Eyepiece: The eyepiece (sometimes called the 'ocular') is the lens of the microscope closest to the eye that you look through. It is half of the magnification equation (eyepiece power multiplied by objective power equals magnification), and magnifies the image made by the objective lens... sometimes called the virtual image. Eyepieces come in many different powers. One can identify which power any given eyepiece is by the inscription on the eyecup of the lens, such as "5x", "10x", or "15X". Oculars are also designed with different angles of view; the most common is the wide field (W.F.). Eyepiece Holder: This simply connects the eyepiece to the microscope body, usually with a set-screw to allow the user to easily change the eyepiece to vary magnifying power. Body: The main structural support of the microscope which connects the lens apparatus to the base. >Nose Piece: This connects the objective lens to the microscope body. With a turret, or rotating nose piece as many as five objectives can be attached to create different powers of magnification when rotated into position and used with the existing eyepiece. Objective: The lens closest to the object being viewed which creates a magnified image in an area called the "primary image plane". This is the other half of the microscope magnification equation (eyepiece power times objective power equals magnification). Objective lenses have many designs and qualities which differ with each manufacturer. Usually inscribed on the barrel of the objective lens is the magnification power and the numerical aperture (a measure of the limit of resolution of the lens). Focusing Mechanism: Adjustment knobs to allow coarse or fine (hundredths of a millimeter) variations in the focusing of the stage or objective lens of the microscope. Stage: The platform on which the prepared slide or object to be viewed is placed. A slide is usually held in place by spring-loaded metal stage clips. More sophisticated high-powered microscopes have mechanical stages which allow the viewer to smoothly move the stage along the X (horizontal path) and Y (vertical path) axis. A mechanical stage is a must for high-power observing. Illumination Source: The means employed to light the object to be viewed. The simplest is the illuminating mirror which reflects an ambient light source to light the object. Many microscopes have an electrical light source for easier and more consistent lighting. Generally electrical light sources are either tungsten or fluorescent, the fluorescent being preferred because it operates at a cooler temperature. Most microscopes illuminate from underneath, through the object, to the objective lens. On the other hand, stereo microscopes use both top and bottom illumination. Base: The bottom or stand upon which the entire microscope rests or is connected. Types of microscope Compound microscopes are light illuminated. The image seen with this type of microscope is two dimensional. This microscope is the most commonly used. You can view individual cells, even living ones. It has high magnification. However, it has a low resolution.


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The fluorescent microscope uses ultraviolet light as its light source. When ultraviolet light hits an object, it excites the electrons of the object, and they give off light in various shades of color. Since ultraviolet light is used, the resolution of the object increases. A laboratory technique called the fluorescent-antibody technique employs fluorescent dyes and antibodies to help identify unknown bacteria. Electron microscopy. The energy source used in the electron microscope is a beam of electrons. Since the beam has an exceptionally short wavelength, it strikes most objects in its path and increases the resolution of the

microscope significantly. Viruses and some large molecules can be seen with this instrument. The electrons travel in a vacuum to avoid contact with deflecting air molecules, and magnets focus the beam on the object to be viewed. An image is created on a monitor and viewed by the technologist. The more traditional form of electron microscope is the transmission electron microscope (TEM). To use this instrument, one places ultrathin slices of microorganisms or viruses on a wire grid and then stains them with gold or palladium before viewing. The densely coated parts of the specimen deflect the electron beam, and both dark and light areas show up on the image. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is the more contemporary form electron microscope. Although this microscope gives lower magnifications than the TEM, the SEM permits three-dimensional views of microorganisms and other objects. Whole objects are used, and gold or palladium staining is employed

meaning Numerical aperture is a measure of the ability of lens to collect light from the specimen. resolving power of a lens refers to the size of the smallest object that can be seen with that lens. The resolving power is based on the wavelength of the light used and the numerical aperture of the lens Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not in physical size. Focus (optics), the point at which initially collimated rays of light meet after passing through a convex lens, or reflecting from a concave mirror. Depth of focus is a lens optics concept that measures the tolerance of placement of the image plane (the film plane in a camera) in relation to the lens. EQUIPMENT beaker is a simple container for stirring, mixing and heating liquids commonly used in many laboratories. Laboratory Tools and Apparatuses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. beaker - a liquid-measuring container burette - measures volume of solution clay triangle - a wire frame with porcelain used to support a crucible wire gauze - used to spread heat of a burner flame test tube - used as holder of small amount of solution forceps - holds or pick up small objects graduated cylinder - measures approximate volume of liquids graduated pipette - measures solution volumes condenser - used in distillation crucible - used to heat a small amount of a solid substance at a very high temperature funnel - used to transfer solids and liquids without spilling thermometer - measures temperature balance - measures mass of material pH meter - measures acidity of solutions centrifuge - separates materials of varying density pipette - used to transfer measured substances into another vessel droppers - for addition of liquids, drop by drop glass funnels - for funneling liquids from one container to another, or for filtering when equipped with filter paper.

19. graduated cylinders - for measurement of an amount of liquid. The volume of liquid can be estimated to the nearest 0.1 mL with practice. 20. ring stand (with rings or clamps) - for holding pieces of glassware in place. 21. test tubes - for holding small samples or for containing small-scale reactions 22. test-tube holders - for holding test tubes when tubes should not be touched 23. tongs - similar function to forceps, but are useful for larger items 24. volumetric flasks - to measure precise volumes of liquid or to make precise dilutions. 25. wash bottles - for dispensing small quantities of distilled water. 26. watch glasses - for holding small samples or for covering beakers or evaporating dishes. 27. wire gauze on a ring - supports beakers to be heated by Bunsen burners

1.Test Tube 2.Test Tube Rack

Test Tube Holder

Reagent Bottle


Bunsen Burner

Stand and Clamp


Measuring Cylinder


Electronic Balance

Evaporating Dish

Filter Funnel

Flat Bottomed Flask

Safety Glasses

Mortar and Pestle (used for grinding paste or powder)

Round Bottomed Flask



Plastic Wash Bottle

Wire Gauze

Triple Beam Balance

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