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2nd Semester Fianl Part II

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.

Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences about how water is recycled on Earth.

1. Water from the oceans (the largest source of water on Earth) ____________________ and forms water vapor.
2. Plants and trees contribute water to the atmosphere through a process known as ____________________.
3. Water that reaches Earth’s surface can be stored in various places. Lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers are re-
ferred to as _________________________ (two words).
4. Some water, called ____________________, percolates through the soil and is contained in an underground
area of sediment and rock known as an ____________________. These water sources eventually flow to the
ocean.
5. A molecule that does not have positive and negative ends is referred to as a ____________________ mo-
lecule.
6. The amount of heat lost by one object is equal to heat gained by another. This idea is expressed in the first law
of ____________________.

Matching

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term that will not match any of the
definitions.
a. physical change
b. chemical change
c. law of conservation of mass
d. carbon chains
e. reactants
f. products
____ 7. Melting ice is an example of this
____ 8. The total mass of the products of the reaction is equal to the total mass of the reactants
____ 9. Occurs when bonds are broken and reformed to make a new substance or substances
____ 10. Substances that change in a chemical reaction
____ 11. Substances that are formed as a result of a chemical reaction

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term that will not match any of the
definitions.
a. single-displacement reaction
b. double-displacement reaction
c. decomposition reaction
d. synthesis reaction
e. combustion reaction
f. limiting reaction
____ 12. An example is the formation of polymers
____ 13. A reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen, releasing large amounts of energy in the form of heat
and light
____ 14. A reaction in which ions from two compounds in a solution exchange places to produce two new compounds
____ 15. A reaction in which one element replaces a similar element in a compound
____ 16. A reaction in which a single compound is broken down

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term that will not match any of the
definitions.
a. hard water
b. groundwater
c. seawater
d. carbonated water
e. soft water
f. tap water
____ 17. Water that contains a lot of dissolved calcium and magnesium
____ 18. Often from a city or town water supply; may contain additives such as sodium fluoride and chlorine
____ 19. Contains large amounts of Cl- and Na+
____ 20. Bubbly; contains CO2 gas
____ 21. Water that collects in an aquifer and supplies wells and springs

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term that will not match any of the
definitions.
a. solvent
b. solute
c. alloy
d. equilibrium
e. suspension
f. solution
____ 22. The component of a solution that dissolves the solute and is present in the greatest amount
____ 23. A mixture of two or more substances that is homogeneous at the molecular level; consists of a solute and a
solvent
____ 24. Solution of two or more metals
____ 25. A type of mixture that settles upon standing and has particles larger than 1,000 nanometers in diameter
____ 26. The state in which the solute in a solution is dissolving and coming out of solution at the same rate

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term that will not match any of the
definitions.
a. pH
b. acid
c. sulfuric acid
d. acid precipitation
e. neutralization
f. base
____ 27. A chemical that contributes hydronium ions (H3O+) to a solution
____ 28. A chemical that contributes hydroxyl ions (OH-) to a solution
____ 29. The exact concentration of H3O+ ions in a solution
____ 30. Rain, snow, sleet, or fog that has a pH lower than 5.6
____ 31. The number one component of acid rain

Match the following terms with the best definition. There is one extra term that will not match any of the
definitions.
a. thermometer
b. convection
c. conduction
d. specific heat
e. radiation
f. temperature
____ 32. Heat transfer by direct contact of particles of matter
____ 33. Heat transfer by electromagnetic waves
____ 34. Heat transfer by the actual motion of a fluid in the form of currents
____ 35. An instrument that measures the average kinetic energy of molecules
____ 36. A constant for a substance that tells how much heat is needed to raise the temperature of one gram of that sub-
stance by 1ºC

Short Answer

37. What natural process removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?

Graph 8-1A

Use Graph 8-1A: Temperature-Solubility Graph for Salts to answer the following questions.

38. Based on Graph 8-1A, which salt is most soluble in water at 70ºC?

39. Based on Graph 8-1A, how many grams of NaNO3 will dissolve in 50 mL of water at 70ºC?
40. Why is rainwater normally acidic instead of neutral pH?

41. As you add thermal energy to an object, its temperature increases. Name two factors that affect how much the
temperature of a substance changes.

42. The large amount of water on Earth helps to keep the planet from experiencing extreme temperatures. Name
the property of water that makes it an effective temperature regulator.

Problem

43. If the solubility value for table salt (NaCl) is 1 gram per 2.8 milliliters of water at 25ºC, how much salt will
dissolve in 10 mL of water at that temperature?

44. How many calories of energy does it take to increase the temperature of 400 grams of water by 10 degrees
Celsius?

Essay
45. When you mix baking soda and vinegar, the mixture bubbles violently and the temperature drops. Is this a
chemical change or a physical change? Provide evidence to support your answer.
2nd Semester Fianl Part II
Answer Section

COMPLETION

1. ANS: evaporates DIF: basic REF: chapter 24, section 24.1
2. ANS: transpiration DIF: basic REF: chapter 24, section 24.1
3. ANS: surface water DIF: basic REF: chapter 24, section 24.1
4. ANS: groundwater, aquifer DIF: basic REF: chapter 24, section 24.1
5. ANS: nonpolar DIF: basic REF: chapter 23, section 23.1
6. ANS: thermodynamics DIF: intermediate REF: chapter 25, section 25.2

MATCHING

7. ANS: A DIF: basic REF: chapter 20, section 20.1
8. ANS: C DIF: basic REF: chapter 20, section 20.1
9. ANS: B DIF: basic REF: chapter 20, section 20.1
10. ANS: E DIF: basic REF: chapter 20, section 20.2
11. ANS: F DIF: basic REF: chapter 20, section 20.2

12. ANS: D DIF: basic REF: chapter 21, section 21.1
13. ANS: E DIF: basic REF: chapter 21, section 21.1
14. ANS: B DIF: basic REF: chapter 21, section 21.1
15. ANS: A DIF: basic REF: chapter 21, section 21.1
16. ANS: C DIF: basic REF: chapter 21, section 21.1

17. ANS: A DIF: basic REF: chapter 24, section 24.2
18. ANS: F DIF: basic REF: chapter 24, section 24.2
19. ANS: C DIF: basic REF: chapter 24, section 24.4
20. ANS: D DIF: basic REF: chapter 23, section 23.3
21. ANS: B DIF: basic REF: chapter 24, section 24.1

22. ANS: A DIF: basic REF: chapter 23, section 23.2
23. ANS: F DIF: basic REF: chapter 23, section 23.2
24. ANS: C DIF: basic REF: chapter 23, section 23.2
25. ANS: E DIF: basic REF: chapter 23, section 23.2
26. ANS: D DIF: basic REF: chapter 23, section 23.3

27. ANS: B DIF: basic REF: chapter 23, section 23.4
28. ANS: F DIF: basic REF: chapter 23, section 23.4
29. ANS: A DIF: basic REF: chapter 23, section 23.4
30. ANS: D DIF: basic REF: chapter 24, section 24.3
31. ANS: C DIF: basic REF: chapter 24, section 24.3

32. ANS: C DIF: basic REF: chapter 25, section 25.3
33. ANS: E DIF: basic REF: chapter 25, section 25.3
34. ANS: B DIF: basic REF: chapter 25, section 25.3
35. ANS: A DIF: basic REF: chapter 25, section 25.1
36. ANS: D DIF: basic REF: chapter 25, section 25.2

SHORT ANSWER

37. ANS:
Photosynthesis in plants removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

DIF: basic REF: chapter 20, section 20.3
38. ANS:
NaNO3

DIF: intermediate REF: chapter 23, section 23.3
39. ANS:
70 grams. The graph shows that 140 grams of NaNO3 dissolve in 100 mL of water. In 50 mL of water, half of
140 grams will dissolve.

DIF: advanced REF: chapter 23, section 23.3
40. ANS:
Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is dissolved in it to produce carbonic acid, giving a normal pH of 5.6.

DIF: intermediate REF: chapter 24, section 24.3
41. ANS:
Answers may vary. Correct answers include:
1. Mass
2. Specific heat
3. Quantity of thermal energy added
* The original temperature of a substance will also affect the temperature change but only a negligible
amount, especially at ordinary temperatures.

DIF: basic REF: chapter 25, section 25.2
42. ANS:
High specific heat

DIF: basic REF: chapter 25, section 25.2

PROBLEM

43. ANS:
DIF: intermediate REF: chapter 23, section 23.1
44. ANS:
heat added = mass of material × specific heat of material × total change in temperature
heat = 400 grams × 1 cal/gºC × 10 ºC
heat = 4,000 calories

DIF: intermediate REF: chapter 25, section 25.2

ESSAY

45. ANS:
When baking soda and vinegar are combine, a chemical change is observed. Fizzing and bubbling is an indic-
ation that a new gas is being formed. The change in temperature is an indication that new chemical bonds are
being formed.

DIF: basic REF: chapter 20, section 20.1