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Gas To Liquid Technology

-A Simulation Case Study in Hysis

with heat integration

Subhasish Mitra
Department of Chemical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
Brief Introduction:

 Of late, serious need is felt for producing cleaner fuel on

sustainable basis.

 Natural gas : Natural choice over depleting oil resources

being more green however most of the natural gas
reserves are economically stranded.

 GTL technology:
The key concept is chemical conversion of natural gas to
longer chain hydrocarbons that typically remain in the
range of middle distillate i.e. transportation fuel.
Process steps:
GTL process consists of four basic

• Treatment of natural gas to

remove water and impurities if

• Reforming of the natural gas to

produce syn-gas.

• Fischer-Tropsch conversion to
produce desired long chain
hydrocarbon liquids.

• Upgrading to produce finished

Process Flow Diagram Synthesis gas
-Main Process Sections: [1]

Air Compr Furnace



[1] US patent US6,172,124B1, Wolflick et al, Jan 9, 2001

Separator section
Process Flow Diagram Synthesis gas
-Main Process Sections: [1]

Air Compr Furnace



[1] US patent US6,172,124B1, Wolflick et al, Jan 9, 2001

Separator section
Process Flow Diagram
Integration loop-2
-Energy Integration Sections: [1]

Integration loop-4 loop -1

[1] US patent US6,172,124B1, Wolflick et al, Jan 9, 2001

Integration loop-3
Novelty in the invention:[1]

 Substantial amount of heat generated in the process is

recovered through an efficient heat integration system
for use in generating steam required for the process or
for conversion into mechanical energy.

 Tail gas produced by the process is used internally as

fuel gas for combustion purpses.

 Air is used instead of pure oxygen which eliminates

requirement of Air-Separation plant.

[1] US patent US6,172,124B1, Wolflick et al, Jan 9, 2001

Typical Reactions:

Auto-thermal Reaction:
 2CH4 + H2O + 0.5O2  5H2 + 2CO
 2CH4 + 2H2O + O2  6H2 + 2CO2

Water Gas Shift Reaction (HTS & LTS)

 CO + H2O  H2 + CO2

Combustion Reaction:
 CxHy + z(x+y/4)O2  xCO2 + (y/2)H2O
 CxHy + z(x/2+y/4)O2  zxCO + (z.y/2)H2O
FT reaction product distribution: [2]

FT reaction product distribution: [3]

Chain growth
probability factor
Alpha = 0.95

[3] Simulation, integration and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid process. Buping Bao, M.M.El-
Halwagi, Nimir.O.Elbashir, Fuel Processing Technology, 2010 (in press)
Modeling Strategy:

Process Simulator:
Hysys Version: V7

Thermodynamic models:
Vapor phase : Peng-Robinson EOS

Unit operations:
Turbine driven compressor : Compressor + Gibbs reactor +
Simulation strategy (Contd):

 Sulfur removal bed : Component Splitter

 Furnace : Fired heater

 ATR : Gibbs reactor

 Heater/Cooler : 2 stream heat exchanger

 FT reactor : Conversion Reactor along with 3 phase

Chain growth probability factor : 0.95, Carbon chain
length : C1 – C30. No of Rxn : 30
Simulation Process Flow Diagram – Gas
Turbine Section

Power generation


Simulation Process Flow Diagram – Air
Compression Section
Process Simulation Flow sheet – Overall

Heat integration
primary loop

ry loop
Simulation Figures:

 Natural Gas Feed Rate : 100 MMSCFD

 Product rate : 9845 bbl/day

 Gasoline fraction (C5 – C12): 23.6 wt%

 Diesel fraction (C13 – C18): 19.2 wt%

 Wax fraction (C19 – C30): 57.3 wt%

 Water out from the process : 10190 kmol/hr ~

Simulation Figures (Contd.)

 Natural gas to Air Ratio : 0.85

 Natural gas to steam ratio : 2.12

 Sulfur content in natural gas: 982 ppm

 ATR reaction condition: 18050F & 535 psi, H2/CO : 3.48

 FT reaction condition : 4150F & 34 psi

 Fired heater furnace :

Flue gas temp : 90 – 100 deg C
CO content in flue gas : Nil
Energy Recovery Summary - Power:

Heat extracted from GT exhaust, ATR and FTR product

stream utilized through heat integrated system to generate
steam and power.

Steam generation source kmol/hr

E-31 10910

Power generation source Available Heat Power

Content MW generated
GT exhaust heat stream 9.65 3.1
FT product stream 178.5 94.96
Tail gas recovery from FT product 117 15.45
Energy Recovery Summary – Tail gas:
Tail Gas Source Generation rate Internal LHV
(Kmol/hr) consumption (MJ/m3)
SEP 42A,B,E 10580 6071 7.68
SEP 42C,D,F,G 12 0 13.1

Tail gas consumers Kmol/hr Tail gas recovery : 57.4%

GT combustor 482
Balance tail gas can be
Fired heater FH-26 894 sold out to adjacent
Steam Boiler - 64 3600 facility.
Steam Super-heater - 65 1100
Cooling duty requirement:

Cooling MW Total CW
consumers duty requirement
GTG Condenser 12.98
E-101 348.32 MW
Process Air 5.81
Compressor inter-
stage coolers
FT product cooler 58.33
K66 turbine 271.2
exhaust cooler

 A GTL plant simulation study is carried out based on the

flow scheme obtained from Ref 1.

 The simulation is done for 100 mmscfd natural gas feed

rate which produces 9845 bbl/day syn-fuel.

 Heat integration results into 113.5 MW power generation

along with complete steam requirement for the process.

 ~57% tail gas utilized as fuel gas in the process itself.

Balance gas can be sold out to any adjacent facility.

 Water generated by the process can be used for cooling

water make up in the process itself.
your attention!