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Representation Theory

Selected Solutions

Aban Husain

Chapter 1

Basic Concepts

1.1

derivation, whereas the ordinary product need not be.

Let A be an F-algebra, a, b A and , 0 Der(A).

[, 0 ](ab) = 0 (ab) 0 (ab)

= ( 0 (a)b + a 0 (b)) 0 ((a)b + a(b))

= ( 0 )(a)b + 0 (a)(b) + (a) 0 (b) + a( 0 )(b)

( 0 )(a)b (a) 0 (b) 0 (a)(b) a( 0 )(b)

= ( 0 0 )(a)b + a( 0 0 )(b)

= [, 0 ](a)b + a[, 0 ](b)

The commutator is clearly a derivation.

( 0 )(ab) = ( 0 (a)b + a 0 (b))

= ( 0 )(a)b + 0 (a)(b) + (a) 0 (b) + a( 0 )(b)

So the ordinary product is only a derivation if 0 (a)(b) + (a) 0 (b) = 0

for all a, b A.

12. Let L be a Lie algebra over an algebraically closed field and let x L.

Prove that the subspace of L spanned by the eigenvectors of ad x is a

subalgebra.

As the bracket is bilinear, it suffices to show that the commutator of

two eigenvectors is contained in the subspace to show that the subspace

spanned by the eigenvectors is closed under the Lie bracket. Let y, z be

ad x([y, z]) = [x, [y, z]]

= [z, [x, y]] + [y, [x, z]]

= [z, y] + [y, z]

= ( + )[y, z]

So the subspace spanned by the eigenvectors of ad x is a subalgebra.

1.2

exp(ad x). Verify that (x) = y, (y) = x and (h) = h.

0 1

1 0

0 0

Given the basis x =

, h =

, and y =

for

0 0

0 1

1 0

0 0 0

0 2 0

1

0 0 so

0

0

1

and ad y =

sl(2, F) we have ad x =

0 2 0

0 0 0

1

0 0

1 2 1

1 0.

1 and exp(ad y) = 1

exp(ad x) = 0 1

1 2 1

0 0

1

(x) = exp(ad x) exp(ady) exp(ad x)(x)

= exp(ad x) exp(ady)(x)

= exp(ad x)(x + h y)

= x 2x + h + x h y

= y

(x) = exp(ad x) exp(ady) exp(ad x)(h)

= exp(ad x) exp(ady)(2x + h)

= exp(ad x)(2x h)

= 2x + 2x h

= h

(x) = exp(ad x) exp(ady) exp(ad x)(y)

= exp(ad x) exp(ady)(x + h + y)

= exp(ad x)(x)

= x

11. If L = sl(n, F), g GL(n, F), prove the map of L to itself defined by

x 7 gxt g 1 belongs to Aut L. When n = 2, g = identity matrix, prove

2

For any x sl(n, F), Tr(gxt g1) = Tr(xt ) = Tr(x) = 0, so the

map x 7 gxt g 1 is a linear map from L to L. As g GL(n, F), the

kernel is trivial and for any x sl(n, F), the element (g 1 xg)t sl(n, F)

maps onto it.

For x, y sl(n, F)

[gxt g 1 , gy t g 1 ] = gxt y t g 1 gy t xt g 1

= g(xy)t g 1 + g(yx)t g 1

= g(xy yx)t g 1

= g[x, y]t g 1

Thus the map belongs to Aut L. When n = 2 and g is the identity matrix,

x 7 xt . Using the basis for sl(2, F) from the previous question, we have

x 7 y, y 7 x, and h 7 h.

Therefore the map is = exp(ad x) exp(ady) exp(ad x) and is clearly

an inner automorphism.

1.3

10. Let L be a Lie algebra, K an ideal of L such that L/K is nilpotent and

such that ad xK is nilpotent for all x L. Prove that L is nilpotent.

n

For each x L there

exists some n such that (ad x) (y) K as L/K is

nilpotent. As ad x K is nilpotent for each x L, there exists some m such

that (ad x)m (ad x)n (y) = (ad x)m+n (y) = 0 for each x L and y L.

Therefore each x L is ad-nilpotent and so, by Engels Theorem, L is

nilpotent.

Chapter 2

2.1

xn + yn .

If x, y commute and are semisimple, let Vi be the i eigenspace of x.

Then for v Vi , x(y(v)) = y(x(v)) = y(i v) = i (y(v)), so y(Vi ) Vi .

Therefore y Vi is semisimple and for some basis of Vi can be written as a

diagonal matrix, while for any basis of Vi , xVi can be written as a diagonal matrix as x acts as a scalar. As such, x + y is semisimple.

For nilpotent x and y that commute, there

m such that

kand

Pn+mexists n

n+mk

xn = 0 and y m = 0. Then (x + y)n+m = k=0 n+m

x

y

= 0 and

k

clearly x + y is nilpotent.

Let x = xs + xn and y = ys + yn be the Jordan decomposition of x

and y. The semisimple and nilpotent parts of each commute with all endomorphisms that x and y commute with. Therefore xs +ys is semisimple,

xn + yn nilpotent and the two commute.

By uniqueness of the Jordan decomposition, we must have (x + y)s =

xs + ys and (x + y)n = xn + yn .

8. It suffices to check the hypothesis of Cartans criterion for x, y ranging

over a basis of L. For L with basis (x, y, z) and commutators [x, y] =

z, [x, z] = y [y, z] = 0, verify solvability using Cartans criterion.

For the

three elements,

we have

0 0 0

0

ad x = 0 0 1, ad y = 0

0 1 0

1

4

0 0

0

0 0, ad z = 1

0 0

0

0 0

0 0.

0 0

Tr((ad

Tr((ad

Tr((ad

Tr((ad

Tr((ad

y)(ad

y)(ad

y)(ad

z)(ad

z)(ad

y)) = 0

z)) = 0

x)) = 0

x)) = 0

z)) = 0

Therefore L is solvable.

2.2

Killing Form

nondegenerate.

Let I be any abelian ideal in L, and S the radical of the Killing form.

For x I, y L we have adxady : L I and (adxady)2 : I 0, so for

each x I and y L, adxady is nilpotent and so (x, y) = 0. Therefore

I S, but as the Killing form is nondegenerate, S = 0 and L contains no

abelian ideals. Thus L is semisimple.

8. Let L = L1 Lt be the decomposition of a semisimple Lie algebra L

into simple ideals. Show that the semisimple and nilpotent parts of x L

are the sums of the semisimple and nilpotent parts in the various Li of

the components of x.

Let x L and x = x1 + + xt with xi Li , and xi = si + ni be

the Jordan decomposition of xi Li .

As each si is semisimple and [si , sj ] = 0 for all i 6= j, s = s1 + + st is

semisimple. Similarly, n = n1 + + nt is nilpotent.

[s, n] = [s1 , n1 ] + + [st , nt ] = 0

Therefore, x = s + n is the Jordan decomposition of x.

2.3

identified with the space of all bilinear forms on L. Prove that is

associative if and only if L. = 0.

For x, y, z L

(x.)(y z) = (x.(y z))

= (x.y z + y x.z)

= ([x, y] z + y [x, z])

= ([y, x] z) (y [x, z])

If is associatve then clearly L. = 0 and if L. = 0 then ([y, x] z) =

(y [x, z]) and so is associative.

9. Let L0 be a semisimple subalgebra of a semisimple Lie algebra L. If x L0 ,

its Jordan decomposition in L0 is also its Jordan decomposition in L.

Let : L0 gl(L) with (x) = adL x. For x L0 , let x = xs + xn

be its Jordan decomposition in L0 . Then adL x = adL xs + adL xn and

by uniqueness of the Jordan decomposition, x = xs + xn is the Jordan

decomposition in L.

2.4

Representations of sl(2, F)

2.5

Chapter 3

Root Systems

3.1

Axiomatics

3.2

3.3

Classification

3.4

3.5

Chapter 4

Isomorphism and

Conjugacy Theorems

4.1

Isomorphism Theorem

4.2

Cartan Subalgebras

4.3

Conjugacy Theorems

Chapter 5

Existence Theorem

5.1

5.2

5.3

Chapter 6

Representation Theory

6.1

6.2

6.3

Multiplicity Formula

6.4

Characters

6.5

10

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