ular below the groun The reg 95 metres irrigation system. s through a drip and vidual grapevine r vintage quality ributes to bette fresh water cont supply of for the winery. siness prosperit y thus increased bu
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Stay flexible with SQFlex
The complete SQFlex pump range consists of 10 different pump sizes: 4 helical rotor pumps for medium to high heads and low to medium flows, and 6 centrifugal pumps for shallow heads and high flows. It is available in two different stainless steel material variants: type AISI 304 as standard and type AISI 316 for slightly aggressive water. The pump is fitted with a highefficiency motor for DC or AC voltage. This makes pump sizing and selection extremely easy.
The SQFlex system is available with a user-friendly CU200 control unit that maintains two-way communication with the pump and monitors the operating conditions. Built-in diagnostics indicate faults and dry-running, display operating status power consumption and level switch input.
Other alternatives are IO100 switch box and IO101 generator box for SQFlex Solar, and IO102 breaker box for SQFlex Wind, which are controlled by a manual on/off switch.
The GF solar panels are designed especially for the SQFlex pump motor unit. A higher output voltage compared to standard 12V panels ensures optimum efficiency of the complete SQFlex pump system – with up to 20% flow increase per day in small systems. The solar panels incorporate eight bypass diodes, which minimise power loss in case the panels are covered by patches of shadow, dirt, leaves or bird lettings. Wiring of the GF solar panels is easily done using the MC cable connectors, and the panels are mounted to the support structures without the use of any special tools.
Save energy as you save water. With a level switch inside the storage tank connected to the CU200 control unit, the pump knows when the tank is full and shuts itself off.
Battery backup system
Battery backup systems with a charge controller are typically used in applications where the pump is not running during most of the peak sun hours of the day, or where it is impossible or impractical to store large volumes of water. Examples include remote homes or cabins, automatic livestock waterers, and very low-yielding wells. The SQFlex battery backup system enables SQFlex Solar to operate just like any traditional closed water supply system powered by the mains supply, providing water pressure day and night.
Where wind speed prevails over sunshine hours, the SQFlex Wind is just as cost-effective and sustainable. SQFlex Wind is particularly suitable for open fields, valleys and landscapes where the wind blows constantly. The small but high-quality wind turbine consists of only a few simple components, making it exceptionally easy to install and maintain compared to conventional windmills.
SQFlex Solar WaterPack Combi systems
The SQFlex Combi takes maximum advantage of natural energy resources by providing a combination of solar and wind energy: solar panels for when the sun is shining; a wind turbine for when the wind is blowing. The added benefits of the SQFlex Combi are even greater reliability and water whenever it is needed. A SQFlex Solar WaterPack is a complete system solution ready for installation - just add one or more solar panels. The standard package contains:
· SQF submersible pump · IO100 SQFlex switch box · Support structure · Cable kit
You get it all
· reliable water supply · cost-efficient pumping · complete plug-and-go system · easy installation · virtually no maintenance · numerous expansion possibilities
Natural energy rarely runs low, but if it ever does, both the SQFlex Solar and SQFlex Wind systems can temporarily fall back on a petrol or diesel-driven generator or batteries. Intelligent control units make changing between power supplies very easy.
Quality inside out
SQFlex pumps have built-in protection features that protect the pump itself and in many cases the well. Among these features are:
Powerful carbon/ceramic bearing system ensures high reliability.
The unique Grundfos micro frequency converter ensures power transmission to the motor.
· Protection against dry-running, overloading and overheating · Automatic restart when water returns to the well or when the motor temperature returns to the safety range · Continuous load condition and voltage monitoring
Two motor sizes are available for the SQFlex system with built-in unique features: 3000 rpm for helical pumps and 3600 rpm for centrifugal pumps segmented stator and permanent magnet rotor for high efficiency and starting torque.
A wide voltage range enables the motor to operate at any voltage between 30V and 300V DC or 90-240V AC, which makes installation and sizing especially easy.
Stainless steel for long pump life.
Helical rotor pump (3”)
Based on original pumping principles, the helical rotor pump uses a few, simple components for effective pumping – medium to high head and medium to low flow.
Two-way communication between control unit and pump eliminates the need for additional wires.
This unique feature shuts down the pump if it detects water shortage. It protects the well from being over-pumped and the motor from burning out. The pump restarts automatically when water returns to the well.
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) means even and high system efficiency regardless of power source.
To ensure maximum protection of the motor and thus extended motor life, the SQFlex pumps are equipped with a composite sand slinger on the motor shaft as standard. The sand slinger rotates with the shaft, thereby pushing sand away from the centre and out through three grooves in the pump sleeve. Another distinctive benefit is that pump and motor can be replaced independently of one another, in case one of them wears out.
Centrifugal pump (4”)
Technology based on 30 years’ experience enables high flow in shallow water conditions. Stainless steel components give high wear resistance.
Total performance, total range
200 180 160 140 120
40 20 0
1400 W p 900 W p 600 W p 400 W p 200 W p
200 180 160 140 120 100
8 m/s 7 m/s 6 m/s 5 m/s
The SQFlex Wind performance curves are based on: • Average wind speed • Calculations according to Weibull’s factor k = 2 • Continuous operation over 24 hours
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
100 W p
100 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Water for life
Type Average water consumption 30 ltr/day 40 ltr/day 10 ltr/day 10 ltr/day 40 ltr/day 12 ltr/day
The table provides a quick overview of average water consumption per day for humans and selected livestock and crops. This indicative information can be used to make a rough estimate of your required water needs per day when sizing and selecting the SQFlex system. Please note that the figures in the table are intended for guidance purposes only. Human Cattle Sheep Game/Deer Olive tree Grapevine
The SQFlex Solar performance curves are based on: • Irradiation on a tilted surface • Ht = 6 kWh/m² per day • 20° tilt angle • Ambient temperature at 30°C • 20° northern latitude • 120V DC
Sizing and selection made simple and easy
Getting it right from the start Sizing and selection of the optimum SQFlex system has never been easier. Based on a few location-specific variables such as average sunshine and wind speed and your estimated water needs, Grundfos’ sizing tool WinCAPS does the calculation and system sizing for you. All you need to determine is the following three parameters: · geographical location · required maximum head · required water quantity per day Contact your local Grundfos dealer/installer for a sizing proposal.
Choose the win-win alternative
Individual solutions to remote water supply SQFlex’s many possibilities and areas of application means that it constitutes the perfect sustainable, reliable and cost-efficient alternative to irregular, cost-intensive water supply solutions in remote locations. It provides individual solutions to water problems where conventional water supply systems fail or simply cannot reach – and at hardly any cost. By opting for green technology, you can contribute to increased sustainability – for the benefit of your business and nature in general. Focus on lifecycle costs You cannot afford not to. The initial upfront investment in a SQFlex solution is comparable to conventional water supply systems. But this is where the comparison stops. The total cost of owning a pump system over its entire life is about much more than just the purchase price – it is the total sum of not only the costs but also the benefits of having a business relationship with Grundfos.
Turn harsh conditions into your advantage Instead of working against nature, you can work with it. Use the sun or the wind, or a combination of both, to create power for your water supply system. For instance, in warm places there is traditionally more sun than wind, and with SQFlex Solar you can take maximum advantage of the local weather conditions by relying on solar energy all the year round.
The lifecycle costs of an SQFlex system will be considerably lower than with other water supply systems, because you can save substantial sums on reduced energy and maintenance costs. Other more intangible cost-reducing factors include correct system sizing, high pump efficiency and performance, technical advice, service and reliable logistics.
Comprehensive online documentation You can draw on a wide range of expert knowledge, documentation, installation and service information via Grundfos’ online software tool WebCAPS; available at www.grundfos.com. It contains product information about more than 180,000 Grundfos products in more than 22 languages. Especially the installation and service videos are the ultimate, convenient way to be informed about how to install and maintain a pump. Simply select product type and click on the camera symbol, then press play and watch all the installation and service tips play before your eyes.
Water, wherever, whatever You can count on quick and efficient service from you local Grundfos dealer/installer in case your SQFlex system needs a general service check-up or a new spare part. Grundfos offers a close-knit service network with own service organisation in more than 40 countries combined with hundreds of Grundfos Service Partners, installers and dealers worldwide. Efficient logistics ensure rapid delivery of spare parts, which are handled from one of our strategically placed distribution hubs.
Work smart, not hard With an SQFlex system, the time-consuming and often dangerous work of climbing a traditional windmill structure to perform regular maintenance on body, wings and gearbox will be history. So are the expensive insurance policies covering hazardous work. SQFlex solar panels and wind turbines are virtually maintenancefree and much safer to handle.
Being responsible is our foundation Thinking ahead makes it possible Innovation is the essence
BE Being responsible is our foundation. We know that we have a responsibility towards the people who are Grundfos, towards the innovative soul of Grundfos, as well as towards the surrounding world. Whatever we do, we make sure that we have a firm and sustainable basis for doing it. THINK Thinking ahead makes innovation possible. We encourage a certain Grundfos way of thinking that is founded on the belief that everyone must contribute by using his or her judgment and foresight. We are looking for commitment and ideas in everything we do in order to make the best solutions. We think – and then we act. INNOVATE Innovation is the essence. It is the innovations that make Grundfos unique. We stand out because of our ability to constantly create new solutions to the ever-changing demands of the pump business. We meet every challenge, and we are never afraid of taking the initiative – remaining true to our ideals is the basis for our ongoing renewal. Innovation is the soul of Grundfos.
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