Gas To Liquid Technology

-A Simulation Case Study in Hysis with heat integration

Subhasish Mitra M.Tech Department of Chemical Engineering IIT Kanpur

Brief Introduction:
Of late, serious need is felt for producing cleaner fuel on sustainable basis. Natural gas : Natural choice over depleting oil resources being more green however most of the natural gas reserves are economically stranded. GTL technology: The key concept is chemical conversion of natural gas to longer chain hydrocarbons that typically remain in the range of middle distillate i.e. transportation fuel.

Process steps:
GTL process consists of four basic steps: • Treatment of natural gas to remove water and impurities if required. • Reforming of the natural gas to produce syn-gas. • Fischer-Tropsch conversion to produce desired long chain hydrocarbon liquids. • Upgrading to produce finished products.

Process Flow Diagram -Main Process Sections:
Air Compr

[1]

Synthesis gas reactor Furnace FT reactor

GTG

[1] US patent US6,172,124B1, Wolflick et al, Jan 9, 2001

Separator section

Process Flow Diagram -Main Process Sections:
Air Compr

[1]

Synthesis gas reactor Furnace FT reactor

GTG

[1] US patent US6,172,124B1, Wolflick et al, Jan 9, 2001

Separator section

Process Flow Diagram -Energy Integration Sections:
Integration loop-4

[1]

Integration loop-2 Integration loop -1

[1] US patent US6,172,124B1, Wolflick et al, Jan 9, 2001

Integration loop-3

Novelty in the invention:[1]
Substantial amount of heat generated in the process is recovered through an efficient heat integration system for use in generating steam required for the process or for conversion into mechanical energy. Tail gas produced by the process is used internally as fuel gas for combustion purpses.

Air is used instead of pure oxygen which eliminates requirement of Air-Separation plant.

[1] US patent US6,172,124B1, Wolflick et al, Jan 9, 2001

Typical Reactions:
Auto-thermal Reaction: 2CH4 + H2O + 0.5O2 5H2 + 2CO 2CH4 + 2H2O + O2 6H2 + 2CO2 Water Gas Shift Reaction (HTS & LTS) CO + H2O H2 + CO2 Combustion Reaction: CxHy + z(x+y/4)O2 CxHy + z(x/2+y/4)O2

xCO2 + (y/2)H2O zxCO + (z.y/2)H2O

FT reaction product distribution:

[2]

[2] www.fischer-tropsch.org/primary_documents/presentations/acs2001_chicago/chic_slide04.htm

FT reaction product distribution:

[3]

Chain growth probability factor Alpha = 0.95

[3] Simulation, integration and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid process. Buping Bao, M.M.ElHalwagi, Nimir.O.Elbashir, Fuel Processing Technology, 2010 (in press)

Modeling Strategy: Process Simulator:
Hysys Version: V7

Thermodynamic models:
Vapor phase : Peng-Robinson EOS

Unit operations:
Turbine driven compressor : Compressor + Gibbs reactor + expander

Simulation strategy (Contd):
Sulfur removal bed : Component Splitter Furnace : Fired heater ATR : Gibbs reactor Heater/Cooler : 2 stream heat exchanger FT reactor : Conversion Reactor along with 3 phase separator. Chain growth probability factor : 0.95, Carbon chain length : C1 – C30. No of Rxn : 30

Simulation Process Flow Diagram – Gas Turbine Section

Power generation

Compressor

Combustor

Turbine

Simulation Process Flow Diagram – Air Compression Section

Process Simulation Flow sheet – Overall Plant:
Heat integration primary loop

Heat integrati on seconda ry loop

Simulation Figures:
Natural Gas Feed Rate : 100 MMSCFD Product rate : 9845 bbl/day Gasoline fraction (C5 – C12): 23.6 wt% Diesel fraction (C13 – C18): 19.2 wt% Wax fraction (C19 – C30): 57.3 wt% Water out from the process : 10190 kmol/hr ~ 185m3/hr

Simulation Figures (Contd.)
Natural gas to Air Ratio : 0.85 Natural gas to steam ratio : 2.12 Sulfur content in natural gas: 982 ppm ATR reaction condition: 18050F & 535 psi, H2/CO : 3.48 FT reaction condition : 4150F & 34 psi Fired heater furnace : Flue gas temp : 90 – 100 deg C CO content in flue gas : Nil

Energy Recovery Summary - Power:
Heat extracted from GT exhaust, ATR and FTR product stream utilized through heat integrated system to generate steam and power.
Steam generation source E-31 Power generation source kmol/hr 10910 Available Heat Content MW 9.65 178.5 117 Power generated (MW) 3.1 94.96 15.45

GT exhaust heat stream FT product stream Tail gas recovery from FT product

Energy Recovery Summary – Tail gas:
Tail Gas Source Generation rate Internal (Kmol/hr) consumption (Kmol/hr) LHV (MJ/m3)

SEP 42A,B,E SEP 42C,D,F,G

10580 12

6071 0

7.68 13.1

Tail gas consumers GT combustor Fired heater FH-26 Steam Boiler - 64 Steam Super-heater - 65

Kmol/hr 482 894 3600 1100

Tail gas recovery : 57.4% Balance tail gas can be sold out to adjacent facility.

Cooling duty requirement:
Cooling consumers GTG Condenser E-101 Process Air Compressor interstage coolers FT product cooler (C-41) K66 turbine exhaust cooler MW 12.98 5.81 Total CW duty requirement 348.32 MW

58.33 271.2

Summary:
A GTL plant simulation study is carried out based on the flow scheme obtained from Ref 1. The simulation is done for 100 mmscfd natural gas feed rate which produces 9845 bbl/day syn-fuel. Heat integration results into 113.5 MW power generation along with complete steam requirement for the process. ~57% tail gas utilized as fuel gas in the process itself. Balance gas can be sold out to any adjacent facility. Water generated by the process can be used for cooling water make up in the process itself.

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