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Scaling Silicon Devices Towards the Atomic Scale
John Alcock (00517801) Sridhar Bulusu (00508188) Atharva Inamdar (00512270) Vishanth Narayan (00515089) Shashwat Sapre (00512655) Ali Shad (00507167) Krishna White (00512908) Supervisor: Dr Z. Durrani
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Introduction Group Management Meetings Minutes Treasury Report Individual Contributions 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Atharva Inamdar Vishanth Narayan Ali Shad John Alcock Sridhar Bulusu Shashwat Sapre Krishna White
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This supplementary file should be regarded as complimentary to the formal report. This file provides notes on the project as a whole, describing the management techniques implemented and individual logs of the tasks conducted.
2. Group Management
Our very first meeting as a group was held on 27 th October 2008, a week after the formation of our groups. As we were quite new to this topic, this meeting was more focused on an introduction to the project and the individual roles of the group members. In this meeting, we decided on a group management committee. Atharva Inamdar and Vishanth Narayan were elected as joint group leaders. Work pairs were also decided upon to make task allocations easier in the future and to facilitate their completion: Ali Shad and Vishanth Narayan John Alcock and Krishna White Atharva Inamdar, Shashwat Sapre and Sridhar Bulusu After our initial meeting with our group supervisor, Dr Durrani, in the second week we were able to get a more comprehensive idea of what was expected of us in the project. Following this, we created a general group schedule to enable us to stay on track and not lag behind. A Gantt chart is shown below with mutually agreed timelines and deadlines. However, due to a minor delay in acquiring the research material required, the research stage was pushed back resulting in a slightly late final compilation of the report. Group meetings were held regularly, either once a week or once a fortnight. Every pair kept a good pace individually alongside other coursework deadlines and regular correspondence was maintained either via emails or informal meetings to update the group on progress. Furthermore, a regular check was kept on the deadlines, and the pace of work was adjusted accordingly. During the week of 24th November 2008, following advice from Dr Durrani, we decided to base our report on existing applications of SiNWs, and current research into them. Sridhar initially expressed a desire to write up on a quantum application of Silicon Nanowires (SiNWs), but this idea was later dropped due to the fact that very few materials were available on this topic. Each pair was allocated the research and write-up of two distinct applications of SiNWs. As a 30 page limit was also an issue to consider, the pairs were to write up no more than 8-9 pages. This will be discussed in more detail in the „Meeting Minutes‟ section that follows. The project was planned in the very early stages with each task being scheduled for certain periods of time. The Gantt chart below shows the planned schedule and the actual timeline of events.
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3. Meeting Minutes
The following pages show the minutes taken during our group meetings, both individually and with our supervisor; they include what was discussed and any actions to be taken until next meeting.
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MEETING MINUTES 1
Date/Time: Location: Attendees: Monday, 27 October 2008 EEE Café Atharva Inamdar (AI); Vishanth Narayan (VN); Ali Shad (AS); John Alcock (JA); Shashwat Sapre (SS); Sridhar Bulusu (SB); Krishna White (KW) Absent: Subject matter: [none] Introduction to the chosen Project
Discussion/Action Point 1 2 Group managers chosen: Atharva Inamdar & Vishanth Narayan Project requirements 20 page technical report o Layout o o o o o o o o o 3 Cover page with Abstract Introduction Carbon nanowires background knowledge Why move from C to Si NW? Synthesis of SiNW Advantages/disadvantages Possible solutions and commercial viability Summary & Conclusion Reference list (atleast 50) 25-26 pages for body of the report (Technical content)
Quick introduction to topic Current technology –Carbon Nanotubes o Uses and limitation
SiNWs have wide range of applications; ranging from Biological devices to micro-engineering and physics (Quantum) applications SiNW have quite different properties than Carbon Nanotubes including advantages of even smaller scales, electrical properties and quantum mechanical effects. 4 Schedule meeting with Dr Durrani for official brief: 29th Oct 2008 VN
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MEETING MINUTES 2
Date/Time: Location: Attendees: Absent: Subject matter: Wednesday, 29 October 2008 EEE 704 AI; VN; AS; JA; SS; SB; KW; Dr Durrani [none] Background research materials, our very first research paper summary as a group
Discussion/Action Point 1 Several resources were provided by Dr Durrani Book – Fundamentals of Medern VLSI Devices (Taur, Chapters 3 & 4) Long/Short Channel MOSFETS and MOSFET scaling and Nanoscilicon (Vijay Kumar Ch 5-6) Dr Charles Lieber and his research papers 2 Read Ch 5 (Silicon Nanowires & Nanowire Heterostructures) of Nanosilicon collectively and write summaries on individual sections. Individual sections to read: 5.2.1 + 5.2.2 5.2.3 + 5.2.4 5.2.5 + 5.3.3 Deadline for summaries: 7th Nov 2008 3 Next meeting: 5th Nov 2008
Active Person Dr Durrani
KW; JA SS; SB; AI AS; VN
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MEETING MINUTES 3
Date/Time: Location: Attendees: Absent: Subject matter: Wednesday, 05 November 2008 EEE Comp Labs 304 AI; VN; AS; JA; SS; SB; KW [none] Progress check on summary draft of Nanosilicon book (Ch 5)
Discussion/Action Point 1 2 Report on incomplete initial research due to other imminent deadlines Deadline of research extended as it was clear that the material was beyond our syllabus. The technical papers were also difficult to read in the beginning. Deadline to send summaries to AI extended to 11th Nov 08 3 Organise meeting with Dr Durrani for 12th Nov 08 Agenda: Discuss Ch 5 summary and gain some comments and further tips on reading technical papers and extracting relevant information. 4 Next meeting: 12th Nov 08
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MEETING MINUTES 4
Date/Time: Location: Attendees: Absent: Subject matter: Wednesday, 12 November 2008 EEE 704 AI; VN; AS; JA; SS; SB; KW; Dr Durrani [none] Comments on practice summary and guidelines for report writing
Discussion/Action Point 1 Feedback on summary No major negative criticism 2 Our decided report structure put forward to Dr Durrani. Report writing Guidelines given to us Focus on various applications/devices of SiNW Five different applications to be discussed Minimum 50 references
Structure for individual sections on each application: Focus on devices manufactured from SiNW o Progress on device so far
Manufacturing process of SiNW and the device Properties of device including electrical characteristics e.g I-V plots Measurement of device. Both physical and electrical measurements Maximum section length five pages
SB expressed interest in studying a Quantum application of SiNW Applications decided: SiNW FETs Nonvolatile memory and circuits Quantum Device Bio-sensors o o o DNA detection Cancerous cell detection Detection of biomarkers in live cells VN SS; AI SS; AI JA; KW AS SB
Next meeting: 28th Nov 08 (two weeks)
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MEETING MINUTES 5
Date/Time: Location: Attendees: Absent: Subject matter: Friday, 28 November 2008 EEE Comp Labs AI; VN; AS; JA; SS; SB; KW [none] Reminder of deadlines for written report. Task allocation revision
Discussion/Action Point 1 Project allocations were revised after previous meeting due to reports of some applications being too similar. Revised allocations were sent out by email after couple of days of previous meeting and are as follows: Nonvolatile memory from Molecule-Gated Nanowires Direct Ultrasensitive electrical detection of DNA & DNA sequence variations using nanowire nanosensors Field Effect Transistors Lithium batteries with SiNW anodes Solar cells from SiNW 2 Sridhar was unable to find sufficient information on Quantum applications of SiNWs thus was allocated Solar Cells from SiNW with Shashwat. 3 Completed write up of each application was expected by 12 th Jan 09 (first day of Spring term). This allows for extra time to compile the report with correct formatting, editing and writing an Abstract, Introduction and a Conclusion. 4 Website submission with report. Website content to be the same as the report for most of the sections and thus deadline set as 18th Jan 09. Time allowed for design. 5 AI; SS; SB expressed interest for giving the presentation (23 rd Feb 09) To be discussed in detail towards the end of the report writing 6 Next meeting: 14th Jan 09 (with Dr Durrani)
JA; KW AI SS; SB
AI; SS; SB
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MEETING MINUTES 6
Date/Time: Location: Attendees: Absent: Subject matter: Wednesday, 14 January 2009 EEE Comp Labs AI; VN; AS; JA; SS; SB; KW [none] Feedback on first draft of written report
Discussion/Action Point 1 Feedback from Dr Durrani on report Add a separate manufacturing section compiled (& edited) from all the manufacturing subsections of each application Add subsection on Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) synthesis method of SiNW Introduction (AI) and Conclusion (SS) to be added (1page each) 2 All of above to be sent to John by 26th Jan 09 for final compilation and editing. John to also check general grammar, layout and flow of report. Final deadline for compiled report: 29th Jan 09. 3 Next meeting on 29th Jan 09 to discuss the final compiled draft.
Active Person AS
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MEETING MINUTES 7
Date/Time: Location: Attendees: Absent: Subject matter: Thursday, 29 January 2009 EEE Comp Labs AI; VN; AS; JA; SS; SB; KW [none] Progress report
Discussion/Action Point 1 2 Report draft proof-read by all members Website was discussed. Features of the website and any ideas/suggestions for new features or changes Group Photo (to be taken on 5th Feb 09) 3 Reminder: Deadline 12th Feb 09 Reminder: Supplementary file containing management report and individual contributions. 4 Meeting Minutes to be typed up Individual contributions page: 3rd Feb 09 Complete building website 5 No more formal meeting to be conducted. All communications on individual progress to be conducted by email and/or informal meetings outside college hours. Good Luck!
VN; AI; SS All AS
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4. Treasury Report
For this research project our group was allocated a budget of £50 for any expenses incurred. This included printing of research material, copies of the main report and this supplementary file and any stationary used. The following balance sheet shows the total costs incurred in completing this research project. Quantity Research Report (30 Pages) Supplementary file (20 Pages) Total Cost: 2 1 Cost (£) £11.00 £5.50 £16.50
Project Budget: Expenses:
Budget Remaining: £33.50
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5. Individual Contributions
This section contains notes on contributions made by each member of the team to the project. It highlights their responsibilities and the impact on this research project as a whole.
5.1 Atharva Inamdar
For this research project, I had taken on one of the most important role of a project manager. I was responsible for project planning including time management. During the first week of the project initialisation, I drew a Gantt chart planning all or most of the major tasks at hand. This is shown as black baseline bars on the Gantt chart in this supplementary file. I used a professional package (Microsoft Project) to plan the project to allow maximum accuracy and resource allocations based on the typical working patterns of students. Other management tasks included assigning deliverables to team members appropriately and accurately. I believe communication within the team is very important so I made sure everyone was communicating regularly on their progress and notifying me or Dr Durrani of any questions that were raised. The primary form of communication was group meetings and emails. However, since all of team are good friends it meant that informal meetings would also raise some points regarding certain aspects of the project. My second main responsibility was to research and write a whole section on a unique application of SiNWs. I chose to research use of SiNWs in anodes for lithium batteries. A practice of researching and reading technical papers provided by Dr. Durrani, aided in better understanding complex papers. Research was carried out using online services such as ISI Web of Knowledge, MetaLib, online catalogues of IEEE Xplore, American Chemical Society and Nature archives. It should be noted that my research in this field included manufacture of SiNWs using CVD-VLS which is included in a separate section in the main report. This research and write-up of individual sections was originally scheduled to be completed during the Christmas break, however this was delayed and thus the rest of the tasks were aligned accordingly. My other responsibilities included helping with main report compilation and compiling and editing this supplementary file. I provided input on the formatting of the report and the website. I was also responsible for communications with Dr Durrani. I have chosen to present this project along with a few others. This responsibility includes creating the presentation and will also include the time management and task assignment. I wholly contributed a section titled “Lithium batteries with silicon nanowire anodes”, which I believe has made a significant contribution to the research report. Through my role as a project manager, I ensured the smooth running of the team including keeping everyone on track for the final deadline.
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5.2 Vishanth Narayan
My main responsibility for the 2008/2009 2 nd year group project on Silicon Nanowires, as the group leader included the following: 1. Assigning of first practice paper from Nanosilicon – Vijay Kumar 2. Summary of a section of Chapter 5, and involved briefly in the re-compiling of the draft 3. Organising group meeting, those among ourselves and those with Dr Durrani when we needed feedbacks on our drafts, or clarifications. 4. Assigning of initial research papers with Atharva to group, providing a starting point for research as well as allocating the device to be studied. 5. Write-up on Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor deposition (PECVD) synthesis process in the “Manufacturing” section of the report. 6. Write-up on the fabrication, sensing mechanism and characteristics (explained with graphs) of Nanosensor devices used in the detection of DNA and DNA sequence variation. 7. Recording of minutes in certain meetings and the final compilation of these minutes for the supplementary file. I used a general method to research into papers that Dr Durrani recommended. The initial paper was first browsed through. Interesting facts were then noted down, and so were their references. These references then led to more articles that I used in my research. Most of the articles I used were obtained either from Metalib or the Publications page of the American Chemical Society (ACS). Since we are all friends, the overall communication of the group was very good. Regular meetings were held throughout the autumn term as and when we felt necessary. Other than that, we kept in touch via email over the Christmas break to organise our work in pairs. I also used Skype to complete my work with Ali, to make sure our references did not overlap and to check on each other‟s progress. Silicon nanowire devices are the future of microelectronics and miniaturised devices, and the fact that it is so relevant in technology today made it a very interesting subject for me. I also feel that this increased my general knowledge in FETs, which I found was very helpful in understanding my 2 nd year devices course. Overall, I believe that this project broadened my perspective on nanotechnology and its definitive place in the future.
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5.3 Ali Shad
For this group project I designed and set up the website, I designed and helped edit the main report, I wrote a section within the report („Nonvolatile Memory using Molecule-Gated Nanowires‟), and I compiled the „Silicon Nanowire Synthesis‟ together. I was previously allocated to be partnered with Vishanth and we were subsequently given two research papers to discuss for the report. Between us we chose the research paper that we personally liked to write about so I chose the paper about applications within nonvolatile memory. I sifted through many papers to gain background knowledge of some of the technologies being investigated and then focussed on the important papers when writing my report entitled „Nonvolatile Memory using Molecule-Gated Nanowires‟. I found it important to centre the report on the future uses of the technology which I managed to link to Moore‟s Law and the continuing trend for smaller and smaller devices. Once we compiled all the individual reports together we noticed that there was constant overlapping as everybody was describing the fabrication process of silicon nanowires. It was decided that a section after the introduction of the main report should be added entitled „Silicon Nanowire Synthesis‟. I was given the responsibility of collecting the information on fabrication from each individual report and compiling it in a clear and coherent manner to go under the synthesis section; this also included my write up on the laser assisted catalytic growth method. I also nominated myself for the role of designing the website as I have lots of previous experience in this field. I decided to build the website using a content management system called Joomla! with which I had learnt how to use over the summer. It was quite a lengthy process to set up the website and enter the relevant information onto it, however, I am very happy with the outcome and the many hours spent have paid off. I tried to keep the website as simple as possible with focus on ease of use whilst maintaining full functionality. Finally I helped with the edit of the main report. I am quite a neat and creative person so I insisted that I help edit as I am also quite pedantic with getting things perfect. For this I designed the front page and the layout scheme, which tied in with the website structure, and also helped John and Shashwat with tying all the sections together and keeping references and captions consistent. I feel that communication within the group was good and everyone helped out with the report. Our group was such that we helped each other out if we had any problems and we had good teamwork and leadership which carried us through to the completion of the report.
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5.4 John Alcock
My primary role in the group project was to research silicon nanowire-based transistors, from their inception to the current state of the art. I was also responsible for compilation of the final report drafts, which involved drawing together the various sections written by the other team members and ensuring consistency of style and referencing throughout. My initial research into nanowire transistors came from a book recommended by our supervisor: Nanosilicon, by Vijay Kumar. I was required to write a brief summary of one of its chapters, which gave an overview of how exactly silicon nanowires were used in this application. From this point I had a good idea of what kind of paper was required, and used Google Scholar to perform a first phase of research. However, I quickly realised that it was inadequate for in-depth exploration of the topic, and turned to Metalib and individual journal websites to obtain the relevant information. I used few books in my research – I found that although they provided useful background reading, a topic such as nanotechnology moves extremely quickly and so they were inevitably out of date. The best information was provided by specialist journals such as Nanotechnology. Once I had a large selection of papers, I drew up a plan of how my report was to be structured. This allowed me to see roughly where each paper fit in, as well as where more research was needed. From this, I was able to write about the history, fabrication process and current state of the art of nanowire transistors. This was then sent to a team leader. I later received back a rough draft of the full final report, with sections from most team members included. We had earlier taken the decision to consolidate all information about the manufacture of devices near the start of the document in order to minimise duplication across sections. My first step was therefore to read it in full and ensure that this had been successfully achieved before addressing any other duplication. After this, I renumbered all the document references, figures and tables in a consistent style, breaking them down by section where necessary. It was also important to contact other team members where I felt that part of their report needed further explanation, and to request updated copies of their sections. In addition, the overall aesthetics of the report had to be addressed: font sizes and colours varied across reports, and these were edited for a consistent look. Overall, I felt that the team worked well. We held regular meetings in which we could raise any issues that we had encountered. These were discussed before a solution was arrived at. The division of work struck a good balance: it allowed us to perform in-depth research without overstretching ourselves. Communication within the team was also good, with email messages being used effectively to inform members of new developments.
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5.5 Sridhar Bulusu
My primary role was to research and write a section about the physics and characteristics of silicon nanowires for solar energy harvesting. Moreover I am going to contribute more to the project by giving the presentation along with Shashwat Sapre. I also helped in recording the minutes for meetings. Initially, each group member had to read a section from the book Nanosilicon by Vijay Kumar and write a summary. We then got split in small groups and I had to write about the physics and characteristics of silicon nanowires for solar energy harvesting. The reference list of the book Nanosilicon gave me a good starting point and I mainly used “Metalib” from the digital library of the Imperial College Library to search for a good review paper regarding my topic. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy by Gratzel, M and Nanorods and nanotubes for Solar Cells by Kislyuk, V.V. and Dimitriev, O.P. provided a good starting point. The former briefly discussed the physics of planar solar cells and from the latter I found a paper which analysed the absorptance of silicon nanowire arrays in the reference list. Then I found papers which compared the characteristics of planar solar cells to cells using silicon nanowires and which explained the characteristics of particular silicon nanowires for photovoltaics. Right now I am beginning to prepare for the presentation, which I am going to hold with Shashwat by reading through the sections of other people and some of the relevant papers in order to understand it. All in all, I found that we worked well as a team. Splitting the work enabled each group member to do detailed research and write their section without any complications. We held regular meetings within our group in order to resolve issues.
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5.6 Shashwat Sapre
My responsibilities for the EE2 Group Project on Silicon Nanowires (SiNW): Scaling Silicon Devices Towards the Atomic Scale were primarily to write a section on the application of SiNWs in solar cells with Sridhar Bulusu and design and present the overall report on the 23 rd February. Additionally, I also wrote the two sections on the synthesis of SiNWs (Vapor Liquid Solid Process & Chemical Etching), took minutes of the meetings with our Supervisor Dr Durrani, and wrote the overall conclusion to the report. Finally, I helped compile the report, editing the text and organising the references, and got the report professionally printed and bound. I was paired with Sridhar Bulusu, with whom I was assigned the task of researching and writing up the application of SiNWs in Solar Cells. I realised that to write an effective section for the report, I needed to first improve my background knowledge of the subject matter. This was done by reading Nanosilicon by Vijay Kumar and revising the Devices lecture course taught in 1 year. Furthermore, I spent considerable time gathering and reading papers based on Solar Applications of SiNWs found via Metalib and the ISIWebofKnowledge. The papers found were interesting, with some being more technical than others and containing challenging content, but gave me precious insight into the cutting edge research done on SiNW solar cells. With these papers at our disposal, Sridhar and I made a plan of our section and wrote it up individually. Moreover, I also wrote two sections for the Synthesis of SiNWs which required further research and brought together the final report, writing the overall conclusion of the report. I helped with the overall compilation of the report, managing the references and acting as an editor, proofreading the report and changing sentences to integrate the different sections. My other responsibilities included taking minutes of the meetings with our supervisor Dr Durrani and managing the printing and binding of the report. Finally, I am responsible for the creation and presentation of the report on the 23th February as I am very keen on oral presentations, having substantial experience from high school. This presentation also compliments my humanities course “Communicating Science” giving me an opportunity to further improve my communication skills. Overall, I enjoyed working with the team. The individual members displayed strengths in different areas and so we were able to combine this to form an efficient and dedicated unit. Intracommunication was continuous and there was a fair distribution of tasks to ensure that no members were overly burdened.
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5.7 Krishna White
I co-ordinated with John to produce SiNW FETs section (section 3 in the research report). Specifically, I was responsible for sections 3.1.0 to 3.1.3 inclusive, which discuss characteristics of the devices, whereas John focused on their manufacturing methods in section 3.0. We worked together closely to ensure that we drew inference from the same research papers (taken from Metalib and online journals such as Nature) such that John‟s sections on manufacture related to the specific devices chosen and discussed by myself. A piece of initial research conducted by myself into crossed-nanowire architecture was based heavily on Nanosilicon, by Vijay Kumar (a text recommended by our project supervisor). This paved the way for further research into the area by another group member, resulting in section 4.2 of the project on Crossed Nanowire Nonvolatile Devices. A section of this initial research also found its way into the section on FET manufacturing methods, regarding the possibility of electronic circuits on physically flexible substrates. My final contribution to the project was the second proofreading of the completed report, making upwards of forty changes to the project regarding improved readability and relocation of inappropriately placed figures. The team functioned well as a whole, with regular communication to ensure that individual issues were swiftly resolved. Group task allocation was clearly set forward in several emails and ensured a fair distribution of the project workload. Although I consider myself to be quite weak in the area of electronic devices, I found the project very interesting from an applications standpoint – I perhaps might have been better suited to a section other than device characteristics, which I found to be extremely technical, nevertheless the group, and John in particular were helpful in aiding my understanding of some of the issues.
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