ROTATED SECTIONS

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Rotated Sections

ROTATED SECTIONS

© All Rights Reserved

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Definitions of Terms:

Angle of Rotation, :

Standard counter-clockwise

revolution, x-axis = 0.

IX = bd 2 / 12 : Standard value

of I obtained by integrating

along the y-axis, using

horizontal elements of width x,

and height dy.

IY = b2d / 12 : b and d are

interchanged, in essence, the

rectangle is revolved 90

degrees about its centroid.

I = IX (cos2 ) + IY (sin2 )

Circular Sections

dx

dy

dA = x dy

IY : Integration along the y-axis

using elemental rectangles of

4

height dy returns a for a

semi-circle with 8

respect to the x-axis; or

a4 (9 about the centroid.

72

IX : Integration along

the x-axis using

elemental rectangles

of width dx

4

yeilds a about the

x-axis 8

for a semi-circle.

dA = y dx

ROTATED SECTIONS:

Revolution of a Semi-circle about the Centroid

Compare the orientation of the elemental rectangles for the defined

Circlular Section values of IX and IY to the Rectangular Section

positions for these quantities. Both the circle section and rectangle return

maximum values at the IX orientation, and minimum values in the IY

position.

The semi-circle is rotated

through angle The

Rotated centroidal axis

x = 4 a

revolved Second Moment

3

of Area remains constant

with respect to the rotated

reference axis.

x-axis

a

r = x sin

2

a

Area =

Centroidal axis parallel

2

to x-axis

NOTE :

9

= 1 , and

9

(sin 2 + cos 2) = 1

The value of the fraction

remains the same.

a4

Beginning with the section in the IX position: I =

8

4

2 4

a

9

9 a

I=

=

8

9

72

2 4

92 a4 (sin 292 a4 (cos 2

= 9 a (sin 2 + cos 2) =

72

72

( )( )

the value of the numerator unchanged):

2 4

2

4

2

2 4

2

4

2

I = 9 a (sin 64 a (sin )9 a (cos 64 a (sin )

72

4

2

4

8a4 (sin 2)

a (9 64 ) (sin 2) a (cos 2)

=

+

+

(collecting terms)

8

9

72

IY (sin 2)

IX (cos 2)

4

Note: The final term, 8a =

9

a2

2

( )(

Ar2

4a sin

3

) = Ar

ROTATED SECTIONS:

Triangle revolved about the Centroid

Box-in Method

and A for a revolved triangle is

difficult. A quadrilateral and

another triangle are created above

and below the centroid as the

triangle in question is rotated.

By drawing a rectangle

around the triangle and dividing

the figures along the altitude, the

values of the right triangles with

respect to the rectangles can be

resolved.

integrals, the mathematical

quantities required for engineering

calculations may be determined for

any circular sector.

Subtracting the rotated sector

values of interest from the circle

values leaves only the triangle

related quantities. The centroid of

the triangle with respect to the circle

center is easily calculated, making

this the preferred method.

multiple log beams with

allowance for the scribe,

or ridges with irregular

pitches, may be

estimated with relative

ease using circle sectors.

ROTATED SECTIONS:

Triangle revolved about the Centroid

Sample Calculation

A

53.1301

C

Circle centerline

16.2602

10

36.8699

R=5

6

B

Reference Axis

ISEMI-CIRCLE = 245.43693

ITRIANGLE = 245.43693 (119.81007 +33.46706)

= 92.1598

Note : Most calculations return ITRIANGLE = I Ar2 at

this stage and require further work (see example

below). The angle of revolution in this case places the

median, and hence the centroid of the triangle, on the

circle centerline. Thus, 92.16 is the final result.

Sector A:

A = 11.18238

x = 3.81553

r = 3.05242

IX = 37.88988

IY = 3.09409

IR + Ar2 = 119.81007

Sector B:

A = 4.08753

x = 4.40364

r = 2.64218

IX = 7.54704

IY = .28153

IR + Ar2 = 33.46706

Sector C:

A = 39.26991

x = 2.12207

r = .59418

IX = 245.43693

IY = 68.59810

IR + Ar2 = 245.43698

Triangle:

A = 24

h = 4.8

x = 1.6

r = zero

I CIRCLE = 2454.36926

IA = 740.70277

IB = 27.65541

IC = 993.85073

ITRIANGLE = ICIRCLE (IA +IB +IC ) = 692.16035

ITRIANGLE , about the centroid: I Ar2 = 692.16053 24 (5)2 = 92.16053

ROTATED SECTIONS:

Ridge Beam: Second Moment of Area

Sample Data

.51519

9 /12 Pitch

36.86990

8/12 Pitch

33.69007

53.13010

56.30993

Centerline

of Log

Neutral Axis of Beam

14 dia.

9/12 Side:

A = 8.01156

x = 6.16510

r = 4.93208

IX = 28.99274

IY = 1.08153

IR = 11.12957

IR + Ar2 = 206.01407

A = 49 = 153.93804

I = 7 4/4 = 1885.74099

8/12 Side:

A = 6.19675

x = 6.29817

r = 5.24039

IX = 19.08178

IY = .58949

IR = 6.27943

IR + Ar2 = 176.45264

IBEAM , wrt Log center = 1885.74099 (176.45264 +206.01407) = 1503.27428

ABEAM = 153.93804 (6.19675 + 8.01156) = 139.72973

First Moment of Area = 0 (32.47339 + 39.51365) = 71.98704

Centroid = 71.98704 / 139.72972 = .51519 (= 6.48481 from bottom)

IBEAM = I (Ar 2 ) = 1503.27428 139.72972 ( .51519) 2 = 1466.18711

Taking the bottom edge of the log as a reference line yields the same result:

ILOG ISECTORS = 9428.70495 (934.72081 + 1151.77168) = 7342.21246

IBEAM = I (Ar 2 ) = 7342.21246 139.72792 (6.48481) 2 = 1466.19198

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